• 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy investigations of iron oxidation states in the Harmattan dust nutrient contribution to West African soils

      Adetunji, Jacob; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2014-09-09)
      A variety of investigations have been carried out on Harmattan dust over many decades demonstrating the continuing importance of the Harmattan dust phenomenon. The investigations have included elemental enrichment factors, mineralogical nutrient input through dust deposition on the soil, meteorological studies, etc. Harmattan dust is important, not only for its impact on radio communication and low visibility in the shipping lanes over the Atlantic, but also on the livelihood and health of people living in countries over which the dust-laden Harmattan wind blows. However, so far, the aspect of nutrient mineral deposition on the soil has not been thoroughly investigated and requires attention, since the majority of people living in West Africa rely heavily on agriculture. It is therefore relevant to know the useful nutrients in the Harmattan dust deposited on soils of the region. This study is therefore aimed at determining the ferric-ferrous ratio of the iron-bearing minerals contained in the Harmattan dust, so their nutritional contribution can be considered. The Mössbauer technique is a powerful tool for studying the ferric-ferrous ratio and has therefore been used, for the first time, to determine the oxidation states of iron in the dust samples. The results of the analysis show that the Harmattan dust is seriously deficient in ferrous iron, which is the more soluble Fe-ion, needed in the soil for healthy crops and plants in general.
    • A cyclin-binding motif in human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV18) E1^E4 is necessary for association with CDK–cyclin complexes and G2/M cell cycle arrest of keratinocytes, but is not required for differentiation-dependent viral genome amplification or L1 capsid protein expression

      Knight, Gillian L.; Pugh, Alice G.; Yates, Emma; Bell, Ian; Wilson, Regina; Moody, Cary A.; Laimins, Laimonis A.; Roberts, Sally (2013-03-20)
      The G2/M arrest function of human papillomavirus (HPV) E4 proteins is hypothesized to be necessary for viral genome amplification. Full-length HPV18 E1^E4 protein is essential for efficient viral genome amplification. Here we identify key determinants within a CDK-bipartite consensus recognition motif in HPV18 E1^E4 that are critical for association with active CDK–cyclin complexes and in vitro phosphorylation at the predicted CDK phosphorylation site (threonine 23). The optimal cyclin-binding sequence (43RRLL46) within this E4 motif is required for G2/M arrest of primary keratinocytes and correlates with cytoplasmic retention of cyclin B1, but not cyclin A. Disruption of this motif in the E4 ORF of HPV18 genomes, and the subsequent generation of stable cell lines in primary keratinocytes revealed that this motif was not essential for viral genome amplification or L1 capsid protein induction. We conclude that the HPV18 E4 G2/M arrest function does not play a role in early vegetative events.
    • A novel chemically modified analogue of xenin-25 exhibits improved glucose-lowering and insulin-releasing properties.

