• Does convergence really matter for the environment? An application based on club convergence and on the ecological footprint concept for the EU countries.

      Ulucak, Recep; Apergis, Nicholas; Erciyes University; University of Piraeus (Elsevier, 2017-11-20)
      The ecological footprint has currently become a highly popular environmental performance indicator. It provides the basis for setting goals, identifying options for action, and tracking progress toward stated goals. This paper investigates the convergence of the per capita ecological footprint by employing the annual data for the case of the European Union countries, spanning the period 1961 to 2013. The methodology follows the club clustering approach and the empirical findings document the presence of certain convergent clubs. These empirical results clarify the differences in terms of environmental quality, as well as the awareness strategies the EU members in each club need to follow.