• Health behaviour convergence: evidence from fractional (long memory) convergence and British microdata.

      Apergis, Nicholas; University of Piraeus (Wiley, 2017-03-05)
      This paper uses a fractional methodology to assess convergence in terms of differences in health quality measures, based on six primary criteria, across the English regions. Hence, it uses the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing database and the retrospective interviews from 16,894 participants, aged 50+, with data from three waves–2004/5, 2006/7 and 2008/9, to establish that health quality is characterized by divergences across six health quality criteria. When the overall sample is differentiated through income, education and employment, the evidence favors convergence, indicating that certain socioeconomic factors impose a uniform behavioral attitude of the population toward health quality criteria.
    • Health care expenditure and environmental pollution: a cross-country comparison across different income groups

      Apergis, Nicholas; Bhattacharya, Mita; Hadhri, Walid; University of Derby; Monash University; UAQUAP, Higher Institute of Management (Springer, 2020-01-03)
      This paper investigates the long-run dynamics between health care expenditure and environmental pollution across four global income groups. The analysis uses data from 178 countries, spanning the period 1995–2017. Panel estimations are employed with unobserved heterogeneity, temporal persistence, and cross-sectional dependence using a model with common correlated effects. The findings document that the health care expenditure is a necessity for all sub-groups. We established that a 1% increase in national income increased health expenditure by 7.2% in the full sample, and 9.3%, 8.6%, 6.8% and 2.9% for low, low-middle, upper-middle and high-income groups, respectively, while a 1% increase in CO2 emissions increased health expenditure by 2.5% in the full sample, and 2.9%, 1.2%, 2.3% and 2.6% across these four income groups. We recommend that coordinated approach is needed in setting policy goals both in energy and health sectors in mitigating the negative effects of pollution. Our findings indicate that low-carbon emissions and energy efficient health care services will significantly reduce future health care expenses.
    • Health expenses and economic growth: convergence dynamics across the Indian States

      Apergis, Nicholas; Padhi, Puja; University of Piraeus; IIT Bombay (Springer, 2013-11)
      In this paper we explore convergence of real per capita output and health expenses across the Indian States. The new panel convergence methodology, developed by Phillips and Sul (Econometrica 75:1771–1855, 2007), is employed. The empirical findings suggest that these States form distinct convergent clubs, exhibiting considerable heterogeneity in the underlying growth and health expenses factors. These findings should help policy makers in designing appropriate growth-oriented and/or health sector programs and setting priorities in their implementation.
    • How deviations from FOMC’s monetary policy decisions from a benchmark monetary policy rule affect bank profitability: evidence from U.S. banks

      Apergis, Nicholas; Lau, Chi Keung Marco; University of Piraeus; Northumbria University (Emerald, 2017-05-22)
      This paper aims to provide fresh empirical evidence on how Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) monetary policy decisions from a benchmark monetary policy rule affect the profitability of US banking institutions. It thereby provides a link between the literature on central bank monetary policy implementation through monetary rules and banks’ profitability. It uses a novel data set from 11,894 US banks, spanning the period 1990 to 2013. The empirical findings show that deviations of FOMC monetary policy decisions from a number of benchmark linear and non-linear monetary (Taylor type) rules exert a negative and statistically significant impact on banks’ profitability.
    • How do human rights violations affect poverty and income distribution?

