Browsing Centre for Business Improvement by Subjects
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An exploration of Icelandic marketing women entrepreneursWritten by leading scholars from a wide range of countries, this book advances the understanding of women's entrepreneurship by drawing attention to the contexts in which they operate. With its impact on gendered institutions and gendered social forces, it will be of interest for researchers, faculty and students as well as policy-makers and practitioners. It is the fifth in the series of books produced in partnership with the Diana International Research Network.
Female entrepreneurial networking in the marketing services sectorNetworking is a key element of entrepreneurial and SME activity. The skills required to network share similarities to those of a marketer and can be associated with feminine traits, such as relationship building. Yet, little is known about how female SME marketers engage in networking. This study aims to address this gap by exploring how self-employed female services marketers build, use and value networks over the lifetime of their business. In-depth narrative interviews were conducted with 26 self-employed women working in the UK marketing services sector. Template analysis was used to analyse the materials. A model encapsulates the fluid nature of the networking activity throughout the lifetime of the participants’ businesses by illustrating which networks the women used and their perceived value. Networking led to multi-directional outsourcing opportunities and philanthropic marketing activity, all of which supported the success of the SME. Despite support from family, friends and the community, these were not regarded as networks by the women. At the individual level, insights are offered into which networking activity is more valuable for female entrepreneurs working in the sector. For policymakers, the study indicates that participants did not see value in the formal, government networks and the women did not engage with professional bodies. More creative solutions to supporting female marketing entrepreneurs are required. The study is original, in that it offers qualitative insights into how self-employed female marketers use and value networks throughout the lifetime of their business. It concentrates on one sector (marketing services) and so answers criticisms that studies in entrepreneurship do not consider specific sectors. In contrast to studies which focus on one stage of the business lifecycle, this research contributes to a holistic, longitudinal understanding of entrepreneurial female networking activity in marketing. More generally, it contributes to the paucity of literature which explores the reality of working in the marketing services sector
Marketing career transitions: women marketers embedded in the profession?This qualitative study explores a UK sample of 25 women marketing professionals and how their career paths are reached and moderated over time. The research addresses the women?s reasons for moving from corporate marketing careers to self-employment in marketing and discovers that their career anchor is their embeddedness in the marketing profession which remains a constant throughout their career. This suggests that marketing talent is being lost to the corporate environment but not necessarily to the profession. It also suggests that the profession needs to acknowledge these career transitions when offering support to those practicing marketing.
Women in the marketing profession: an explorationHunt (2002:305) expounded that a key "recurring theme" in marketing is the gap between the academic discipline and those practising it. When this debate is extrapolated to the issue of marketing careers, then a further side of the prism is exposed, namely what is the gap between what the academic discipline promises in terms of careers and the reality that practice offers. Indeed the debate about whether marketing is a profession (Brown et al, 2005; Enright, 2006) further complicates the topic. A useful starting point is Hagberg and Kjellberg (2010:1036) work which calls for "a broader understanding of marketing practice." It is to this "heterogeneity of marketing practitioners" (Hagberg and Kjellberg,2010:1036) that we subscribe to when undertaking our research. Marketing is considered to be a feminised industry yet there is little knowledge about the careers these women have in the profession. Typically research in the field has focused on the planning and implementation of marketing rather than the experiences of those doing the marketing. Drawing on an analysis of the UK Labour Force Survey this paper argues that women working in marketing are younger and more highly qualified than in other sectors but are less likely to be in senior decision-making roles. A proportion of older women in the industry are also self-employed suggesting that marketing talent may be being lost to corporate marketing but not necessarily to the industry. The paper presents a picture of the employment of women in marketing in the UK and discusses reasons for this and also attempts to contextualise these findings in the profession from a European perspective. Suggestions for future research directions are also given.