• Easy to say, difficult to do: diversity management in retail

      Foster, Carley; Harris, Lynette; Nottingham Trent University (Blackwell Publishing LimitedOxford, 2005)
    • Economic Freedom and Income Inequality: Evidence from a Panel of Global Economies— A Linear and a Non‐Linear Long‐Run Analysis

      Apergis, Nicholas; Cooray, Arusha; Northumbria University; University of Nottingham Malaysia (Wiley., 2015-11-06)
      This study employs panel data from 138 countries (with unbalanced time frameworks) to investigate the relationship between economic freedom and income inequality. Both linear and non‐linear cointegration methodologies are used to identify a long‐run equilibrium relationship between: (i) the overall Economic Freedom of the World index and income inequality, and (ii) the major areas of the index and income inequality. The linear long‐run parameter estimates document that the association turns out to be negative, while the non‐linear long‐run parameter estimates illustrate that above a threshold point the association between economic freedom and income inequality is negative, while below this threshold point, the association turns out to be positive. The empirical findings survive a number of robustness tests, such as alternative measures of income inequality.
    • The effect of foreign direct investment and stock market growth on clean energy use across a panel of emerging market economies.

      Apergis, Nicholas; Paramati, Sudharshan Reddy; Ummalla, Mallesh; University of Piraeus; Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics; University of Hyderabad (Elsevier., 2016-03-11)
      This study investigates the impact of both FDI inflows and stock market developments on clean energy use across 20 emerging market economies, spanning the period 1991–2012. It accounts for cross-sectional dependence and heterogeneity in the analysis and employs robust panel econometric techniques. The empirical results on long-run elasticities display that economic output, FDI inflows and stock market developments have all a significant positive impact on clean energy consumption. Finally, the results on heterogeneous panel non-causality tests indicate the presence of unidirectional causality running from FDI to clean energy consumption in the short-run. For robustness purposes, the paper also estimates long-run elasticities for individual countries, with the findings documenting that both FDI inflows and stock market developments have a considerable positive impact on clean energy uses. The findings urge that both policy makers and governments in these emerging market economies should initiate effective public-private-partnership investments in clean energy projects by providing lucrative incentives, which, in turn, will encourage both domestic and foreign investors to invest more in clean energy projects and, eventually, moving these economies towards sustainable economic growth.
    • Effects of export concentration on CO2 emissions in developed countries: an empirical analysis.

      Apergis, Nicholas; Can, Muhlis; Gozgor, Giray; Lau, Chi Keung Marco; University of Piraeus; Hakkari University; Istanbul Medeniyet University; University of Huddersfield (Springer, 2018-03-08)
      This paper provides the evidence on the short- and the long-run effects of the export product concentration on the level of CO2 emissions in 19 developed (high-income) economies, spanning the period 1962−2010. To this end, the paper makes use of the nonlinear panel unit root and cointegration tests with multiple endogenous structural breaks. It also considers the mean group estimations, the autoregressive distributed lag model, and the panel quantile regression estimations. The findings illustrate that the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis is valid in the panel dataset of 19 developed economies. In addition, it documents that a higher level of the product concentration of exports leads to lower CO2 emissions. The results from the panel quantile regressions also indicate that the effect of the export product concentration upon the per capita CO2 emissions is relatively high at the higher quantiles.
    • The efficient hypothesis and deregulation: the Greek case

      Apergis, Nicholas; Eleftheriou, Sofia; University of Macedonia; Thessaloniki Stock Exchange (Taylor & Francis, 1997)
      The impact is examined of the 1988 monetary deregulation in Greece on the efficiency of the foreign exchange market. A ‘news’ model reveals that the deregulation of the monetary system contributed to the presence of an efficient foreign exchange market.
    • The emissions, energy consumption, and growth nexus: Evidence from the commonwealth of independent states