      Parthsarathy, Vadivel; Irwin, Nigel; Hasib, Annie; Martin, Christine M.; McClean, Stephen; Bhat, Vikas K.; NG, Ming T.; Flatt, Peter R.; Gault, Victor A. (Elsevier, 2016-01-21)
      BACKGROUND: Xenin-25 is a K-cell derived gut peptide with insulin-releasing activity which is rapidly degraded following release into the circulation. We hypothesized that substitution of all naturally-occurring Lys and Arg residues with Gln would lead to prolonged enzyme resistance and enhanced biological efficacy.METHODS: Peptide stability was assessed using murine plasma, in vitro insulin-releasing actions evaluated in BRIN-BD11 cells and acute glucose-lowering and insulin-releasing actions examined in high fat fed mice. For sub-chronic studies, a range of metabolic parameters and pancreatic histology were assessed in high fat fed mice which had received saline vehicle or xenin-25(gln) twice-daily for 21days.RESULTS: In contrast to native xenin-25, xenin-25(gln) was resistant to plasma-mediated degradation and significantly stimulated insulin secretion in BRIN-BD11 cells. Acute administration of xenin-25(gln) in high fat fed mice significantly reduced blood glucose and increased plasma insulin concentrations. Twice-daily administration of xenin-25(gln) in high fat fed mice did not affect food intake, body weight or circulating insulin concentrations but significantly decreased blood glucose from day 9 onwards. Furthermore, glucose tolerance, glucose-mediated insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and GIP-stimulated insulin-release were significantly enhanced in xenin-25(gln)-treated mice. Pancreatic immunohistochemistry revealed decreased alpha cell area with increased beta cell area and beta-to-alpha cell ratio in xenin-25(gln)-treated mice. In addition, xenin-25(gln) exerted similar beneficial actions in ob/ob mice as demonstrated by reduced blood glucose, superior glycaemic response and glucose-mediated insulin release.CONCLUSIONS: Xenin-25(gln) is resistant to plasma-mediated degradation and exerts sustained and beneficial metabolic actions in high fat fed and ob/ob mice.GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: Glutamine (gln)-modified analogues of xenin may represent an attractive therapeutic approach for type 2 diabetes.
    • Acylated apelin-13 amide analogues exhibit enzyme resistance and prolonged insulin releasing, glucose lowering and anorexic properties

      O'Harte, Finbarr P. M.; Parthsarathy, Vadivel; Hogg, Christopher; Flatt, Peter R. (Elsevier, 2017-10-04)
      The adipokine, apelin has many biological functions but its activity is curtailed by rapid plasma degradation. Fatty acid derived apelin analogues represent a new and exciting avenue for the treatment of obesity-diabetes. This study explores four novel fatty acid modified apelin-13 analogues, namely, (Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide, pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide, Lys8GluPAL(Tyr13)apelin-13 and Lys8GluPAL(Val13)apelin-13. Fatty acid modification extended the half-life of native apelin-13 to >24 h in vitro. pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide was the most potent insulinotropic analogue in BRIN-BD11 cells and isolated islets with maximal stimulatory effects of up to 2.7-fold (p < .001). (Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide (1.9-fold) and Lys8GluPAL(Tyr13)apelin-13 (1.7-fold) were less effective, whereas Lys8GluPAL(Val13)apelin-13 had an inhibitory effect on insulin secretion. Similarly, pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide was most potent in increasing beta-cell intracellular Ca2+ concentrations (1.8-fold, p < .001) and increasing glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes (2.3-fold, p < .01). Persistent biological action was observed with both pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide and (Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide significantly reducing blood glucose (39–43%, p < .01) and enhancing insulin secretion (43–56%, p < .001) during glucose tolerance tests in diet-induced obese mice. pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide and (Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide also inhibited feeding (28–40%, p < .001), whereas Lys8GluPAL(Val13)apelin-13 increased food intake (8%, p < .05) in mice. These data indicate that novel enzymatically stable analogues of apelin-13 may be suitable for future development as therapeutic agents for obesity-diabetes.
    • All that Glisters is not Gold: Sensory Bias, Sexual Conflict and Nuptial Feeding in Insects and Spiders

      Vahed, Karim; University of Derby (Wiley, 2007-02)
      It is becoming increasingly clear that the evolutionary interests of the sexes are often in conflict when it comes to mating. Sexual encounters involving nuptial gifts, however, have often been viewed as prime examples of sexual co-operation, rather than conflict. In this review, I explore the proposition that nuptial gifts act as sensory traps: by exploiting the female's gustatory responses, the male may be able to entice females to accept superfluous matings and/or transfer greater volumes of ejaculate than are in the female's reproductive interests. Evidence suggests that the females' sensory biases may have played an important role in shaping gift characteristics in at least four different systems, although relatively few forms of nuptial feeding have so far been examined from this perspective. I argue that gift composition is more likely to be tailored to increasing the attractiveness of the gift to the female and/or maximizing gift handling time than to suit the female's nutritional needs and that the fecundity-enhancing benefits of nuptial gifts are often questionable and have been over-stated in the literature. Fertilization biases associated with the female's attraction to the nuptial gift, however, could lead to in-direct benefits for the female. On the other hand, nuptial feeding may also lead to significant costs to the female. Evidence suggests that some types of gift entice the female to mate, but it is not clear whether the resultant degree of polyandry is higher than optimal for the female. In other cases, evidence suggests that the gift enables the male to overcome the resistance of the female to accepting an extra large ejaculate and that large ejaculates are associated with longer post-mating sexual refractory periods in the female. This could represent a cost to the female by delaying or preventing her from receiving the genetic benefits of polyandry. At present, it is not clear, however, whether such costs outweigh the potential benefits of nuptial feeding for the female.
    • An enzymatically stable GIP/xenin hybrid peptide restores GIP sensitivity, enhances beta cell function and improves glucose homeostasis in high-fat-fed mice

