• Understanding and implementing managing diversity in organisations: a study in the retail sector

      Foster, Carley; Nottingham Trent University (Nottingham Trent UniversityNottingham, 2003)
    • Understanding the key drivers of and technology related issues associated with going multi-channel

      Lewis, J.; Foster, Carley; Whysall, P.; Nottingham Trent University (2012)
      A multi-channel retail strategy is viewed by many academics and practitioners to be the success model for most retailers. Yet, while there are many drivers of, and advantages related to, using multiple channels to sell products and services to customers likewise there are numerous technology-related issues. Despite this, the multi-channel retailing literature provides little empirical insight into these technology-related constraints. Moreover, there is a lack of multi-channel retailing research which explores the impetuses behind retailers adding new channels to go multi-channel, especially in the context of the UK retail sector. To contribute to gaps in the literature this study utilises a case study research strategy to examine the key motivations behind, and technology-related issues associated with, multi-channel retail strategic implementation, in the setting of the UK retail sector. Three UK based retailers (Boots, Screwfix and Bettys) are used which have different approaches to, and are at different stages of, adopting a multi-channel retail strategy. In addition, they have different backgrounds such as size, product range, sector and type. Consequently, the use of these three different retailers enables exploration of the drivers behind, and technological problems associated with, implementing a multi-channel retail strategy in the context of store and Internet/catalogue retailers. Case analysis reveals novel themes which are not identified, or not clearly recognised, in the literature. These include that key drivers behind retailers going multi-channel are to increase sales, and, meet the needs of the multi-channel shopper. Indeed, customers want to shop via multiple channels and therefore, these retailers have no choice but to go multi-channel if they are to meet customer needs. However, while at a strategic level these motivations were similar across the case study retailers, they also differed. For example, Screwfix added a store channel to enable customers to purchase products and receive them instantly. In contrast, Boots added an Internet channel to drive footfall in-store and increase store sales. Boots were also adding an Internet channel since it provided them with a marketing channel, which, going forward, was likely to replace other communications channels. The findings from this study also reveal that retailers encounter major technology-related issues when adding new, and using multiple, channels. These problems stem from the need to re-design existing logistics and IT infrastructure to offer a seamless, integrated offer to the customer. For instance, to leverage the brand and marketing mix consistently across all channels, and, to implement ‘click and collect’ (i.e. where customers purchase a product in one channel and collect it in another). Also, due to the need to use innovative marketing techniques, in particular, social media. Importantly, this study highlights that these technology-related multi-channel retailing constraints often have a ‘softer’ side. Technology-related problems are frequently intertwined with cultural, engagement and financial/staff resource related issues. This suggests a need for retailers to find entwined solutions to both technology and non- technology related issues to effectively implement a multi-channel retail strategy.
    • Unethical consumer behaviour in an Islamic society - evidence from Libya

      Whysall, P.; Foster, Carley; Abdelhadi, A.; Nottingham Trent University (2013)
    • US political corruption: identifying the channels of bribes for firms' financial policies.

      Apergis, Nicholas; Apergis, Emmanuel; University of Kent; University of Piraeus (Elsevier, 2017-09-28)
      This paper presents first-time evidence on ‘channel-based’ firm corruption in the US, spanning the period 2000–2010. By employing conviction, type of bribery, ethnicity firm-level data, and two alternative panel econometric approaches for robustness, the empirical analysis documents first, that the cash payment channel dominates bribery activities in relevance to the firms' financial policies, while ethnicity groups do matter in exemplifying the role of those channels, with the Anglo-Saxon group dominating such activities. The results could be of substantial importance for regulators in developing venues to capture corruption activities.
    • Using scenarios to explore employee attitudes in retailing

      Foster, Carley; Nottingham Trent University (EmeraldBingley, 2011)
      Purpose: The aim of the paper is to explore how hypothetical scenarios can be used to study individual employee attitudes towards diversity and equality initiatives in retailing. Design/methodology/approach: Forty semi-structured interviews were conducted with a range of staff working in three business units belonging to a UK retailer. As part of the interviews, respondents were asked to comment on four work based scenarios exploring customer and employee diversity issues. Findings: The paper proposes that scenarios can be a useful method for exploring the hidden meanings retail employees have towards ethical issues such as diversity management. However, they may not always be useful for furthering knowledge of the area. This is because responses to the scenarios in this study frequently contradicted the respondent’s real-life work experiences explored in the rest of the interview. This suggests that, when commenting on the scenarios, interviewees did not always ground their responses so that they reflected their role in the retailer and their own diversity. Originality/Value: The study argues that hypothetical scenarios, if used in retail research or for retail training and development purposes, should have ecological validity. In order to obtain an accurate picture of individual attitudes and to tease out what an individual might do (the rhetoric) from what they have actually experienced (the reality), those researching in the retail industry should use a range of qualitative methods to study the same issue.
    • Value co-creation in temporary, independent retailing: a study of customer value perceptions of pop-up stores

