• Do gold prices respond to real interest rates? Evidence from the Bayesian Markov switching VECM model

      Apergis, Nicholas; Apergis, Hercules; Cooray, Arusha; Khraief, Naceur; University of Piraeu; University of Kent; Sri Lanka Embassy; Université de Tunis (Elsevier, 2019)
      The goal of this paper is to examine the transmission dynamics between the real interest rate and gold prices in the G7. The methodology follows the Bayesian Markov-Switching Vector Error-Correction (MS-VECM) model, along with regime-dependent impulse response functions, spanning the period 1975 to 2016. The findings suggest a positive association between gold prices and real interest rates, with the estimates remaining consistently positive and statistically significant across all G7 countries. The results indicate that gold prices can provide hedging services against real interest rate movements mainly during recessionary times. Our results continue to be robust when we extend the bivariate version of our modeling approach to include more drivers for gold prices.
    • A new macro stress testing approach for financial realignment in the Eurozone

      Apergis, Nicholas; Apergis, Emmanuel; Apergis, Hercules; University of Derby; University of Kent (Elsevier, 2019-02-12)
      Contrary to the common approach of stress-testing under which banks are evaluated whether they are distressed, this empirical study chooses to move from the micro stress test approach to a wider new macro stress test category. By being able to stress testing the entire economy of the Eurozone, it will permit big banks to fail and, at the same time, will open room for new banking players to enter the sector, promoting the essence of a healthy destruction. The analysis performs a battery of stress tests, by implementing VaR, Cornish-Fisher VaR, Monte Carlo VaR, Expected Shortfall, Cornish-Fisher Expected Shortfall, and Monte Carlo Expected Shortfall. At the same time, it explicitly considers the new regulatory approach of IFRS9 to incorporate extreme values from forecasted series in the distributions. The analysis also performs two versions of stress tests, one including TARGET2 and one without it. The results document that future stress tests should include TARGET2 values in order to capture a better picture of the stressed economy. The findings from these stress tests clearly illustrate that although there has been a trough after the distress call of 2008, this trough ended. These are results derived without including the TARGET2 transfers. By including the TARGET2 transfers we receive a different picture that possibly acts as a protective mechanism against any future crisis. Caution is still advised, possibly due to some lingering imbalances within the Eurozone.