      Apergis, Nicholas; Payne, James; University of Piraeus; Illinois State University (Elsevier, 2010-01)
      This study examines the causal relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and real output within a panel vector error correction model for eleven countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States over the period 1992–2004. In the long-run, energy consumption has a positive and statistically significant impact on carbon dioxide emissions while real output follows an inverted U-shape pattern associated with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. The short-run dynamics indicate unidirectional causality from energy consumption and real output, respectively, to carbon dioxide emissions along with bidirectional causality between energy consumption and real output. In the long-run there appears to be bidirectional causality between energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions.
    • An empirical note on entrepreneurship and unemployment: Further evidence from U.S. States

      Apergis, Nicholas; Payne, James; University of Piraeus; Georgia College & State University (Emerald, 2016-11-04)
      The purpose of this paper is to extend the existing literature on the causal dynamics between entrepreneurship and the unemployment rate (UR) in the use of the Kauffman Foundation index of entrepreneurial activity. Recently developed panel unit root tests with recognition of cross-sectional dependence and panel cointegration/error correction modeling techniques are applied to US States. The results indicate that the rate of entrepreneurship, the UR, and real per capita personal income are cointegrated. The panel error correction model reveals that bidirectional causality exists among the variables in both the short run and long run. With respect to entrepreneurship, an increase in the UR increases the rate of entrepreneurship, in turn, an increase in the rate of entrepreneurship lowers the UR. Moreover, the results also show a positive bidirectional relationship between the rate of entrepreneurship and real per capita personal income.
    • Employee loyalty: a study of staff commitment levels towards retailing, the retailer and the store

      Foster, Carley; Whysall, P.; Harris, Lynette; Nottingham Trent University (2007)
    • Employee loyalty: an exploration of staff commitment levels towards retailing, the retailer and the store

      Foster, Carley; Whysall, P.; Harris, Lynette; Nottingham Trent University (Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2008)
      Securing the commitment of employees can generate a number of organisational benefits, such as reducing recruitment costs and improving interactions between customers and employees. For retailers, a loyal workforce can therefore represent a source of differentiation and competitive advantage. Despite this, few retail studies have explored employee loyalty and have instead focused upon the loyalty of customers. This quantitative and qualitative exploratory study of store employees in three UK retailers aims to explore how employee loyalty manifests itself in a retail context. It proposes that employee loyalty in this industry is multi-faceted and can be understood in relation to commitment to the retailing industry, the retailer and the store. The findings also suggest that, due to their domestic circumstances, female general assistants are more likely to be loyal to their store than men.
    • Employers' policies for third age employment – the case for action and the rational for reaction

      Harris, Lynette; Foster, Carley; Sempik, Anne; Nottingham Trent University (2011)
      This paper reports on findings from a study which explores employers’ perceptions of the careers of those in third age employment and the extent to which these organisations have in place policies and practices to manage older worker careers. Drawing on interviews with UK HR managers and advisory bodies, the study finds that there was an absence of formal policies which addressed the career needs of older works despite employers being aware of the issue associated with an aging workforce. Instead employers responded to career related requests from older workers on an ad hoc basis as they felt that specific policies for this group of people would potentially create legal issues for the organisation. Employers also believed that the aged workforce had little impact on their business and as a result did not engage in collective dialogue with older workers about their requirements and instead made assumptions about their career needs.
    • Employment news and exchange rates: policy implications for the European Union

      Apergis, Nicholas; University of Ioannina (Taylor & Francis, 2000)
      The relationship between employment news and exchange rates in five European Union (EU) countries is investigated over the period 1980 to 1996. The empirical evidence reveals that employment news has a negative impact on bilateral exchange rates with respect to the Deutschmark (DM) in all cases as a result of larger actual than expected employment figures.
    • Energy efficiency of selected OECD countries: A slacks based model with undesirable outputs.

