• Acylated apelin-13 amide analogues exhibit enzyme resistance and prolonged insulin releasing, glucose lowering and anorexic properties

      O'Harte, Finbarr P. M.; Parthsarathy, Vadivel; Hogg, Christopher; Flatt, Peter R. (Elsevier, 2017-10-04)
      The adipokine, apelin has many biological functions but its activity is curtailed by rapid plasma degradation. Fatty acid derived apelin analogues represent a new and exciting avenue for the treatment of obesity-diabetes. This study explores four novel fatty acid modified apelin-13 analogues, namely, (Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide, pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide, Lys8GluPAL(Tyr13)apelin-13 and Lys8GluPAL(Val13)apelin-13. Fatty acid modification extended the half-life of native apelin-13 to >24 h in vitro. pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide was the most potent insulinotropic analogue in BRIN-BD11 cells and isolated islets with maximal stimulatory effects of up to 2.7-fold (p < .001). (Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide (1.9-fold) and Lys8GluPAL(Tyr13)apelin-13 (1.7-fold) were less effective, whereas Lys8GluPAL(Val13)apelin-13 had an inhibitory effect on insulin secretion. Similarly, pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide was most potent in increasing beta-cell intracellular Ca2+ concentrations (1.8-fold, p < .001) and increasing glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes (2.3-fold, p < .01). Persistent biological action was observed with both pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide and (Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide significantly reducing blood glucose (39–43%, p < .01) and enhancing insulin secretion (43–56%, p < .001) during glucose tolerance tests in diet-induced obese mice. pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide and (Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide also inhibited feeding (28–40%, p < .001), whereas Lys8GluPAL(Val13)apelin-13 increased food intake (8%, p < .05) in mice. These data indicate that novel enzymatically stable analogues of apelin-13 may be suitable for future development as therapeutic agents for obesity-diabetes.
    • Apelin-13 analogues show potent in vitro and in vivo insulinotropic and glucose lowering actions

      O'Harte, Finbarr P. M.; Parthsarathy, Vadivel; Hogg, Christopher; Flatt, Peter R. (Elsevier, 2018-02-03)
      Nine structurally modified apelin-13 analogues were assessed for their in vitro and acute in vivo antidiabetic potential. Stability was assessed in mouse plasma and insulinotropic efficacy tested in cultured pancreatic BRIN-BD11 cells and isolated mouse pancreatic islets. Intracellular Ca2+ and cAMP production in BRIN-BD11 cells was determined, as was glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Acute antihyperglycemic effects of apelin analogues were assessed following i.p. glucose tolerance tests (ipGGT, 18 mmol/kg) in normal and diet-induced-obese (DIO) mice and on food intake in normal mice. Apelin analogues all showed enhanced in vitro stability (up to 5.8-fold, t½ = 12.8 h) in mouse plasma compared to native apelin-13 (t½ = 2.1 h). Compared to glucose controls, stable analogues exhibited enhanced insulinotropic responses from BRIN-BD11 cells (up to 4.7-fold, p < 0.001) and isolated mouse islets (up to 5.3-fold) for 10−7 M apelin-13 amide (versus 7.6-fold for 10−7 M GLP-1). Activation of APJ receptors on BRIN-BD11 cells increased intracellular Ca2+ (up to 3.0-fold, p < 0.001) and cAMP (up to 1.7-fold, p < 0.01). Acute ipGTT showed improved insulinotropic and glucose disposal responses in normal and DIO mice (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). Apelin-13 amide and (pGlu)apelin-13 amide were the most effective analogues exhibiting acute, dose-dependent and persistent biological actions. Both analogues stimulated insulin-independent glucose uptake by differentiated adipocytes (2.9 to –3.3-fold, p < 0.05) and inhibited food intake (26-–33%, p < 0.001), up to 180 min in mice, versus saline. In contrast, (Ala13)apelin-13 and (Val13)apelin-13 inhibited insulin secretion, suppressed beta-cell signal transduction and stimulated food intake in mice. Thus, stable analogues of apelin-13 have potential for diabetes/obesity therapy.