      Apergis, Nicholas; Cooray, Arusha; University of Derby; Embassy of Sri Lanka in Oslo, Norway (Elsevier BV, 2019-11-13)
      Employing data for 125 countries and spanning the 1990–2014 period, we empirically examine the impact of human rights on income distribution and poverty. We also investigate how aid and trade can influence poverty and income distribution through human rights. The results suggest that stronger human rights records contribute to greater income equality, as well as to poverty reduction. The interaction of human rights with both ODA and trade show that as aid and trade flows increase, or alternatively as human rights records increase, ODA and trade flows reduce poverty and lead to greater equality in income distribution.
    • HRIS project teams skills and knowledge: a human capital analysis

      Williams, Hazel; Tansley, Carole; Foster, Carley; Bondarouk, T; Nottingham Trent University (IGI GlobalHershey, PA, 2009)
    • Identity ambiguity and the promises and practices of hybrid e-HRM project teams

      Tansley, Carole; Huang, J.; Foster, Carley; Nottingham Trent University (Elsevier, 2013)
      The role of IS project team identity work in the enactment of day-to-day relationships with their internal clients is under-researched. We address this gap by examining the identity work undertaken by an electronic human resource management (e-HRM) 'hybrid' project team engaged in an enterprise-wide IS implementation for their multi-national organisation. Utilising social identity theory, we identify three distinctive, interrelated dimensions of project team identity work (project team management, team 'value propositions' (promises) and the team's 'knowledge practice'). We reveal how dissonance between two perspectives of e-HRM project identity work (clients' expected norms of project team's service and project team's expected norms of themselves) results in identity ambiguity. Our research contributions are to identity studies in the IS project management, HR and hybrid literatures and to managerial practice by challenging the assumption that hybrid experts are the panacea for problems associated with IS projects.
    • The impact of economic freedom on the gender pay gap: evidence from a survey of UK households

      Apergis, Nicholas; Lynch, Nicola; University of Derby (Emerald, 2020-12-25)
      Purpose-Using survey datasets, this work explores the impact of economic freedom on the gender pay gap. Design/methodology/approach-The analysis combines Economic Freedom of the World data with the Understanding Society (USoc) Microdata series to determine the association between economic freedom, and its respective components, and the gap in pay between males and females in the U.K. Findings-The results document that economic freedom positively affects the gender pay gap. When the components of the index are considered, the findings indicate different effects of various types of policy, i.e. less government spending, stronger trade liberalization conditions and levels of corruption lead to higher gaps; stronger legal and property rights and a sounder money system have no impact on the gap. Moreover, a stronger impact in the manufacturing industry, part-time workers and those who work in the non-London regions is observed. The results survived certain robustness tests. Practical implications-The findings imply that reductions to government spending programmes can potentially aggravate the gap in hourly wages paid between males and females and should, therefore, be implemented. It may be also possible to provide females the training or education necessary to effectively compete in the workforce, before eliminating any spending programme they rely on.
    • Impact of economic policy uncertainty on CO2 emissions: evidence from top ten carbon emitter countries

      Anser, Muhammad Khalid; Apergis, Nicholas; Syed, Qasim Raza; University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, China; University of Derby; National Tariff Commission, Ministry of Commerce, Islamabad, Pakistan (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-02-08)
      Over the last few decades, economic policy uncertainty (EPU) has surged across the globe. Furthermore, EPU affects economic activities, which may also generate strong CO2 emissions. The goal of this study is to explore the impact of EPU (measured by the world uncertainty index) on CO2 emissions in the case of the top ten carbon emitter countries, spanning the period 1990 to 2015. The findings from the PMG-ARDL modelling approach document that the world uncertainty index (WUI) affects CO2 emissions in both the short and the long run. In the short run, a 1% increase in WUI mitigates CO2 emissions by 0.11%, while a 1% rise in WUI escalates CO2 emissions by 0.12% in the long run. The findings could have some substantial practical effects on economic policies through which policy makers try to shrink any uncertainty by organizing and participating in international summits and treaties. In addition, international organizations could also launch certain programs to shrink uncertainties associated with economic policy. Finally, these countries should introduce innovation, renewable energy, and enforce alternative technologies that are environment friendly. Overall, governments must provide strong tax exemptions on the use of clean energy, while R&D budgets should also expand.
    • The impact of fracking activities on Oklahoma’s housing prices: a panel cointegration analysis.