      Apergis, Nicholas; Aye, Goodness; Barros, Carlos Pestana; Gupta, Ragan; Wanke, Peter; University of Pretoria; University of Lisbon; Federal University of Rio de Janeiro; Northumbria University (Elsevier, 2015-06-23)
      This paper presents an efficiency assessment of selected OECD countries using a Slacks Based Model with undesirable or bad outputs (SBM-Undesirable). In this research, SBM-Undesirable is used first in a two-stage approach to assess the relative efficiency of OECD countries using the most frequent indicators adopted by the literature on energy efficiency. Besides, in the second stage, GLMM–MCMC methods are combined with SBM-Undesirable results as part of an attempt to produce a model for energy performance with effective predictive ability. The results reveal different impacts of contextual variables, such as economic blocks and capital–labor ratio, on energy efficiency levels.
    • Environmental Kuznets curves: New evidence on both panel and country-level CO2 emissions.

      Apergis, Nicholas; University of Piraeus (Elsevier., 2015-12-18)
      Using data on per capita CO2 emissions and per capita real GDP from fifteen countries, spanning the period 1960–2013, this paper tests the validity of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) using both panel-based and time-series-based methodological approaches of cointegration. Given that the EKC hypothesis postulates an inverted U-shaped relationship between emissions and output, the study tests for cointegration between per capita CO2 emissions, per capita real GDP and the squared values of per capita real GDP. The evidence from panel cointegration methodologies is mixed. This result might arise due to time dependence of cointegrating coefficients. The time-varying cointegration approaches provide strong evidence in favor of time-varying cointegration parameters. Furthermore, based on the quantile cointegration approach, the results indicate that the EKC hypothesis holds in 12 out of the 15 countries. However, even for these three countries, the EKC hypothesis seems to hold at certain quantiles.
    • Environmentalism in the EU-28 context: the impact of governance quality on environmental energy efficiency

      Apergis, Nicholas; Garćıa, Claudia; University of Derby; University of Granada (Springer, 2019-11-19)
      Environmental policies are a significant cornerstone of a developed economy, but the question that arises is whether such policies lead to a sustainable growth path. It is clear that the energy sector plays a pivotal role in environmental policies, and although the current literature has focused on examining the link between energy consumption and economic growth through an abundance of studies, it does not explicitly consider the role of institutional or governance quality variables in the process. Both globalization and democracy are important drivers of sustainability, while environmentalism is essential for the objective of gaining a “better world.” Governance quality is expected to be the key, not only for economic purposes but also for the efficiency of environmental policies. To that end, the analysis in this paper explores the link between governance quality and energy efficiency for the EU-28 countries, spanning the period 1995 to 2014. The findings document that there is a nexus between energy efficiency and income they move together: the most efficient countries are in the group with higher GDP per capita. Furthermore, the results show that governance quality is an important driver of energy efficiency and, hence, of environmental policies.
    • An estimation of the natural rate of unemployment in Greece.

      Apergis, Nicholas; University of Macedonia (Elsevier, 2005-01-19)
      This paper estimates the natural rate of unemployment for Greece over the 1983–2000 period. The results show a rising natural rate of unemployment. The rate increased from 5.0% in 1983 to 7.2% in 2000. The slowdown in productivity, the rising share of female workers with higher unemployment rates, a higher number of illegal foreign workers, and the problem of insider–outsider could be considered as potential contributors to the rising natural rate.
    • Evaluating local implementation: An evidence based approach.

      Wond, Tracey; Macaulay, Michael; University of Teesside (Taylor and Francis, 2010-03)
      This article, based on data collected from a year-long study, investigates the evaluation of a UK local government policy implementation and the use of evaluation data as an evidence-base for public policy (Bovaird & Loeffler, 2007; McCoy & Hargie, 2001; Schofield, 2004; Stern, 2008). Our case study highlights a number of issues. First, uncertainty and ambiguity of policy direction inhibiting the establishment of clear evaluation goals, which, second, results in frustration among stakeholders at a perceived disparity between what we term problem-inspired policy and problem-solving policy. Finally, this perception can be compounded by a lack of consideration for local variations of, for example, specific cultures, geographies or historical contexts. In responding to these problems our article argues that regardless of where policy control and decision-making occurs, the importance of the experiences of policy-implementers at a local level (where subject/geographical/cultural specialism and familiarisation exists) is crucial.
    • Evaluation for what purpose? Findings from two stakeholder groups

