• A review of Pangaea dispersal and large igneous provinces – In search of a causative mechanism

      Peace, A.L.; Phethean, Jordan; Franke, D.; Foulger, G.R.; Schiffer, C.; Welford, J.K.; McHone, G.; Rocchi, S.; Schnabel, M.; Doré, A.G.; et al. (Elsevier, 2019-07-22)
      The breakup of Pangaea was accompanied by extensive, episodic, magmatic activity. Several Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) formed, such as the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) and the North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP). Here, we review the chronology of Pangaea breakup and related large-scale magmatism. We review the Triassic formation of the Central Atlantic Ocean, the breakup between East and West Gondwana in the Middle Jurassic, the Early Cretaceous opening of the South Atlantic, the Cretaceous separation of India from Antarctica, and finally the formation of the North Atlantic in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. We demonstrate that throughout the dispersal of Pangaea, major volcanism typically occurs distal from the locus of rift initiation and initial oceanic crust accretion. There is no location where extension propagates away from a newly formed LIP. Instead, LIPs are coincident with major lithosphere-scale shear movements, aborted rifts and splinters of continental crust rifted far out into the oceanic domain. These observations suggest that a fundamental reappraisal of the causes and consequences of breakup-related LIPs is in order.
    • Early detection of an emerging invasive species: eDNA monitoring of a parthenogenetic crayfish in freshwater systems

      Mauvisseau, Quentin; Sweet, Michael; Lyko, Frank; Andriantsoa, Ranja; Tonges, Sina; University of Derby; Surescreen Scientifics Ltd, Morley; German Cancer Research Center, Germany (Regional Euro-Asian Biological Invasions Centre Oy (REABIC), 2019-06-06)
      Procambarus virginalis, also known as the Marmorkrebs is a highly invasive crayfish species characterized by parthenogenetic reproduction. As conservation management plans rely on the accuracy of the presence and distribution information of invasive species, a reliable method is needed for detecting such species in aquatic systems. We developed and validated a qPCR-based assay for monitoring P. virginalis at low abundance, by detecting their eDNA traces left in freshwater systems. We were able to implement this new assay in-situ at two separate lakes in Germany, where the crayfish were known to be present. Furthermore, we did not detect the pathogenic fungus Aphanomyces astaci in the locations where the Marmorkrebs were detected. We conclude that the use of eDNA is therefore a reliable tool for the early detection of this “perfect invader”.
    • The development of an eDNA based detection method for the invasive shrimp Dikerogammarus haemobaphes

      Mauvisseau, Quentin; Troth, Chris; Young, Emily; Burian, Alfred; Sweet, Michael; University of Derby; Surescreen Scientifics Ltd, Morley (Regional Euro-Asian Biological Invasions Centre Oy (REABIC), 2019-06-06)
      Dikerogammarus haemobaphes is a freshwater gammarid crustacean native to the Ponto-Caspian region. However, the species is rapidly spreading throughout Western Europe and is classed as a highly invasive species. Here we present a novel eDNA assay aimed at detecting D. haemobaphes and demonstrate its suitability with validation steps conducted in-silico (computer simulations), ex-situ (test of specificity using closely related species) and in-situ (within the field). A survey of freshwater systems in the West-Midlands, United Kingdom, highlighted that D. haemobaphes was present in 26 out of the 39 sites assessed. We conclude that eDNA detection for D. haemobaphes is a promising tool for assessing and mapping the presence/distribution of this invasive amphipod.
    • Using GIS-linked Bayesian Belief Networks as a tool for modelling urban biodiversity.

