• Xenin-25[Lys(13)PAL]: a novel long-acting acylated analogue of xenin-25 with promising antidiabetic potential

      Gault, Victor A.; Martin, Christine M.; Flatt, Peter R.; Parthsarathy, Vadivel; Irwin, Nigel (Springer, 2015-06-01)
      AIMS: Xenin-25 is co-secreted with glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) from intestinal K-cells following a meal. Xenin-25 is believed to play a key role in glucose homoeostasis and potentiate the insulinotropic effect of GIP.METHODS: This study investigated the effects of sub-chronic administration of the stable and longer-acting xenin-25 analogue, xenin-25[Lys(13)PAL] (25 nmol/kg), in diabetic mice fed with a high-fat diet.RESULTS: Initial studies confirmed the significant persistent glucose-lowering (p < 0.05) and insulin-releasing (p < 0.05) actions of xenin-25[Lys(13)PAL] compared with native xenin-25. Interestingly, xenin-25 retained significant glucose-lowering activity in GIP receptor knockout mice. Twice-daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of xenin-25[Lys(13)PAL] for 14 days had no significant effect on food intake or body weight in high-fat-fed mice. Non-fasting glucose and insulin levels were also unchanged, but overall glucose levels during an i.p. glucose tolerance and oral nutrient challenge were significantly (p < 0.05) lowered by xenin-25[Lys(13)PAL] treatment. These changes were accompanied by significant improvements in i.p. (p < 0.05) and oral (p < 0.001) nutrient-stimulated insulin concentrations. No appreciable changes in insulin sensitivity were observed between xenin-25[Lys(13)PAL] and saline-treated high-fat mice. However, xenin-25[Lys(13)PAL] treatment restored notable sensitivity to the biological actions of exogenous GIP injection. Consumption of O2, production of CO2, respiratory exchange ratio and energy expenditure were not altered by 14-day twice-daily treatment with xenin-25[Lys(13)PAL]. In contrast, ambulatory activity was significantly (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001) increased during the dark phase in xenin-25[Lys(13)PAL] mice compared with high-fat controls.
    • Xestospongia testudinaria nighttime mass spawning observation in Indonesia.

      RÖTHIG, Till; VOOLSTRA, Christian R; King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST); Red Sea Research Center, Division of Biological and Environmental Science and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology; Red Sea Research Center, Division of Biological and Environmental Science and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (The Japanese Coral Reef Society, 2016-10-13)
    • Yaoundé-like virus in resident wild bird, Ghana

      Williams, Richard; Vázquez, Ana; Asante, Ivy; Bonney, Kofi; Odoom, Shirley; Puplampu, Naiki; Ampofo, William; Sánchez-Seco, María Paz; Tenorio, Antonio; Peterson, A. Townsend; et al. (Academic journals, 2012-03-09)
      Tissue and swab samples from 551 wild birds collected in Ghana (October-November 2007) were assayed for alphaviruses, flaviviruses, and influenza A viruses using polymerase chain (PCR) techniques. One pool sample tested positive for Flavivirus RNA; further testing revealed that the amplified sequence was Yaoundé virus (YAOV), or closely related to it. YAOV is an apparently rare Flavivirus closely related to medically important human pathogens Japanese Encephalitis virus and West Nile virus. It is known only from West Africa. This is the first detection from Ghana, and only the second detection from a bird. Samples were negative for alphaviruses and Influenza A virus.
    • Year-long monitoring of physico-chemical and biological variables provide a comparative baseline of coral reef functioning in the central Red Sea.

      Roik, Anna; Röthig, Till; Roder, Cornelia; Ziegler, Maren; Kremb, Stephan G.; Voolstra, Christian R.; King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (2016-11-09)
    • 'Yellow syndrome' in scleractinian corals throughout Bintan Riau District, Kepulauan Province, Indonesia.

      Johan, Ofri; Budianto, Agus; Sweet, Michael J.; Research Institute for Ornamental Fish Culture; Research Center for Oceonography-Indonesian Institute for Science; University of Derby (Center for Fisheries Research and Development, 2017-06)
      Coral disease surveys were conducted in Bintan, Kepulauan Riau Province. The purpose was to identify the abundance of corals showing signs of Yellow Syndrome (YS) disease and to describe similar pathological signs to that of AYBD throughout Bintan District. Three belt transects (2 m x 50 m in size) were set up to determine the abundance of coral reef attacked by YS disease. Line intercept transects were used to determine the percentage of live corals in the surveyed areas. The survey showed that the YS disease syndrome attacked 8 different genera i.e. Acropora, Montipora, Porites, Pavona, Turbinaria, Favia, Platygyra, and Favites. The highest attack happened at Mapur Island (0.06 kol/m2 ) on Porites lutea, Turbinaria peltata, T. mesenterina, Acropora bruggemanni, and Pavona frondifera. The survey also indicated that there may have been at least two types of YS i.e. the first type caused by a boring and/or over-growing sponge species and the second type caused by a kind of pathogenic microbe. Regardless the causal agent of YS, the severity of YS attack on coral urged immediate action to be undertaken and should include initial microscopic and histology examinations. Based on this initial microscopic and histology examinations it was found out that YS bears a close resemblance to the Arabian Yellow Band Disease. This study, however, argued that the word “disease” may have been incorrectly used without identifying a specific causal agent.
    • Zircon geochronological and geochemical insights into pluton building and volcanic-hypabyssal-plutonic connections: Oki-Dōzen, Sea of Japan - a complex intraplate alkaline volcano

      Scarrow, Jane; Chamberlain, Katy J.; Montero, Pilar; Horstwood, Matthew S.A.; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Tamura, Yoshihiko; Chang, Qing; Barclay, Jenni; University of Granada, Campus Fuentenueva, Granada, Spain; University of East Anglia; et al. (Mineralogical Society of America, 2021)
      The relationship between plutonic and volcanic components of magmatic plumbing systems continues to be a question of intense debate. The Oki-Dōzen Islands, Sea of Japan, preserve outcrops of temporally-associated plutonic, hypabyssal and volcanic rocks. Juxtaposition of these, by post-intrusion uplift, placed Miocene syenites in inferred faulted contact with volcanic trachytes that are cut by rhyolite hypabyssal dikes. This provides a window deep into the timing and origins of magma storage architecture and dynamics. Our aim is to determine what the age and composition of zircon, which is ubiquitous in all samples, can reveal about the plutonic-volcanic connection. Here we show magma source characteristics are recorded in zircon Hf isotopes whereas, in addition to source composition, differentiation processes - assimilation of heterogeneous hydrothermally altered crust and extensive fractional crystallization - are preserved in zircon O isotopes and trace elements, respectively. Combined with new U-Th-Pb SHRIMP zircon ages, 6.4–5.7 Ma, the compositional data show pluton formation was by protracted amalgamation of discrete magma pulses. The rhyolite dike preserves an evolved fraction segregated from these. Synchronous with plutonism was volcanic eruption of trachyte magma derived from the same source, but apparently stalled at a relatively shallow depth. Stalling occurred at least above the zone of amphibole stability since amphibole-compatible Sc and Ti were not depleted in the trachyte melt - resulting in elevated values of these in the volcanic, compared to the plutonic, zircon. Identifying smaller episodic magma pulses in a larger magmatic complex places constraints on potential magma fluxes and eruptible volumes. Distinct from high-flux, large volume, plume-related ocean islands with extensive vertically distributed multi-stage magmatic reservoirs or subduction-related transcrustal magma reservoirs, Oki-Dōzen was a low-flux system with incremental pluton growth and small- to moderate-scale eruptions.