      Hasib, Annie; Ng, Tony; Gault, Victor A.; Khan, Dawood; Parthsarathy, Vadivel; Flatt, Peter; Irwin, Nigel (Springer, 2017-03-01)
      AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and xenin, regulatory gut hormones secreted from enteroendocrine K cells, exert important effects on metabolism. In addition, xenin potentiates the biological actions of GIP. The present study assessed the actions and therapeutic utility of a (DAla2)GIP/xenin-8-Gln hybrid peptide, in comparison with the parent peptides (DAla2)GIP and xenin-8-Gln.METHODS: Following confirmation of enzymatic stability, insulin secretory activity of (DAla2)GIP/xenin-8-Gln was assessed in BRIN-BD11 beta cells. Acute and persistent glucose-lowering and insulin-releasing effects were then examined in vivo. Finally, the metabolic benefits of twice daily injection of (DAla2)GIP/xenin-8-Gln was determined in high-fat-fed mice.RESULTS: All peptides significantly (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001) enhanced in vitro insulin secretion from pancreatic clonal BRIN-BD11 cells, with xenin (and particularly GIP)-related signalling pathways, being important for this action. Administration of (DAla2)GIP or (DAla2)GIP/xenin-8-Gln in combination with glucose significantly (p < 0.05) lowered blood glucose and increased plasma insulin in mice, with a protracted response of up to 4 h. All treatments elicited appetite-suppressive effects (p < 0.05), particularly (DAla2)GIP/xenin-8-Gln and xenin-8-Gln at elevated doses of 250 nmol/kg. Twice-daily administration of (DAla2)GIP/xenin-8-Gln or (DAla2)GIP for 21 days to high-fat-fed mice returned circulating blood glucose to lean control levels. In addition, (DAla2)GIP/xenin-8-Gln treatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced glycaemic levels during a 24 h glucose profile assessment. Neither of the treatment regimens had an effect on body weight, energy intake or circulating insulin concentrations. However, insulin sensitivity was significantly (p < 0.001) improved by both treatments. Interestingly, GIP-mediated glucose-lowering (p < 0.05) and insulin-releasing (p < 0.05 to p < 0.01) effects were substantially improved by (DAla2)GIP and (DAla2)GIP/xenin-8-Gln treatment. Pancreatic islet and beta cell area (p < 0.001), as well as pancreatic insulin content (p < 0.05), were augmented in (DAla2)GIP/xenin-8-Gln-treated mice, related to enhanced proliferation and decreased apoptosis of beta cells, whereas (DAla2)GIP evoked increases (p < 0.05 to p < 0.01) in islet number.CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These studies highlight the clear potential of GIP/xenin hybrids for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
    • Analogue Modeling of Plate Rotation Effects in Transform Margins and Rift‐Transform Intersections