      Corstanje, Ron; Warren, Philip H.; Evans, Karl L.; Siriwardena, Gavin M.; Pescott, Oliver L.; Plummer, Kate E.; Mears, Meghann; Zawadzka, Joanna; Richards, J. Paul; Harris, Jim A.; et al. (Elsevier, 2019-05-30)
      The ability to predict spatial variation in biodiversity is a long-standing but elusive objective of landscape ecology. It depends on a detailed understanding of relationships between landscape and patch structure and taxonomic richness, and accurate spatial modelling. Complex heterogeneous environments such as cities pose particular challenges, as well as heightened relevance, given the increasing rate of urbanisation globally. Here we use a GIS-linked Bayesian Belief Network approach to test whether landscape and patch structural characteristics (including vegetation height, green-space patch size and their connectivity) drive measured taxonomic richness of numerous invertebrate, plant, and avian groups. We find that modelled richness is typically higher in larger and better-connected green-spaces with taller vegetation, indicative of more complex vegetation structure and consistent with the principle of ‘bigger, better, and more joined up’. Assessing the relative importance of these variables indicates that vegetation height is the most influential in determining richness for a majority of taxa. There is variation, however, between taxonomic groups in the relationships between richness and landscape structural characteristics, and the sensitivity of these relationships to particular predictors. Consequently, despite some broad commonalities, there will be trade-offs between different taxonomic groups when designing urban landscapes to maximise biodiversity. This research demonstrates the feasibility of using a GIS-coupled Bayesian Belief Network approach to model biodiversity at fine spatial scales in complex landscapes where current data and appropriate modelling approaches are lacking, and our findings have important implications for ecologists, conservationists and planners.
    • The use of animal-borne cameras to video-track the behaviour of domestic cats.

      Huck, Maren; Watson, Samantha; University of Derby; Manchester Metropolitan University (Elsevier, 2019-05-07)
      Free roaming domestic animals can have a profound effect on wildlife. To better understand and mitigate any impact, it is important to understand the behaviour patterns of the domestic animals, and how other variables might influence their behaviour. Direct observation is not always feasible and bears the potential risk of observer effects. The use of animal-borne small videocameras provides the opportunity to study behaviour from the animal’s point of view. While video-tracking has been used previously to study specific aspects of the behaviour of a species, it has not been used so far to determine detailed time-budgets. The aim of this study was to provide and validate an ethogram based on cat-camera footage collected from 16 cats (Felis catus). The methodology was validated comparing films recorded simultaneously, from both collar-mounted video recorders and hand-held video recorders. Additionally, the inter-observer reliability of scorers was measured. Continuous and instantaneous recording regimes were compared, and behavioural accumulation curves were evaluated to provide further technique recommendations for video-tracking cats. Video-tracking allows scoring of behaviour as reliably as direct observation (linear mixed effects model: t<0.001, P = 0.99; df= 14 in 7 cats; Cohen's κ =0.88). Furthermore, interobserver reliability was high (Cohen's κ = 0.72) and was not significantly different from 0.8 (one-sample t-test: t=1.15. df=5, P = 0.30), indicating that the method is not subject to bias in observers. Recommendations are given for the most efficient scoring protocol to reliably record feline behaviour. While the validation was concerned with cat behaviour, the approach can be easily adapted for a variety of domestic species, as well as some captive animals. Video-tracking offers a new avenue to investigate both general time-budgets and more specific behaviours such as foraging or space use from the animal's point of view and in its normal environment, without restrictions to movement. Insights gained through video-tracking will be relevant to various conservation and animal welfare issues.
    • Life history, environment and extinction of the scallop Carolinapecten eboreus (Conrad) in the Plio-Pleistocene of the U.S. eastern seaboard.

      Johnson, Andrew L. A.; Valentine, Annemarie M.; Leng, Melanie J.; Schöne, Bernd R.; Sloane, Hilary J.; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University; British Geological Survey; University of Mainz (SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), 2019-02-01)
      Plio-Pleistocene mass extinction of marine bivalves on the U.S. eastern seaboard has been attributed to declines in temperature and primary production. We investigate the relationship of growth rate in the scallop Carolinapecten eboreus to variation in these parameters to determine which contributed to its extinction. We use ontogenetic profiles of shell d18O to estimate growth rate and seasonal temperature, microgrowth-increment data to validate d18O-based figures for growth rate, and shell d13C to supplement assemblage evidence of production. Postlarval growth started in the spring/summer in individuals from the Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain but in the autumn/winter in some from the Gulf Coastal Plain. Growth rate typically declined with age and was usually higher in summer than winter. Many individuals died in winter but the largest forms typically died in spring, possibly on spawning for the first time. No individuals lived longer than two years and some grew exceedingly fast overall, up to 60% more rapidly than any other scallop species (, 145.7 mm in a year). Faster growth was generally achieved by secreting more rather than larger microgrowth increments. Some very fast-growing individuals lived in settings of high production and low temperature. No individuals grew slowly under high production whereas most if not all grew slowly under ‘average’ production and low temperature. In that the rapid growth evidently enabled by high production would have afforded protection from predators, Plio-Pleistocene decline in production was probably contributory to the extinction of C. eboreus. However, the negative impact of low temperature on growth under ‘average’ production suggests that temperature decline played some part.
    • Analogue Modeling of Plate Rotation Effects in Transform Margins and Rift‐Transform Intersections