      Apergis, Nicholas; University of Piraeus (Elsevier., 2019-01-08)
      Fracking drilling has opened a discussion on the role of technological developments in economies engaged in shale oil and gas formations. Oil and natural gas production opened new possibilities for employment benefits and housing prices decreases. This paper explores, for the first time, the impact of fracking on housing prices across Oklahoma’s counties, spanning the period 2000-2015. Through panel methods, the findings show a positive effect on housing prices, while this positive effect gains statistical significance only over the period after the 2006 fracking boom. The results survive a robustness check that explicitly considers distance and groundwater-dependency issues.
    • The impact of greenhouse gas emissions on personal well-being: evidence from a panel of 58 countries and aggregate and regional country samples.

      Apergis, Nicholas; University of Piraeus (Springer, 2016-10-14)
      This study investigates the link between personal well-being and per capita greenhouse gas emissions by considering a panel data methodological approach. The empirical findings illustrate that there is a significant effect of those emissions on personal well-being through the aggregate country sample. A robust finding is that similar results hold across regional samples, with the strongest effect being displayed in the case of the European regional component. The empirical findings are expected to carry important implications for consumers, corporations, and economic policy makers who all must take explicitly into consideration the impact of their economic decisions on the sustainability of economic growth plans.
    • The impacts of R&D investment and stock markets on clean energy uses and CO2 emissions in a panel of OECD economies

      Apergis, Nicholas; Alam, Md. Samsul; Paramati, Sudharshan Reddy; Fang, Jianchun; University of Derby; De Montfort University; University of Dundee; Zhejiang University of Technology (Wiley, 2020-09-14)
      The goal of this paper is to examine to what extent R&D investment and stock market development promote clean energy consumption and environmental protection across a panel of 30 OECD economies. Based on the IPAT theoretical approach, study employs robust panel econometric models which account for cross-sectional dependence in the analysis and uses annual data, spanning the period 1996 to 2013. The empirical results illustrate that R&D and stock market have a significant long-run equilibrium relationship with clean energy and CO2 emissions. The long-run elasticities display that R&D and stock market growth have a significant positive impact on clean energy consumption, while they have a negative effect on the growth of CO2 emissions. Given these findings, the paper suggests that the policy makers in the OECD economies should realize that it is worth investing in R&D activities as it is promoting the use of clean energy and ensuring low carbon economies. Therefore, the policymakers have to initiate effective policies to promote R&D activities and also encourage the firms that are listed in the stock market to adopt environmental friendly policies.
    • Implementing diversity management in retailing: exploring the role of organisational context

      Foster, Carley; Nottingham Trent University (Routledge (Taylor & Francis Group), 2005)
      Diversity management is a means of managing customer and employee differences for the benefit of the organisation. This qualitative study considers how contextual factors influence diversity management implementation in different retailing environments. Exploratory research was conducted in three SBUs of a UK retailing group: the UK high street SBU, the US operations and the online SBU. Despite different cultural, legal and historical differences between the UK and US, these factors did not lead to significantly different ways of dealing with diversity in the UK high street and US businesses. Instead the extent to which individual differences were recognised was influenced by the selling environment and the retailer’s size and structure. The paper recommends that retailer’s need to develop a ‘home-grown’ approach to diversity management that acknowledges their organisational context.
    • Implementing diversity management in retailing: exploring the role of organisational context

      Foster, Carley; Nottingham Trent University (Routledge (Taylor & Francis Group), 2005)
      Diversity management is a means of managing customer and employee differences for the benefit of the organisation. This qualitative study considers how contextual factors influence diversity management implementation in different retailing environments. Exploratory research was conducted in three SBUs of a UK retailing group: the UK high street SBU, the US operations and the online SBU. Despite different cultural, legal and historical differences between the UK and US, these factors did not lead to significantly different ways of dealing with diversity in the UK high street and US businesses. Instead the extent to which individual differences were recognised was influenced by the selling environment and the retailer’s size and structure. The paper recommends that retailer’s need to develop a ‘home-grown’ approach to diversity management that acknowledges their organisational context.
    • Improving the position of women in the labour market - a study of retailing

