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The impacts of R&D investment and stock markets on clean energy uses and CO2 emissions in a panel of OECD economiesApergis, Nicholas; Alam, Md. Samsul; Paramati, Sudharshan Reddy; Fang, Jianchun; University of Derby; De Montfort University; University of Dundee; Zhejiang University of Technology (Wiley, 2020-09-14)The goal of this paper is to examine to what extent R&D investment and stock market development promote clean energy consumption and environmental protection across a panel of 30 OECD economies. Based on the IPAT theoretical approach, study employs robust panel econometric models which account for cross-sectional dependence in the analysis and uses annual data, spanning the period 1996 to 2013. The empirical results illustrate that R&D and stock market have a significant long-run equilibrium relationship with clean energy and CO2 emissions. The long-run elasticities display that R&D and stock market growth have a significant positive impact on clean energy consumption, while they have a negative effect on the growth of CO2 emissions. Given these findings, the paper suggests that the policy makers in the OECD economies should realize that it is worth investing in R&D activities as it is promoting the use of clean energy and ensuring low carbon economies. Therefore, the policymakers have to initiate effective policies to promote R&D activities and also encourage the firms that are listed in the stock market to adopt environmental friendly policies.
The role of stock markets on environmental degradation: A comparative study of developed and emerging market economies across the globeParamati, Sudharshan Reddy; Alam, Md. Samsul; Apergis, Nicholas; Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics; University of Dundee; Griffith University; University of Piraeus (Elsevier, 2017-12-17)It is well established in the literature that stock markets increase both economic activities and energy consumption across countries. Therefore, it is commonly believed that stock markets are expected to have a significant effect on CO2 emissions. However, it is not known whether these stock markets can contribute to more or less CO2 emissions. Hence, the goal of this study is to examine the impact of stock market indicators on CO2 emissions across a global panel of both developed and emerging market economies. The results establish that stock market indicators have a significant negative and positive impact on carbon emissions in developed and emerging market economies, respectively. Furthermore, the findings illustrate the presence of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis, implying that stronger stock markets lead to a further decline in carbon emissions. Given these findings, the study argues that the role of stock markets in the abatement of CO2 emissions significantly varies across both developed and emerging market economies. Significant implications have to do with the fact that developed markets might have initiated effective policies on listed firms to minimize carbon emissions, while emerging markets are yet to achieve this.