      Farangitakis, Georgios-Pavlos; Sokoutis, D; McCaffrey, Kenneth; Willingshofer , Ernst; Kalnins, Lara; Phethean, Jordan; van Hunen, Jeroen; van steen, V; University of Durham; University of Oslo; et al. (Wiley, 2019-01-29)
      Transform margins are first‐order tectonic features that accommodate oceanic spreading. Uncertainties remain about their evolution, genetic relationship to oceanic spreading, and general structural character. When the relative motion of the plates changes during the margin evolution, further structural complexity is added. This work investigates the evolution of transform margins and associated rift‐transform intersections, using an analogue modeling approach that simulates changing plate motions. We investigate the effects of different crustal rheologies by using either (a) a two‐layer brittle‐ductile configuration to simulate upper and lower continental crust, or (b) a single layer brittle configuration to simulate oceanic crust. The modeled rifting is initially orthogonal, followed by an imposed plate vector change of 7° that results in oblique rifting and plate overlap (transpression) or underlap (transtension) along each transform margin. This oblique deformation reactivates and overprints earlier orthogonal structures and is representative of natural examples. We find that (a) a transtensional shift in the plate direction produces a large strike‐slip principal displacement zone, accompanied by en‐echelon oblique‐normal faults that accommodate the horizontal displacement until the new plate motion vector is stabilized, while (b) a transpressional shift produces compressional structures such as thrust fronts in a triangular zone in the area of overlap. These observations are in good agreement with natural examples from the Gulf of California (transtensional) and Tanzania Coastal Basin (transpressional) shear margins and illustrate that when these deformation patterns are present, a component of plate vector change should be considered in the evolution of transform margins.
    • Influence of accuracy, repeatability and detection probability in the reliability of species-specific eDNA based approaches

      Mauvisseau, Quentin; Burian, Alfred; Gibson, Ceri; Brys, Rein; Ramsey, Andrew; Sweet, Michael; University of Derby; Freshwater Biological Association, Cumbria; Research Institute for Nature and Forest, Belgium (Springer, 2019-01-24)
      Environmental DNA (eDNA) barcoding has a high potential to increase the cost-efficiency of species detection and monitoring in aquatic habitats. However, despite vast developments in the field, many published assays often lack detailed validation and there is little to no commonly (agreed upon) standardization of protocols. In this study, we evaluated the reliability of eDNA detection and quantification using published primers and assays targeting the Freshwater Pearl Mussel as a model organism. We first assessed limits of detection for two different target genes (COI and 16S) following the MIQE guidelines, and then tested the reliability of quantification in a double-blind mesocosm experiment. Our results reveal that different methodological indicators, namely accuracy, repeatability and detection probability affected the reliability of eDNA measurement at the different levels tested. The selection of the optimal analytical method was mainly determined by detection probability. Both the COI and 16S assays were highly specific for the targeted organism and showed similar accuracy and repeatability, whilst the limit of detection was clearly lower for the COI based approach. In contrast, the reliability of eDNA quantification hinged on repeatability, reflected by the scattering (r2 = 0.87) around the relationship between eDNA and mussel density in mesocosms. A bootstrapping approach, which allowed for the assignment of measures associated with repeatability of samples, revealed that variability between natural replicates (i.e. accuracy) strongly influenced the number of replicates required for a reliable species detection and quantification in the field.
    • A community-based evaluation of population growth and agro-pastoralist resilience in Sub-Saharan drylands