      Foster, Carley; Harris, Lynette; Whysall, P.; Nottingham Trent University (European Social Fund, 2006)
    • Industry momentum and reversals in stock markets

      Apergis, Nicholas; Plakandaras, Vasilios; Pragidis, Ioannis; University of Derby; Democritus University of Thrace (Wiley, 2020-10-19)
      Although price trends such as momentum and reversal patterns of stock prices are well established in the literature, little is known whether price patterns still hold at the international level. Using data from over 24,000 stock prices, the analysis forms international within and across industries portfolios for the EU and the Asia/Pacific regions and studies the presence of momentum and reversal patterns, compared with the typical benchmark, which is the U.S. market. Interestingly, it finds that both patterns are related to low capitalized firms. Price reversals appearing only at the short-run validating the liquidity constraint assumption, while momentum holds for a longer period and is related to investors’ underreaction. Finally, it finds that only a few sectors can predict the market as an indirect result of momentum. A trading strategy that builds on industries’ portfolios own predictive ability beats the market. Overall, matching returns patterns from the national to the international level supports the presence of unobserved risk factors and behavioral biases.
    • Inflation and Uncertainty: Does the EMS P a rticipation Play Any Role?

      Apergis, Nicholas; University of Macedonia (Sejong University, 1998-12)
      This paper examines whether European Monetary System (EMS) member - ship has affected the link between inflation and inflation uncertainty. ARCH measures of conditional inflation volatility and Granger-causality tests for nine OECD countries over the period 1980-1994 indicate that in non-EMS coun - tries -in these countries a monetary target seems to have been closely followedinflation seems to determine the behaviour of inflation uncert a i n t y. By con - trast, in EMS countries – these countries have geared their monetary policies to an exchange rate target – inflation seems to have no impact on inflation uncertainty. This finding is probably due first, to the absence of any institution - al restriction that characterises non-EMS membership, on the manner the monetary policy is pursued, and second, to the fact that under a monetary rule, any institutional or regulatory changes in the monetary sector are expected to fall more adversely upon inflation as well as inflation uncertainty.
    • Inflation uncertainty, money demand, and monetary deregulation: Evidence from a univariate ARCH model and cointegration tests

      Apergis, Nicholas; University of Macedonia (Elsevier, 1997-06)
      This study has extended a money demand equation to include uncertainty of inflation. It is proved via cointegration techniques that inflation uncertainty in Greece is described well by an Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (ARCH) process over the period 1975-93, following the deregulation of the monetary system in 1988 and in terms of capturing money demand structural instabilities.
    • Inflation volatility and stock prices: Evidence from ARCH effects

      Apergis, Nicholas; Alexakis, Panagiotis; Xanthakis, Emmanuel; University of Macedonia; University of Aegean; University of Athens (Springer, 1996-05)
      This paper examines the impact of inflation uncertainty on stock prices in developed as well as in emerging capital markets over the period 1980:1–93:12 via an Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (ARCH) model for inflation. The results seem to support the presence of a negative association between inflation uncertainty and stock prices.
    • The inflation–output volatility trade-off: a case where anti-inflation monetary policy turns out to be successful, a historical assessment

      Apergis, Nicholas; University of Piraeus (Elsevier, 2003-12)
      Over the period 1988–2000, the Greek monetary authorities seemed to have implemented a successful disinflation policy. The question, however, is whether this disinflation was optimal or not. This paper, through a theoretical model and the GMM approach, constructs an optimal policy frontier in terms of a trade-off between output and inflation variabilities. The frontier yields increases in the output variance when policymakers attempt to decrease inflation variances, and vice versa. The location of the actual monetary policy performance suggests a policy close to the frontier, implying a successful monetary policy.