• An exploration of Icelandic marketing entrepreneurs

      Armannsdottir, Guja; Brindley, Clare; Foster, Carley; Wheatley, Dan; Nottingham Trent University (2014)
      Little research have focused on women entrepreneurship in Iceland and yet it is often heralded as a beacon of gender equality (Pettersson, 2012; Achtenhagen and Tilmar, 2013; Smith-Hunter, 2013). The World Economic Forum (2013) identified Iceland as the country with the world's smallest gender gap. This small gender gap is not reflected in the entrepreneurship figures which show that only 8 percent of Icelandic women are classed as entrepreneurs (GEM, 2009) compared to 15 percent of men. Furthermore, Danson and Burnett (2013) posited that entrepreneurship in island environments is an under-researched area. It is therefore pertinent to explore what is happening in terms of women’s entrepreneurship in Iceland. The paper builds upon similar studies already undertaken in the UK and Europe (see Foster et al., 2011 and Wheatley et al, 2011) that have investigated the careers of marketing professionals through their life-courses. Marketing is considered to be a feminised industry in Iceland yet there is little knowledge about the careers these women have in the profession or why they decide to become self- employed. The findings showed the most often women became self-employed because of a trigger event and it seemed in most cases to be the financial crises in 2008.
    • An exploration of Icelandic marketing women entrepreneurs

      Armannsdottir, Guja; Brindley, Clare; Foster, Carley; Wheatley, Dan; Pich, Christopher; Nottingham Trent University (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016)
      Written by leading scholars from a wide range of countries, this book advances the understanding of women's entrepreneurship by drawing attention to the contexts in which they operate. With its impact on gendered institutions and gendered social forces, it will be of interest for researchers, faculty and students as well as policy-makers and practitioners. It is the fifth in the series of books produced in partnership with the Diana International Research Network.
    • Marketing women in Iceland: challenges of establishing a company

      Armannsdottir, Guja; Brindley, Clare; Foster, Carley; Wheatley, Dan (2014)
      Objectives: This paper explores the experiences of nine Icelandic business women who that have their own marketing businesses. In recent years more women graduated from Icelandic universities than men (Statistic Iceland, 2012a) where business and marketing studies have proved popular. Little is known though about the experiences of Icelandic women moving into self-employment in marketing, particularly in relation to challenges of setting up and managing their own business. Iceland provides a unique context as it is a small island with only 325.000 habitants (Statistic Iceland, 2014). The country was hit badly by the economic crisis in 2008 which is likely to have affected the career and business decisions of self-employed women. Prior Work: Marketing is considered to be a female-oriented industry but experiences of women working in marketing are an under-researched area (Maclaren and Catterall, 2000). In addition, Marlow et al.,(2009) called for studies focusing on the challenges of the entrepreneurial environment for women. Some of the challenges that women owning their own business have to face have been identified as capitalisation, working hours and location (Carter et al., 2001; Roper and Scott, 2009; Harding, 2006). These experiences will be discussed in this paper. Approach: This paper builds on work from a similar study already undertaken in the UK by Foster and Brindley (2010); Foster et al., (2011) and Wheatley at al., (2011) and their investigation of marketing businesses in the UK but explores the experiences in the novel context of Iceland which is a much smaller economy and often heralded as a beacon of gender equality (Petterson 2012; Acthenhagen and Tilmar, 2013). The study takes an exploratory, qualitative approach. Convenience sampling was used for the study with nine Icelandic women who owned a marketing business. All the interviews were conducted with the owner of the company using a set of questions around a priori themes drawn from the literature. The interviews took place in August 2013. Results: Preliminary analysis indicates that Icelandic women are cautious when it comes to capitalisation. They are quite reluctant to take out a loan to finance their business. In addition the majority seemed to work long hours, often nights and weekends. Full findings will be presented at the conference. Implications: These findings give the first account of experiences of Icelandic self-employed women in marketing and answers recent calls for studies in the field of marketing and the entrepreneur environment for women (Maclaren and Catterall, 2000; Marlow et al.,2009). Value: This paper provides an insight into the experiences of the Icelandic business women working in marketing. In addition it offers comparisons with previous studies conducted in the UK.
    • The role of value co-creation in SME pop-up retail space: a supply-side relational stakeholder perspective.

      Foster, Carley; Brindley, Clare; Oxborrow, Lynn; Armannsdottir, Guja; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University (2017-07-05)
      Pop-ups are regarded as temporary retail space providing an experiential experience to customers, a solution to filling empty retail units and a way for SME retailers to market test products and services. Studies exploring the pop-up phenomenon have focused upon the vale co-creation between the customer and pop-up owner. However, this paper argues that the inter-organisational relationships the pop-up has with other supply-side stakeholders can also be a source of value co-creation for the pop-up. The paper argues that inter-organisational interactions are a source of value creation helping to improve the managerial capabilities and business model of the pop-up. This in turn improves the final offering to the end consumer. The study draws upon interview data collected from landlords, local authorities, shopping centres, community representatives and pop-owners across 6 sites in the UK, Iceland and the Netherlands.
    • Value co-creation in temporary, independent retailing: a study of customer value perceptions of pop-up stores

      Foster, Carley; Brindley, Clare; Ghosh, Biswaraj; Armannsdottir, Guja; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University (2017-07-05)