      Karaya, Rebecca; Wernersson, Julia E.V.; Egberth, Mikael; Lokorwa, Benjamin; Nyberg, Gert; Alfred, Burian; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2018-12-14)
      Human population growth is considered together with climate warming as major driver of change in Sub-Saharan Africa. Research on the implications of increased population densities often utilises community knowledge but without incorporating the view of local stakeholders. In this study, we applied a community-centred approach to assess direct and indirect consequences of population growth in drylands of north-western Kenya. Combined social, agricultural and geo-spatial analyses allowed us to identify major system transitions, determine their linkage to population growth and deduce consequences for local livelihoods and community resilience.Community-members reported positive and negative consequences of fourfold population growth since 1974 but evaluated its overall effect as clearly beneficial. This overall positive effect was based on both, positive developments and the successful mitigation of potential system stressors. First, food security was maintained despite high growth rates because a shift from migratory pastoralism to a more labour-intensive agro-pastoralist system helped to increase agricultural productivity. Additionally, land-use changes were linked to land privatisation and improved erosion protection on private land, decoupling population growth from environmental degradation.We detected, however also early warning signs of reduced community resilience as households were unable to fully recover livestock densities after catastrophic events. A population-growth driven reduction in household land-sizes and the decreased monetary value of agricultural production were identified as drivers of this development. The extrapolation of our results to establish a general relationship between population densities, land-use and household resilience in Sub-Saharan drylands suggest that further system transformations will be required to ensure regional food-security.
    • Potential of Retrofitting Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems Using an Integrated Geographical Information System Remote Sensing Based Approach

      Ferrier, G.; Milan, D.; Keat Yew, C.; Pope, R.J.; University of Hull; University of Derby (2018-12-06)
      Flooding is a major problem in urban areas worldwide. Methodologies that can rapidly assess the scale and identify the reasons causing these flooding events at minimal cost are urgently required. This study has used the City of Kingston-upon-Hull to evaluate the capability of an integrated remote sensing and geographical information system based approach to provide the critical information on the spatial extent of flooding and flood water volumes and overcome the limitations in current monitoring based on ground-based visual mapping and household flooding surveys. Airborne and Terrestrial LiDAR datasets were combined with digital aerial photography, flood assessment surveys, and maps of housing, infrastructure and the sewer network. The integration of these datasets provided an enhanced understanding of the sources and pathways of the flood water runoff, accurate quantification of the water volumes associated with each flooding event and the identification of the optimum locations and size of potential retrofit Sustainable Urban Drainage systems.
    • First detection of a highly invasive freshwater amphipod Crangonyx floridanus (Bousfield, 1963) in the United Kingdom.

      Mauvisseau, Quentin; Davy-Bowker, John; Bryson, David; Souch, Graham; Burian, Alfred; Sweet, Michael J.; University of Derby; Surescreen Scientifics Ltd; Freshwater Biological Association; Natural History Museum (Regional Euro-Asian biological Invasions Centre, 2018-12-05)
      The freshwater gammarid, Crangonyx floridanus, originates from North America but has invaded and subsequently spread rapidly throughout Japan. We provide here the first genetic and microscopic evidence that C. floridanus has now also reached the United Kingdom. We found this species in two locations separated by more than 200 km (Lake Windermere in the North of the UK and Smestow Brook, West Midlands). The current distribution of C. floridanus is currently unknown, however, both sites are well connected to other river and canal systems. Therefore, the chance of further spread is high. Genetic analyses of C. floridanus indicate that British inland waters are colonised by the same lineage, which invaded Japan. We recommend further work to assess the distribution of this species and its impact on the local fauna and flora.
    • Bridging the gap: 40Ar/39Ar dating of volcanic eruptions from the ‘Age of Discovery’

      Preece, Katie; Mark, Darren F.; Barclay, Jenni; Cohen, Benjamin E.; Chamberlain, Katy J.; Jowitt, Claire; Vye-Brown, Charlotte; Brown, Richard J.; Hamilton, Scott; Isotope Geoscience Unit, Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, East Kilbride; et al. (Geological Society of America, 2018-11-09)
      Many volcanoes worldwide still have poorly resolved eruption histories, with the date of the last eruption often undetermined. One such example is Ascension Island, where the timing of the last eruption, and consequently, the activity status of the volcano, is unclear. Here, we use the 40Ar/39Ar dating technique to resolve ages of the three youngest lava flows on the island, which are hawaiites and mugearite with 1.5 – 1.9 wt% K2O. In dating these lavas, we provide the first evidence of Holocene volcanic activity on Ascension (0.51 ± 0.18 ka; 0.55 ± 0.12 ka; 1.64 ± 0.37 ka), determining that it should be classed as an active volcanic system. In addition, we demonstrate that the 40Ar/39Ar method can reproducibly date mafic lava flows younger than 1 ka, decreasing the gap between recorded history and geological dating. These results offer new prospects for determining patterns of late-Holocene volcanic activity; critical for accurate volcanic hazard assessment.
    • Coral reef carbonate budgets and ecological drivers in the central Red Sea: a naturally high temperature and high total alkalinity environment.