      Farangitakis, Georgios-Pavlos; Sokoutis, D; McCaffrey, Kenneth; Willingshofer , Ernst; Kalnins, Lara; Phethean, Jordan; van Hunen, Jeroen; van steen, V; University of Durham; University of Oslo; et al. (Wiley, 2019-01-29)
      Transform margins are first‐order tectonic features that accommodate oceanic spreading. Uncertainties remain about their evolution, genetic relationship to oceanic spreading, and general structural character. When the relative motion of the plates changes during the margin evolution, further structural complexity is added. This work investigates the evolution of transform margins and associated rift‐transform intersections, using an analogue modeling approach that simulates changing plate motions. We investigate the effects of different crustal rheologies by using either (a) a two‐layer brittle‐ductile configuration to simulate upper and lower continental crust, or (b) a single layer brittle configuration to simulate oceanic crust. The modeled rifting is initially orthogonal, followed by an imposed plate vector change of 7° that results in oblique rifting and plate overlap (transpression) or underlap (transtension) along each transform margin. This oblique deformation reactivates and overprints earlier orthogonal structures and is representative of natural examples. We find that (a) a transtensional shift in the plate direction produces a large strike‐slip principal displacement zone, accompanied by en‐echelon oblique‐normal faults that accommodate the horizontal displacement until the new plate motion vector is stabilized, while (b) a transpressional shift produces compressional structures such as thrust fronts in a triangular zone in the area of overlap. These observations are in good agreement with natural examples from the Gulf of California (transtensional) and Tanzania Coastal Basin (transpressional) shear margins and illustrate that when these deformation patterns are present, a component of plate vector change should be considered in the evolution of transform margins.
    • Analyses of least cost paths for determining effects of habitat types on landscape permeability: wolves in Poland

      Huck, Maren; Jędrzejewski, Włodzimierz; Borowik, Tomasz; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła; Nowak, Sabina; Mysłajek, Robert W.; Mammal Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences; Association for Nature "Wolf" (Springer, 2011)
      Determining ecological corridors is crucial for conservation efforts in fragmented habitats. Commonly employed least cost path (LCP) analysis relies on the underlying cost matrix. By using Ecological Niche Factor Analysis, we minimized the problems connected with subjective cost assessment or the use of presence/absence data. We used data on the wolf presence/absence in Poland to identify LCPs connecting patches of suitable wolf habitat, factors that influence patch occupancy, and compare LCPs between different genetic subpopulations. We found that a lower proportion of cities and roads surrounds the most densely populated patches. Least cost paths between areas where little dispersal takes place (i.e., leading to unpopulated patches or between different genetic subpopulations) ran through a higher proportion of roads and human settlements. They also crossed larger maximal distances over deforested areas. We propose that, apart from supplying the basis for direct conservation efforts, LCPs can be used to determine what factors might facilitate or hinder dispersal by comparing different subsets of LCPs. The methods employed can be widely applicable to gain more in-depth information on potential dispersal barriers for large carnivores.
    • Anti-predation strategy, growth rate and extinction amongst Pliocene scallops of the US eastern seaboard

      Johnson, Andrew L. A.; Valentine, Annemarie; Leng, Melanie J.; Sloane, Hilary J.; Schoene, Bernd; Surge, Donna; University of Derby; University of Loughborough; British Geological Survey; University of Mainz; et al. (2017-06-29)
      Placopecten, Chesapecten and Carolinapecten are scallop genera occurring in the Pliocene of the US eastern seaboard. The first (extant) is a smooth, streamlined form, adept at escaping predators by swimming (‘flight’ strategy). The other two (extinct) are plicate forms. Plication facilitates a ‘resistance’ strategy towards predators which is benefited by large size and high shell thickness - maximally so if these states are achieved early in life. Oxygen isotope profiles show that in early ontogeny, Pliocene Placopecten grew at the same moderate rate as modern Placopecten. By contrast, Chesapecten grew as fast as the fastest-growing modern scallop and developed an unusually thick shell, while Carolinapecten grew substantially faster still, this probably enabled by high primary productivity. Extinction of these genera, and survival of Placopecten, can be attributed to a decline in productivity which prevented a maximally effective ‘resistance’ strategy towards predators but had no deleterious impact on a ‘flight’ strategy.
    • Anti-predation strategy, growth rate and extinction amongst Pliocene scallops of the US eastern seaboard