      Foster, Carley; Brindley, Clare; Ghosh, Biswaraj; Armannsdottir, Guja; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University (2017-07-05)
    • Variations in retail employment characteristics and travel-to-work and their implications for retail-led regeneration

      Whysall, P.; Foster, Carley; Harris, Lynette; Nottingham Trent University (2008)
    • What opportunity cost of holding real balances? The case of Greece 1978–1993.

      Apergis, Nicholas; University of Macedonia (Taylor & Francis, 2006-11-02)
      In this paper cointegration techniques have been applied to identify the role of opportunity cost in the demand for real balances in the Greek case and covering the period 1978–93. The results reveal that it is the simultaneous presence of nominal interest rates, the expected inflation and the expected depreciation variables that must be used as proxies for the opportunity cost.
    • What's it like to work in retailing?

      Foster, Carley; Whysall, P.; Harris, Lynette; Nottingham Trent University (2006)
    • Women in marketing: a European exploration

      Foster, Carley; Brindley, Clare; Wheatley, Dan; Nottingham Trent University (2011)
    • Women in retail face barriers to progression for working part-time

      Foster, Carley; Harris, Lynette; Whysall, P.; Nottingham Trent University (Chartered Institute of Personnel and DevelopmentLondon, 2006)
    • Women in the marketing profession: an exploration

      Foster, Carley; Wheatley, Dan; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Wiley, 2014-06-25)
      Hunt (2002:305) expounded that a key "recurring theme" in marketing is the gap between the academic discipline and those practising it. When this debate is extrapolated to the issue of marketing careers, then a further side of the prism is exposed, namely what is the gap between what the academic discipline promises in terms of careers and the reality that practice offers. Indeed the debate about whether marketing is a profession (Brown et al, 2005; Enright, 2006) further complicates the topic. A useful starting point is Hagberg and Kjellberg (2010:1036) work which calls for "a broader understanding of marketing practice." It is to this "heterogeneity of marketing practitioners" (Hagberg and Kjellberg,2010:1036) that we subscribe to when undertaking our research. Marketing is considered to be a feminised industry yet there is little knowledge about the careers these women have in the profession. Typically research in the field has focused on the planning and implementation of marketing rather than the experiences of those doing the marketing. Drawing on an analysis of the UK Labour Force Survey this paper argues that women working in marketing are younger and more highly qualified than in other sectors but are less likely to be in senior decision-making roles. A proportion of older women in the industry are also self-employed suggesting that marketing talent may be being lost to corporate marketing but not necessarily to the industry. The paper presents a picture of the employment of women in marketing in the UK and discusses reasons for this and also attempts to contextualise these findings in the profession from a European perspective. Suggestions for future research directions are also given.
    • Women's careers in marketing: self-employment in Europe

      Wheatley, Dan; Foster, Carley; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (2011)
      Marketing is considered to be a feminised industry yet there is little knowledge about the careers women have in this sector, especially the self-employed. This paper focuses on women in the marketing sector in six countries from the 2009 EU LFS sample, where countries were selected for analysis on the basis of the Economic Intelligence Unit’s Overall Women’s Economic Opportunity rankings. The analysis builds upon prior work conducted using the UK LFS, to present a picture of the employment of women in marketing within the EU. The EU6 selected are: Belgium, Finland, Germany, Norway, Sweden, and the UK. Our analysis suggests that women working in marketing are younger and more highly qualified than in other sectors but are less likely to be in senior decision-making roles. A number of older and often highly educated women in the industry, many of which report being married and having dependent children, are self-employed suggesting that marketing talent may be being lost to corporate marketing but not necessarily to the industry. In addition, many of these women report secondary employment, suggesting that this talent may retain close connections with corporate marketing. Overall patterns among self-employed women in marketing are comparable across the EU6 suggesting women face similar working patterns across Europe, but with some important and statistically significant variations. The overall picture is one of women in marketing pursuing self-employment when they reach a particular life and/or career stage for the added flexibility this offers, often driven by caring responsibilities.
    • Working in East Midlands retailing - a preliminary analysis of the opinions of employees

      Foster, Carley; Whysall, P.; Harris, Lynette; Nottingham Trent University (2005)