      Roik, Anna; Röthig, Till; Pogoreutz, Claudia; Saderne, Vincent; Voolstra, Christian R.; King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST); University of Derby (European Geosciences Union, 2018-10-26)
      The structural framework provided by corals is crucial for reef ecosystem function and services, but high seawater temperatures can be detrimental to the calcification capacity of reef-building organisms. The Red Sea is very warm, but total alkalinity (TA) is naturally high and beneficial for reef accretion. To date, we know little about how such detrimental and beneficial abiotic factors affect each other and the balance between calcification and erosion on Red Sea coral reefs, i.e., overall reef growth, in this unique ocean basin. To provide estimates of present-day reef growth dynamics in the central Red Sea, we measured two metrics of reef growth, i.e., in situ net-accretion/-erosion rates (Gnet) determined by deployment of limestone blocks and ecosystem-scale carbonate budgets (Gbudget), along a crossshelf gradient (25 km, encompassing nearshore, midshore, and offshore reefs). Along this gradient, we assessed multiple abiotic (i.e., temperature, salinity, diurnal pH fluctuation, inorganic nutrients, and TA) and biotic (i.e., calcifier and epilithic bioeroder communities) variables. Both reef growth metrics revealed similar patterns from nearshore to offshore: net-erosive, neutral, and net-accretion states. The average cross-shelf Gbudget was 0.66 kg CaCO3 m−2 yr−1 , with the highest budget of 2.44 kg CaCO3 m−2 yr−1 measured in the offshore reef. These data are comparable to the contemporary Gbudgets from the western Atlantic and Indian oceans, but lie well below “optimal reef production” (5–10 kg CaCO3 m−2 yr−1 ) and below maxima recently recorded in remote high coral cover reef sites. However, the erosive forces observed in the Red Sea nearshore reef contributed less than observed elsewhere. A higher TA accompanied reef growth across the shelf gradient, whereas stronger diurnal pH fluctuations were associated with negative carbonate budgets. Noteworthy for this oligotrophic region was the positive effect of phosphate, which is a central micronutrient for reef building corals. While parrotfish contributed substantially to bioerosion, our dataset also highlights coralline algae as important local reef builders. Altogether, our study establishes a baseline for reef growth in the central Red Sea that should be useful in assessing trajectories of reef growth capacity under current and future ocean scenarios
    • Mass mortality hits gorgonian forests at Montecristo Island.

      Turicchia, Eva; Abbiati, Marco; Sweet, Michael J.; Ponti, Massimo; University of Bologna; Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca per le Scienze Ambientali (CIRSA); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze del Mare (CoNISMa); Polytechnic University of Marche; Istituto di Scienze Marine (ISMAR); University of Derby (Inter Research, 2018-10-16)
      Mediterranean gorgonian forests are species-rich habitats, and like many other marine habitats they are threatened by anthropogenic disturbances and mass mortality events. These mortality events have often been linked to anomalies in the temperature profiles of the Mediterranean region. On 5 September 2017, colonies of the gorgonians Eunicella singularis and Eunicella cavolini exhibited rapid tissue loss, down to a depth of 30 m along the steep cliffs of Montecristo Island, Tuscan Archipelago National Park, Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy. Interestingly, Montecristo has previously been identified as a reference site for the ecological quality assessment of the western Mediterranean benthic assemblages on rocky bottoms. The observed mortality event occurred during a period of increased sea temperature. By utilising a combination of high-resolution oceanographic analysis, forecast models and citizen science initiatives, we propose that an early warning system for the concomitance of heat waves and mortality events can be put in place. A temperature-based coral disease surveillance tool could then be established for the entire Mediterranean Sea. Such a tool would allow for the timely study of mass mortality phenomena and the implementation of prompt mitigation and/or restoration initiatives. Finally, this specific mortality event, in a Marine Protected Area, offers a unique opportunity to monitor and assess the resilience of gorgonian populations and associated benthic assemblages in the absence of other, more directly, anthropogenic disturbances such as pollution and land runoff.
    • Use of environmental management systems to mitigate urban pollution