      Johnson, Andrew L. A.; Valentine, Annemarie; Leng, Melanie J.; Sloane, Hilary J.; Schoene, Bernd; Surge, Donna; University of Derby; University of Loughborough; British Geological Survey; University of Mainz; et al. (2017-07-07)
      Placopecten, Chesapecten and Carolinapecten are scallop (pectinid bivalve) genera occurring in the Pliocene of the US eastern seaboard. The first, present in the area today, is a smooth, streamlined form, adept at escaping predators by swimming (‘flight’ strategy). The other two, which are extinct, are plicate (‘ribbed’) forms. Plication facilitates a ‘resistance’ strategy towards predators which is benefited by large size and high shell thickness - maximally so if these states are achieved early in life. Oxygen isotope (δ18O) profiles show that early ontogenetic extensional growth in Pliocene Placopecten was at the same moderate rate as in modern Placopecten. By contrast, in Chesapecten it was as fast as in the fastest-growing modern scallop (c. 80 mm/annum), and accompanied by development of an unusually thick shell, while in Carolinapecten it was substantially faster still (<140 mm/annum). Rapid growth in Chesapecten and Carolinapecten may have been enabled by high primary productivity, which is indicated by the abundance, diversity and large size of co-occurring vertebrates. The extinction of Chesapecten and Carolinapecten, and the survival of Placopecten, can be attributed to a decline in primary productivity which prevented a maximally effective ‘resistance’ strategy towards predators but had no deleterious impact on a ‘flight’ strategy.
    • Anti-predation strategy, growth rate and extinction amongst Pliocene scallops of the US eastern seaboard

      Johnson, Andrew L. A.; Valentine, Annemarie; Leng, Melanie J.; Sloane, Hilary J.; Schöne, Bernd R.; Surge, Donna; University of Derby; University of Loughborough; British Geological Survey; University of Mainz; et al. (European Geosciences Union, 2017-04-28)
      Placopecten, Chesapecten and Carolinapecten are scallop (pectinid bivalve) genera occurring in the Pliocene of the US eastern seaboard. The first, present in the area today, is a smooth, streamlined form, adept at escaping predators by swimming (‘flight’ strategy). The other two, which are extinct, are plicate (‘ribbed’) forms. Plication facilitates a ‘resistance’ strategy towards predators which is benefited by large size and high shell thickness - maximally so if these states are achieved early in life. Oxygen isotope profiles show that early ontogenetic extensional growth in Pliocene Placopecten was at the same moderate rate as in modern Placopecten. By contrast, in Chesapecten it was as fast as in the fastest-growing modern scallop (c. 80 mm/annum), and accompanied by development of an unusually thick shell, while in Carolinapecten it was substantially faster still (<150 mm/annum). Rapid growth in Chesapecten and Carolinapecten was probably enabled by high primary productivity, for which there is evidence from sediment composition and the associated biota. The extinction of Chesapecten and Carolinapecten, and the survival of Placopecten, can be attributed to a decline in primary productivity which prevented a maximally effective ‘resistance’ strategy towards predators but had no deleterious impact on a ‘flight’ strategy.
    • Apelin-13 analogues show potent in vitro and in vivo insulinotropic and glucose lowering actions

