• Agriculture, trade openness and emissions: an empirical analysis and policy options.

      Rafiq, Shudhasattwa; Salim, Ruhul; Apergis, Nicholas; Deakin University; Curtin University; Northumbria University (Wiley, 2015-11-05)
      This article investigates the impact of sectoral production allocation, energy usage patterns and trade openness on pollutant emissions in a panel consisting of high‐, medium‐ and low‐income countries. Extended STIRPAT (Stochastic Impact by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology) and EKC (Environmental Kuznets Curve) models are conducted to systematically identify these factors driving CO2 emissions in these countries during the period 1980–2010. To this end, the study employs three different heterogeneous, dynamic mean group‐type linear panel models and one nonlinear panel data estimation procedure that allows for cross‐sectional dependence. While affluence, nonrenewable energy consumption and energy intensity variables are found to drive pollutant emissions in linear models, population is also found to be a significant driver in the nonlinear model. Both service sector and agricultural value‐added levels play a significant role in reducing pollution levels, whereas industrialisation increases pollution levels. Although the linear model fails to track any significant impact of trade openness, the nonlinear model finds trade liberalisation to significantly affect emission reduction levels. All of these results suggest that economic development, and especially industrialisation strategies and environmental policies, need to be coordinated to play a greater role in emission reduction due to trade liberalisation.
    • CO2 emissions, energy usage, and output in Central America

      Apergis, Nicholas; Payne, James; University of Piraeus; Illinois State University (Elsevier, 2009-08)
      This study extends the recent work of Ang (2007) [Ang, J.B., 2007. CO2 emissions, energy consumption, and output in France. Energy Policy 35, 4772–4778] in examining the causal relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and output within a panel vector error correction model for six Central American countries over the period 1971–2004. In long-run equilibrium energy consumption has a positive and statistically significant impact on emissions while real output exhibits the inverted U-shape pattern associated with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. The short-run dynamics indicate unidirectional causality from energy consumption and real output, respectively, to emissions along with bidirectional causality between energy consumption and real output. In the long-run there appears to be bidirectional causality between energy consumption and emissions.
    • Does renewable energy consumption and health expenditures decrease carbon dioxide emissions? Evidence for sub-Saharan Africa countries.

      Apergis, Nicholas; Jebli, Mehdi Ben; Youssef, Slim Ben; University of Piraeus; University of Jendouba; University of Manouba (Elsevier, 2018-05-14)
      This paper employs panel methodological approaches to explore the link between per capita carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, per capita real gross domestic product (GDP), renewable energy consumption, and health expenditures as health indicator for a panel of 42 sub-Saharan Africa countries, spanning the period 1995–2011. Empirical results support a long-term relationship between variables. In the short-run, Granger causality reveals the presence of unidirectional causalities running from real GDP to CO2 emissions, to renewable energy consumption, and to heath expenditures, and bidirectional causality between renewable energy consumption and CO2 emissions. In the long-run, there is a unidirectional causality running from renewable energy consumption to health expenditures, and bidirectional causality between health expenditures and CO2 emissions. Our long-run elasticity estimates document that both renewable energy consumption and health expenditures contribute to the reduction of carbon emissions, while real GDP leads to the increase of emissions. We recommend these countries to pursue their economic growth and invest in health care and renewable energy projects, which will enable them to benefit from their abundant wealth in renewable energy resources, improve the health conditions of their citizens, and fight climate change.
    • Effects of export concentration on CO2 emissions in developed countries: an empirical analysis.

      Apergis, Nicholas; Can, Muhlis; Gozgor, Giray; Lau, Chi Keung Marco; University of Piraeus; Hakkari University; Istanbul Medeniyet University; University of Huddersfield (Springer, 2018-03-08)
      This paper provides the evidence on the short- and the long-run effects of the export product concentration on the level of CO2 emissions in 19 developed (high-income) economies, spanning the period 1962−2010. To this end, the paper makes use of the nonlinear panel unit root and cointegration tests with multiple endogenous structural breaks. It also considers the mean group estimations, the autoregressive distributed lag model, and the panel quantile regression estimations. The findings illustrate that the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis is valid in the panel dataset of 19 developed economies. In addition, it documents that a higher level of the product concentration of exports leads to lower CO2 emissions. The results from the panel quantile regressions also indicate that the effect of the export product concentration upon the per capita CO2 emissions is relatively high at the higher quantiles.
    • The emissions, energy consumption, and growth nexus: Evidence from the commonwealth of independent states

      Apergis, Nicholas; Payne, James; University of Piraeus; Illinois State University (Elsevier, 2010-01)
      This study examines the causal relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and real output within a panel vector error correction model for eleven countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States over the period 1992–2004. In the long-run, energy consumption has a positive and statistically significant impact on carbon dioxide emissions while real output follows an inverted U-shape pattern associated with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. The short-run dynamics indicate unidirectional causality from energy consumption and real output, respectively, to carbon dioxide emissions along with bidirectional causality between energy consumption and real output. In the long-run there appears to be bidirectional causality between energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions.
    • Per capita carbon dioxide emissions across U.S. states by sector and fossil fuel source: evidence from club convergence tests

      Apergis, Nicholas; Payne, James E.; University of Piraeus; Georgia College & State University (Elsevier, 2017-01-17)
      This study extends the literature on the convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions by examining the 50 U.S. states including the District of Columbia in the aggregate, by sector, and by fossil fuel source using the Phillips-Sul club convergence approach for the period 1980 to 2013. The results indicate multiple convergence clubs in the aggregate, by sector (residential, commercial, industrial, transport, and electric power), and for two of the three fossil fuel sources (natural gas and coal) with full panel club convergence in the case of petroleum. The presence of multiple equilibria suggests that environmental policies should recognize the distinctive convergence paths associated with each cluster of states.