      Horry, Rosemary; University of Derby; University of West of England (Wiley, 2018-10-16)
      An environmental management system (EMS) is an instrument that can help organizations to manage and positively improve their level of impact on the environment. This chapter provides an overview of the importance for organizations to have an established EMS in place. It employs a series of infamous case studies to highlight where an EMS could have served as a useful means of mitigating pollution events. The chapter identifies a number of organizational benefits of implementing an EMS. All businesses face a challenge in terms of their environmental impacts; environmental work is not just a concern for multinational organizations, which is sometimes how it is viewed. The chapter describes some of the well known pollution incidents and how they were managed. Some of these impacts were mitigated through the use of legislation.
    • Spatio-temporal dynamics and aetiology of proliferative leg skin lesions in wild British finches

      Lawson, Becki; Robinson, Robert A.; Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; John, Shinto K.; Benitez, Laura; Tolf, Conny; Risely, Kate; Toms, Mike P.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Williams, Richard; et al. (Nature Publiching Group, 2018-10-10)
      Proliferative leg skin lesions have been described in wild finches in Europe although there have been no large-scale studies of their aetiology or epizootiology to date. Firstly, disease surveillance, utilising public reporting of observations of live wild finches was conducted in Great Britain (GB) and showed proliferative leg skin lesions in chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs) to be widespread. Seasonal variation was observed, with a peak during the winter months. Secondly, pathological investigations were performed on a sample of 39 chaffinches, four bullfinches (Pyrrhula pyrrhula), one greenfinch (Chloris chloris) and one goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis) with proliferative leg skin lesions and detected Cnemidocoptes sp. mites in 91% (41/45) of affected finches and from all species examined. Fringilla coelebs papillomavirus (FcPV1) PCR was positive in 74% (23/31) of birds tested: a 394 base pair sequence was derived from 20 of these birds, from all examined species, with 100% identity to reference genomes. Both mites and FcPV1 DNA were detected in 71% (20/28) of birds tested for both pathogens. Histopathological examination of lesions did not discriminate the relative importance of mite or FcPV1 infection as their cause. Development of techniques to localise FcPV1 within lesions is required to elucidate the pathological significance of FcPV1 DNA detection.
    • Impacts of lagoon opening and implications for coastal management: case study from Muni-Pomadze lagoon, Ghana

      Davies-Vollum, K. Siân; Zhang, Zihao; Agyekumhene, Andrews; University of Derby; University of Virginia; Wildlife Division (Forestry Commission)Winneba,Ghana (Springer, 2018-09-18)
      Lagoon-barrier systems are a dynamic coastal environment. When an ephemeral connection between a lagoon and the ocean develops, it has significant impact on hydrology, sedimentology and ecology. Increasingly, human actions and sea level rise also influence lagoons with the potential to increase their connectivity with the ocean. TheMuni-Pomadze lagoon in central Ghana is a small lagoon-barrier system that is intermittently open to the ocean. Following opening in 2014 the lagoon was open to the ocean for more than two years. Causes for the unusually long period of lagoon opening are unclear although human intrevention has played a role. Field observation, digital mapping and GIS analysis of the shoreline during the two year period of lagoon opening has enabled an understanding of how the lagoon-ocean connection has impacted coastal morphology, erosion and sedimentation. Opening has resulted in rapid changes to the location of the barrier breaching (tidal inlet), erosion on the barrier and sedimentation in the lagoon. Such modifications have implications for local resources and ecosystem services that underpin the livelihood and wellbeing of local communities. Elucidating how a connection to the ocean impacts lagoons and the coastal communities they support are important to managing lagoons not only in Ghana but across West Africa.
    • Plant species or flower colour diversity? Identifying the drivers of public and invertebrate response to designed annual meadows.