      O'Harte, Finbarr P. M.; Parthsarathy, Vadivel; Hogg, Christopher; Flatt, Peter R. (Elsevier, 2018-02-03)
      Nine structurally modified apelin-13 analogues were assessed for their in vitro and acute in vivo antidiabetic potential. Stability was assessed in mouse plasma and insulinotropic efficacy tested in cultured pancreatic BRIN-BD11 cells and isolated mouse pancreatic islets. Intracellular Ca2+ and cAMP production in BRIN-BD11 cells was determined, as was glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Acute antihyperglycemic effects of apelin analogues were assessed following i.p. glucose tolerance tests (ipGGT, 18 mmol/kg) in normal and diet-induced-obese (DIO) mice and on food intake in normal mice. Apelin analogues all showed enhanced in vitro stability (up to 5.8-fold, t½ = 12.8 h) in mouse plasma compared to native apelin-13 (t½ = 2.1 h). Compared to glucose controls, stable analogues exhibited enhanced insulinotropic responses from BRIN-BD11 cells (up to 4.7-fold, p < 0.001) and isolated mouse islets (up to 5.3-fold) for 10−7 M apelin-13 amide (versus 7.6-fold for 10−7 M GLP-1). Activation of APJ receptors on BRIN-BD11 cells increased intracellular Ca2+ (up to 3.0-fold, p < 0.001) and cAMP (up to 1.7-fold, p < 0.01). Acute ipGTT showed improved insulinotropic and glucose disposal responses in normal and DIO mice (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). Apelin-13 amide and (pGlu)apelin-13 amide were the most effective analogues exhibiting acute, dose-dependent and persistent biological actions. Both analogues stimulated insulin-independent glucose uptake by differentiated adipocytes (2.9 to –3.3-fold, p < 0.05) and inhibited food intake (26-–33%, p < 0.001), up to 180 min in mice, versus saline. In contrast, (Ala13)apelin-13 and (Val13)apelin-13 inhibited insulin secretion, suppressed beta-cell signal transduction and stimulated food intake in mice. Thus, stable analogues of apelin-13 have potential for diabetes/obesity therapy.
    • The application of games in higher education

      Robinson, Louise; University of Derby (Keele University, 2016-08-10)
    • Archaean chromitites show constant Fe 3+ /ΣFe in Earth's asthenospheric mantle since 3.8 Ga

      Rollinson, Hugh; Adetunji, Jacob; Lenaz, Davide; Szilas, Kristoffer; University of Derby; University of Trieste; Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (Elsevier, 2017-03-29)
      Theoretical and planetary studies show that the Earth’s upper mantle is more oxidised than it should be. The mechanism by which this took place and the timing of the oxidation is contested. Here we present new Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements of the ionic ratio Fe3+/(Fe3++Fe2+) in the mineral chromite hosted in mantle-derived melts to show that there is no change in mantle Fe3+/(Fe3++Fe2+) ratio before and after the oxidation of the Earth’s atmosphere at ca. 2.4 Ga and over Earth history from 3.8 Ga to 95 Ma. Our finding supports the view that the oxidation of the asthenospheric mantle was very early and that the oxygenation of the Earth’s atmosphere was not directly coupled to mantle processes.
    • Archaean crustal evolution in West Africa: A new synthesis of the Archaean geology in Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea and Ivory Coast

