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dc.contributor.authorHuck, Maren
dc.contributor.authorVan Lunenburg, Mari
dc.contributor.authorDávalos, Victor
dc.contributor.authorRotundo, Marcelo
dc.contributor.authorDi Fiore, Anthony
dc.contributor.authorFernández-Duque, Eduardo
dc.date.accessioned2016-02-15T14:27:52Zen
dc.date.available2016-02-15T14:27:52Zen
dc.date.issued2014-01-03en
dc.identifier.citationHuck, M. et al (2014) 'Double effort: parental behavior of wild Azara's owl monkeys in the face of twins', American Journal of Primatology, 76 (7):629 . DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22256en
dc.identifier.issn2752565en
dc.identifier.doi10.1002/ajp.22256en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10545/596267en
dc.description.abstractIn species of mammals that habitually bear single offspring, like most anthropoid primates, the occurrence of twins is expected to impose considerable energetic costs on the caretakers. The question then arises of how caregivers cope with the potentially increased costs of raising twins. These increased costs should lead to differing developmental rates in twins when compared to singletons, and/or to changes in the caregivers' behavior. Likewise, time budgets of parents of singletons are expected to differ from those of adults without offspring. Additionally, if twinning was an adaptive response to favorable ecological conditions, it should be more likely in years with high food abundance. Following the birth in 2011 of two sets of twins in a wild population of pair-living Azara's owl monkeys (Aotus azarae) in Northern Argentina, we used long-term demographic, behavioral, and phenological data to compare a) the proportion of time that singleton and twin infants were carried by either parent, b) adult time-budgets and ranging behavior in groups with zero, one, or two infants, and c) the availability of food in 2011 with food availability in other years. Twins, like singletons, were carried nearly exclusively by the male, and they were carried slightly more than singletons, suggesting a relatively inflexible pattern of infant care in the species. Time budgets showed that twin parents foraged more and moved less than singleton parents or groups without infants, despite the fact that phenological data indicate that fruit availability in 2011 was not substantially higher than in some of the other years. Overall, twinning thus presumably increased costs to breeders, especially males, but its effect on animals’ long-term reproductive success remains unclear.
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Science Foundation (BCS-1219368); National Geographic Society (9053-11); German Science Foundation (HU1746-2 & 3); het Vreedefonds; Stichting Fundatie van de Vrijvrouwe van Renswoude te‘s-Gravenhage; Stichting Jo Kolk Studiefonds; de Stichting dr.Hendrik Muller's VaderlandschFonds; Wenner-Gren Foundation; L.S.B. Leakey Foundation; National Science Foundation (BCS- 0621020); the University of Pennsylvania Research Foundation; Zoological Society of San Diegoen
dc.language.isoenen
dc.relation.urlhttp://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ajp.22256en
dc.rightsArchived with thanks to American Journal of Primatologyen
dc.subjectInfant careen
dc.subjectInfant developmenten
dc.subjectTwinningen
dc.subjectMale careen
dc.subjectReproductive trade-offsen
dc.titleDouble effort: parental behavior of wild Azara's owl monkeys in the face of twinsen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Biological and Forensic Sciences, University of Derby, Derby, United Kingdomen
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Behavioural Neuroscience, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlandsen
dc.contributor.departmentProyecto Mirikiná/Fundación ECO, Formosa, Argentinaen
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Anthropology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texasen
dc.contributor.departmentCentro de Ecología Aplicada del Litoral (Conicet, Corrientes), Corrientes, Argentinaen
dc.contributor.departmentUniversity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvaniaen
dc.identifier.journalAmerican Journal of Primatologyen
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Biological and Forensic Sciences; University of Derby; Derby United Kingdomen
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Behavioural Neuroscience; Utrecht University; Utrecht The Netherlandsen
dc.contributor.institutionProyecto Mirikiná/Fundación ECO; Formosa Argentinaen
dc.contributor.institutionProyecto Mirikiná/Fundación ECO; Formosa Argentinaen
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Anthropology; University of Texas at Austin; Austin Texasen
dc.contributor.institutionCentro de Ecología Aplicada del Litoral (Conicet, Corrientes); Corrientes Argentinaen
dcterms.dateAccepted2013-12-12
refterms.dateFOA2019-01-23T13:25:28Z
html.description.abstractIn species of mammals that habitually bear single offspring, like most anthropoid primates, the occurrence of twins is expected to impose considerable energetic costs on the caretakers. The question then arises of how caregivers cope with the potentially increased costs of raising twins. These increased costs should lead to differing developmental rates in twins when compared to singletons, and/or to changes in the caregivers' behavior. Likewise, time budgets of parents of singletons are expected to differ from those of adults without offspring. Additionally, if twinning was an adaptive response to favorable ecological conditions, it should be more likely in years with high food abundance. Following the birth in 2011 of two sets of twins in a wild population of pair-living Azara's owl monkeys (Aotus azarae) in Northern Argentina, we used long-term demographic, behavioral, and phenological data to compare a) the proportion of time that singleton and twin infants were carried by either parent, b) adult time-budgets and ranging behavior in groups with zero, one, or two infants, and c) the availability of food in 2011 with food availability in other years. Twins, like singletons, were carried nearly exclusively by the male, and they were carried slightly more than singletons, suggesting a relatively inflexible pattern of infant care in the species. Time budgets showed that twin parents foraged more and moved less than singleton parents or groups without infants, despite the fact that phenological data indicate that fruit availability in 2011 was not substantially higher than in some of the other years. Overall, twinning thus presumably increased costs to breeders, especially males, but its effect on animals’ long-term reproductive success remains unclear.


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