      Hoyle, Helen; Norton, Briony, A.; Dunnett, Nigel; Richards, J. Paul; Russell, Jean M.; Warren, Philip H.; University of Sheffield (Elsevier, 2018-09-01)
      There is increasing evidence of the benefits of introducing urban meadows as an alternative to amenity mown grass in public greenspaces, both for biodiversity, and human wellbeing. Developing a better understanding of the meadow characteristics driving human and wildlife response is therefore critical. We addressed this by assessing public and invertebrate response to eight different annual meadow mixes defined by two levels of plant species diversity and two levels of colour diversity, sown in an urban park in Luton, UK, in April 2015. On-site questionnaires with the visiting public were conducted in July, August and September 2015. Invertebrate responses were assessed via contemporaneous visual surveys and one sweep net survey (August 2015). Flower colour diversity had effects on human aesthetic response and the response of pollinators such as bumblebees and hoverflies. Plant species diversity, however, was not a driver of human response with evidence that people used colour diversity as a cue to assessing species diversity. Plant species diversity did affect some invertebrates, with higher abundances of certain taxa in low species diversity meadows. Our findings indicate that if the priority for sown meadows is to maximise human aesthetic enjoyment and the abundance and diversity of observable invertebrates, particularly pollinators, managers of urban green infrastructure should prioritise high flower colour diversity mixes over those of high plant species diversity. Incorporating late-flowering non-native species such as Coreopsis tinctoria (plains coreopsis) can prolong the attractiveness of the meadows for people and availability of resources for pollinators and would therefore be beneficial.
    • Evidence for basement reactivation during the opening of the Labrador sea from the Makkovik province, Labrador, Canada: insights from field data and numerical models

      Peace, Alexander; Dempsey, Edward; Schiffer, Christian; Welford, J.; McCaffrey, Ken; Imber, Jonathan; Phethean, Jordan; Durham University; Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada; University of Hull; et al. (MDPI AG, 2018-08-20)
      The onshore exposures adjacent to modern, offshore passive continental margins may preserve evidence of deformation from the pre-, syn-, and post-rift phases of continental breakup that allow us to investigate the processes associated with and controlling rifting and breakup. Here, we characterize onshore brittle deformation and pre-rift basement metamorphic mineral fabric from onshore Labrador in Eastern Canada in the Palaeoproterozoic Aillik Domain of the Makkovik Province. Stress inversion (1) was applied to these data and then compared to (2) numerical models of hybrid slip and dilation tendency, (3) independent calculations of the regional geopotential stress field, and (4) analyses of palaeo-stress in proximal regions from previous work. The stress inversion shows well-constrained extensional deformation perpendicular to the passive margin, likely related to pre-breakup rifting in the proto-Labrador Sea. Hybrid slip and dilatation analysis indicates that inherited basement structures were likely oriented in a favorable orientation to be reactivated during rifting. Reconstructed geopotential stresses illuminate changes of the ambient stress field over time and confirm the present paleo-stress estimates. The new results and numerical models provide a consistent picture of the late Mesozoic-Cenozoic lithospheric stress field evolution in the Labrador Sea region. The proto-Labrador Sea region was characterized by a persistent E–W (coast-perpendicular) extensional stress regime, which we interpret as the pre-breakup continental rifting that finally led to continental breakup. Later, the ridge push of the Labrador Sea spreading ridge maintained this general direction of extension. We see indications for anti-clockwise rotation of the direction of extension along some of the passive margins. However, extreme persistent N–S-oriented extension as indicated by studies further north in West Greenland cannot be confirmed.
    • Endemicity and climatic niche differentiation in three marine ciliated protists

      Williams, Richard; Owens, Hannah L; Clamp, John; Peterson, A Townsend; Warren, Alan; Martin-Cereceda, Mercedes; Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems, Linnaeus University, SE-391 82, Kalmar, Sweden; Biodiversity Institute, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA; Department of Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolution, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040, Madrid, Spain; Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA; et al. (Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO), 2018-07-18)
      The biogeographic pattern of single‐celled eukaryotes (protists), including ciliates, is poorly understood. Most marine species are believed to have a relatively high dispersal potential, such that both globally distributed and geographically isolated taxa exist. Primary occurrence data for three large, easily identified ciliate species, Parafavella gigantea, Schmidingerella serrata, and Zoothamnium pelagicum, and environmental data drawn from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's World Ocean Atlas were used to estimate each species’ spatial and environmental distributions using Maxent v3.3.3k. The predictive power of the models was tested with a series of spatial stratification studies, which were evaluated using partial receiver operating characteristic (ROC) statistics. Differences between niches occupied by each taxon were evaluated using background similarity tests. All predictions showed significant ability to anticipate test points. The null hypotheses of niche similarity were rejected in all background similarity tests comparing the niches among the three species. This article provides the first quantitative assessment of environmental conditions associated with three species of ciliates and a first estimate of their spatial distributions in the North Atlantic, which can serve as a benchmark against which to document distributional shifts. These species follow consistent, predictable patterns related to climate and environmental biochemistry; the importance of climatic conditions as regards protist distributions is noteworthy considering the effects of global climate change.