      Rollinson, Hugh; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2016-05-12)
      A new synthesis of the geology and geochronology of the little-known Archaean rocks in Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea and Ivory Coast is presented in order to better understand the processes of Archaean crustal evolution in this region, and to attempt to interpret these data in the light of our current understanding of Archaean crustal evolution. In addition, this study seeks to identify those aspects of Archaean crustal evolution which are currently not known in this area and which need to become the subject of future studies, given the economic importance of this region in terms of the mineral deposits hosted in the Archaean rocks. These include greenstone-belt hosted iron ore, lode gold, chromite and columbite-tantalite and younger diamondiferous kimberlites intrusive into Archaean felsic gneisses. The new results show that this cratonic nucleus comprises of four main geological units: 1. The oldest crust is made up of 3.5-3.6 Ga TTG (tonalite-trondjemite-granodiorite) gneisses. These only outcrop in the east of the craton in Guinea but their presence is indicated elsewhere in the central part of the craton though xenocrystic zircon cores in younger rocks. 2. The major rock type found throughout the craton is 3.26-2.85 Ga TTG gneiss. In detail these magmas are thought to have formed in two episodes one between 3.05-3.26 Ga and the other between 2.85-2.96 Ga. The presence of inherited zircons in the younger suite indicate that this event represents the partial reworking of the older gneisses. 3.4 Ga eclogite xenoliths in kimberlite derived from the sub-continental lithospheric mantle are thought to be the restite after the partial melting of a basaltic protolith in the production of the TTG magmas. 3. Supracrustal rocks form linear belts infolded into the TTG gneisses and metamorphosed to amphibolite and granulite grade. They are of different sizes, contain a variety of lithological sequences and may be of several different ages. The larger supracrustal belts in Sierra Leone contain a thick basalt-komatiite sequence derived by the partial melting of two different mantle sources, unconformably overlain by a sedimentary formation. They are seen as an important resource for gold, iron-ore, chromite and columbite-tantalite. 4. A suite of late Archaean granitoids formed by the partial melting of the TTG gneisses in a craton wide deformation-metamorphic-partial melting event at 2800 +/- 20 Ma. This thermal event is thought to be responsible for the stabilisation of the craton. This new synthesis highlights major geological and geochronological similarities between the Archaean rocks of Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea and Ivory Coast and those in the Reguibat Shield in the northern part of the West African Craton suggesting that the two regions were once more closely related.
    • Aspects of the behavioral and endocrine ontogeny of six moustached tamarins, Saguinus mystax (Callitrichinae)

      Huck, Maren; Löttker, Petra; Heymann, Eckhard W.; Heistermann, Michael; German Primate Centre (2004-12)
    • Assessing grey squirrel dispersal patterns within the landscape using sequence variation

      Stevenson, Claire D.; Ramsey, Andrew; Nevin, Owen T.; Sinclair, William; University of Cumbria (2012)
      The grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis is thought to have contributed to the decline of red squirrel S. vulgaris populations in the UK through resource competition and disease spread. This study used mtDNA sequencing to assess patterns of grey squirrel dispersal in the UK. Patterns of genetic variation within the dloop sequence were characterised for seven grey squirrel populations. Infiltration directions and potential barriers to dispersal are identified and discussed, with a focus on Cumbria, a county at the forefront of grey squirrel expansion. Understanding the dynamics of grey squirrel dispersal will aid their management at a landscape scale and enhance the conservation of red squirrels.
    • The assessment of dog barking noise from kennels

      Brosnan, Damian; Pritchard, John; University of Derby (Institute of Acoustics, 2016-05-01)
      In light of the plethora of guidance documents available for a wide range of noise sources and activities, the absence of a document specific to dog barking is unfortunate, and a glaring omission in the noise guidance library. In the absence of any existing guidance documents, approaches adopted by Noise Consultants and Local Authority EHOs in the British Isles are highly variable, and no emerging trends are readily apparent, apart from widespread misapplication of BS 4142:1997 when assessing impacts. Although the 2014 version of the standard specifically precludes application to domestic animal noise, several interviewed Consultants indicate that they intend to apply same due to the absence of any other guidance. All Consultants interviewed acknowledged the need for a kennel noise guidance document which will allow a consistent approach to be adopted by Consultants and planning authorities alike. Such a document might include guidance on measurement methodology, predictive modelling, noise limits, and advice on kennel design and noise management, and would benefit Planning Departments, Environmental Health personnel, kennel operators and Noise Consultants. It is considered that the derivation of suitable noise limits would require some element of social annoyance studies relating to barking noise, in order to identify (a) a suitable noise descriptor and (b) thresholds of annoyance. A barking noise guidance document may benefit from inclusion of an assessment methodology based on a specified number of barks to be measured, similar to the method set out in the CIEH clay target shooting guidance document.
    • Assessment of the microbial communities associated with white syndrome and brown jelly syndrome in aquarium corals