      Wond, Tracey; University of Derby (Springer Singapore, 2018-07-03)
      A host of reasons exist for the pursuit of evidence in the public sector, including to support good governance and policy development. As the expectations for program evaluation from policymakers have evolved, so too has evaluation practice and a great deal of experimentalism has ensued. There is a risk that these developments and the complexity inherent in them, may lead to conflicting expectations about why program evaluation is done, or even a loss of purpose. This prompts the meso-level analysis of two types of stakeholders in a governance network, explored in this chapter. This chapter presents the findings of an ongoing study which explores the perceptions of program evaluators and policy implementers towards the purpose of evidence. The findings suggest that program evaluators and policy implementers have divergent expectations of why and how evaluation data might be used. The findings suggest that program evaluators aspire to support change and enhance the policy domains they serve, whereas policy implementers perceive program evaluation as serving a more governance-/management-orientated role. The chapter demonstrates the complexity of both program evaluation and policy and may have implications for the twin pillars of governance and responsibility at the heart of the book. If governance and responsibility are the twin pillars of sustainability then the complex networks of relationships, expectations, values, and outcomes may need to be considered. The findings also have implications for evaluation commissioners and practitioners, demonstrating the need for the purpose and expectations of program evaluation to be agreed early. The use of program evaluation as a symbolic, aesthetic or structural mechanism also emerges, prompting opportunity for further research, for instance, to explore legitimacy and program evaluation.
    • An examination of Okun's law: evidence from regional areas in Greece

      Apergis, Nicholas; Rezitis, Antonios; University of Macedonia; University of Ioannina (Taylor & Francis, 2010-10-06)
      This paper estimates Okun's coefficient for certain regional areas in Greece over the period 1960–1997. Through the Hodrick-Prescott filtering and the band-pass filtering the empirical analysis shows that that the coefficients do not exhibit substantial interregional differences, except for the cases of Epirus and North Aegean Islands. In these two cases, the estimates are larger than the regional average under both detrending methodologies. The empirical findings also show that Okun's relationship undergoes a structural change in 1981. After this break, unemployment becomes less responsive to output changes in all regional areas.
    • An exploration of Icelandic marketing entrepreneurs

      Armannsdottir, Guja; Brindley, Clare; Foster, Carley; Wheatley, Dan; Nottingham Trent University (2014)
      Little research have focused on women entrepreneurship in Iceland and yet it is often heralded as a beacon of gender equality (Pettersson, 2012; Achtenhagen and Tilmar, 2013; Smith-Hunter, 2013). The World Economic Forum (2013) identified Iceland as the country with the world's smallest gender gap. This small gender gap is not reflected in the entrepreneurship figures which show that only 8 percent of Icelandic women are classed as entrepreneurs (GEM, 2009) compared to 15 percent of men. Furthermore, Danson and Burnett (2013) posited that entrepreneurship in island environments is an under-researched area. It is therefore pertinent to explore what is happening in terms of women’s entrepreneurship in Iceland. The paper builds upon similar studies already undertaken in the UK and Europe (see Foster et al., 2011 and Wheatley et al, 2011) that have investigated the careers of marketing professionals through their life-courses. Marketing is considered to be a feminised industry in Iceland yet there is little knowledge about the careers these women have in the profession or why they decide to become self- employed. The findings showed the most often women became self-employed because of a trigger event and it seemed in most cases to be the financial crises in 2008.
    • An exploration of Icelandic marketing women entrepreneurs

      Armannsdottir, Guja; Brindley, Clare; Foster, Carley; Wheatley, Dan; Pich, Christopher; Nottingham Trent University (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016)
      Written by leading scholars from a wide range of countries, this book advances the understanding of women's entrepreneurship by drawing attention to the contexts in which they operate. With its impact on gendered institutions and gendered social forces, it will be of interest for researchers, faculty and students as well as policy-makers and practitioners. It is the fifth in the series of books produced in partnership with the Diana International Research Network.