      Sweet, Michael J.; Craggs, Jamie; Robson, James; Bythell, John C. (2013)
      Bacterial and ciliate assemblages associated with aquarium corals displaying white syndrome (WS) and brown jelly syndrome (BJS) were investigated. Healthy (n = 10) and diseased corals (WS n = 18; BJS n = 3) were analysed for 16S rRNA gene bacterial diversity, total bacterial abundance and vibrio-specific 16S rRNA gene abundance. This was conducted alongside analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequenc-ing targeting ciliates, a group of organisms largely overlooked for their potential as causal agents of coral disease. Despite significant differences between healthy and diseased corals in their 16S rRNA gene bacterial diversity, total bacterial abundance and vibrio-specific rRNA gene abundance, no domi-nant bacterial ribotypes were found consistently within the diseased samples. In contrast, one ciliate morphotype, named Morph 3 in this study (GenBank Accession Numbers JF831358 for the ciliate isolated from WS and JF831359 for the ciliate isolated from BJS) was observed to burrow into and underneath the coral tissues at the disease lesion in both disease types and contained algal endosym-bionts indicative of coral tissue ingestion. This ciliate was observed in larger numbers in BJS compared to WS, giving rise to the characteristic jelly like substance in BJS. Morph 3 varied by only 1 bp over 549 bp from the recently described Morph 1 ciliate (GenBank Accession No. JN626268), which has been shown to be present in field samples of WS and Brown Band Disease (BrB) in the Indo-Pacific. This result indicates a close relationship between these aquarium diseases and those observed in the wild.
    • Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) co-product-derived protein hydrolysates: A source of antidiabetic peptides

      Harnedy, Pàdraigín A.; Parthsarathy, Vadivel; McLaughlin, Chris M.; O'Keeffe, Martina B.; Allsopp, Philip J.; McSorley, Emeir M.; O'Harte, Finbarr P. M.; FitzGerald, Richard J. (Elsevier, 2018-02-06)
      Large quantities of low-value protein rich co-products, such as salmon skin and trimmings, are generated annually. These co-products can be upgraded to high-value functional ingredients. The aim of this study was to assess the antidiabetic potential of salmon skin gelatin and trimmingderived protein hydrolysates in vitro. The gelatin hydrolysate generated with Alcalase 2.4L and Flavourzyme 500L exhibited significantly higher (p<0.001) insulin and GLP-1 secretory activity from pancreatic BRIN-BD11 and enteroendocrine GLUTag cells, respectively, when tested at 2.5 mg/mL compared to hydrolysates generated with Alcalase 2.4L or Promod 144MG. The gelatin hydrolysate generated with Alcalase 2.4L and Flavourzyme 500L showed significantly more potent (p<0.01) DPP-IV inhibitory activity than those generated with Alcalase 2.4L or Promod 144MG. No significant difference was observed in the insulinotropic activity mediated by any of the trimming-derived hydrolysates when tested at 2.5 mg/mL. However, the trimmings hydrolysate generated with Alcalase 2.4L and Flavourzyme 500L exhibited significantly higher DPP-IV inhibitory (p<0.05:Alcalase 2.4L and p<0.01:Promod 144MG) and GLP-1 (p<0.001, 2.5 mg/mL) secretory activity than those generated with Alcalase 2.4L or Promod 144MG. The salmon trimmings hydrolysate generated with Alcalase 2.4L and Flavourzyme 500L when subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) was shown to retain its GLP-1 secretory and DPP-IV inhibitory activities, in addition to improving its insulin secretory activity. However, the gelatin hydrolysate generated with Alcalase 2.4L and Flavourzyme 500L was shown to lose GLP-1 secretory activity following SGID. A significant increase in membrane potential (p<0.001) and intracellular calcium (p<0.001) by both co-product hydrolysates generated with Alcalase 2.4L and Flavourzyme 500L suggest that both hydrolysates mediate their insulinotropic activity through the KATP channel-dependent pathway. Additionally, by stimulating a significant increase in intracellular cAMP release (p<0.05) it is likely that the trimming-derived hydrolysate may also mediate insulin secretion through the protein kinase A pathway. The results presented herein demonstrate that salmon co-product hydrolysates exhibit promising in vitro antidiabetic activity.