• The African continental divide: Indian versus Atlantic Ocean spreading during Gondwana dispersal

      Peace, Alexander L.; Phethean, Jordan; McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; University of Derby (Geological Society of America, 2022-01-27)
      It is well established that plate-tectonic processes operate on a global scale and that spatially separate but temporally coincident events may be linked. However, identifying such links in the geological record and understanding the mechanisms involved remain speculative. This is particularly acute during major geodynamic events, such as the dispersal of supercontinents, where multiple axes of breakup may be present as well as coincidental collisional events. To explore this aspect of plate tectonics, we present a detailed analysis of the temporal variation in the mean half rate of seafloor spreading in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans, as well as plate-kinematic attributes extracted from global plate-tectonic models during the dispersal of Gondwana since ca. 200 Ma. Our analysis shows that during the ~20 m.y. prior to collision between India and Asia at ca. 55 Ma, there was an increase in the mean rate of seafloor spreading in the Indian Ocean. This manifests as India rapidly accelerating toward Asia. This event was then followed by a prompt deceleration in the mean rate of Indian Ocean seafloor spreading after India collided with Asia at ca. 55 Ma. Since inception, the mean rate of seafloor spreading in the Indian Ocean has been generally greater than that in the Atlantic Ocean, and the period of fastest mean half spreading rate in the Indian Ocean was coincident with a slowdown in mean half seafloor spreading rate in the competing Atlantic Ocean. We hypothesize that faster and hotter seafloor spreading in the Indian Ocean resulted in larger ridge-push forces, which were transmitted through the African plate, leading to a slowdown in Atlantic Ocean spreading. Following collision between India and Asia, and a slowdown of Indian Ocean spreading, Atlantic spreading rates consequently increased again. We conclude that the processes in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans have likely remained coupled throughout their existence, that their individual evolution has influenced each other, and that, more generally, spreading in one basin inevitably influences proximal regions. While we do not believe that ridge push is the main cause of plate motions, we consider it to have played a role in the coupling of the kinematic evolution of these oceans. The implication of this observation is that interaction and competition between nascent ocean basins and ridges during supercontinent dispersal exert a significant control on resultant continental configuration.
    • Nature Connectedness and Biophilic Design

      Richardson, Miles; Butler, Carly; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2021-11-26)
      Biophilic design involves creation of built environments that promote connection between humans and nature. While literature reviews show support for the psychological and health benefits of biophilic design, they note that the evidence base is heavily focused on the restorative efficacy of various natural elements (e.g., light, water, wood) and experiences (direct, indirect, space and place). There has been little consideration of Kellert and Calabrese’s (2015) key principles of biophilic design and the holistic approach to design that has nature connection at its heart. This perspective article discusses the biophilic design principles in light of research on the psychological construct of nature connectedness. The research offers empirical support for the importance of key biophilic design principles – the need for repeated and sustained engagement with nature, for encouraging an emotional attachment to settings and places, and for promoting interactions between people and nature that foster a greater sense of relationship and responsibility for human and natural communities. An evidence-based framework for application of biophilic principles and experiences into the design process is proposed. Recommendations for optimising the application and evaluation of biophilic design principles and practices are made, in order to support the wellbeing of humans and nature.
    • Can playing table-top role-play games help children learn?

      Turner, Ian; Morgan, Lewis; University of Derby (Association of Science Education, 2021-11)
    • Time to change the data culture in geochemistry

      Chamberlain, Katy J.; Lehnert, Kerstin; McIntosh, Iona; Morgan, Daniel J.; Worner, Gerhard; University of Derby; Columbia University; JAMSTEC; University of Leeds; Gottingen University (Nature Research, 2021-10-29)
      Geochemical data are vital for understanding Earth’s past, present and future. However, currently only a fraction of geochemical data are findable, accessible, interoperable and reusable, limiting their use in the broadest range of scientific studies. There is an urgent need for international coordination of geochemical data and methods to unlock their full research potential.
    • Environmental management systems in the architectural, engineering and construction sectors: a roadmap to aid the delivery of the sustainable development goals

      Horry, Rosemary; Booth, Colin; Mahamadu, Abdul-Majeed; Manu, Patrick; Georgakis, Panagiotis; University of Derby; University of the West of England; University of Manchester; University of the West of England (Springer Nature, 2021-10-24)
      Realisation of the sustainable development goals (SDGs) will provide improvements to people's lives and longevity of the planet. The architectural, engineering and construction (AEC) sectors have a potentially huge role in aiding the delivery of many SDGs; however, there appears to be a lack of research into the engagement within this sector. The leading environmental management system (EMS), ISO 14001, can enable organisations in the AEC sectors to improve their business operations, whilst minimising their impacts on the environment and improving society. Therefore, the study sets out to use institutional theory to determine the usefulness of ISO 14001 as a tool within the AEC sector and to demonstrate how the organisational benefits could facilitate the delivery of the SDGs. A stepwise PRISMA review process facilitated the compiling of academic articles and professional reports (n = 44), which enabled the creation of an inventory of the perceived benefits (n = 85) and the recognised barriers (n = 63) to implementing ISO 14001 across the AEC sectors. These barriers and benefits were confirmed by environmental practitioners as being relevant to the incorporation of an EMS. The most widely reported benefits within the AEC sectors were improving environmental performance and compliance with legislation. Lack of government pressure and lack of expertise were the most widely reported barriers, followed by cost to AEC organisations utilising an EMS. Following on from this inventory of benefits, it was possible to develop of a conceptual roadmap, which illustrates where linkages exist with the SDGs. SDG 4, 8, 12 and 13 are shown as exhibiting the most associations with the benefits. This roadmap was reviewed by AEC sector professionals who confirmed its usefulness. Therefore, it is surmised that the roadmap could aid strategic organisational sustainable planning or for organisations to demonstrate the delivery of their corporate social responsibilities.
    • Actively Noticing Nature (Not Just Time in Nature) Helps Promote Nature Connectedness

      Richardson, Miles; Hamlin, Iain; Butler, Carly; Thomas, Rory; Hunt, Alex; University of Derby; National Trust (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publishers, 2021-10-08)
      The climate and biodiversity crises reveal a failing human-nature relationship. The psychological construct of nature connectedness provides a means for understanding and improving that relationship. Furthermore, recent research suggests that higher levels of nature connectedness benefit both people and the environment, promoting pro-nature conservation actions, pro-environmental behaviours, and greater personal wellbeing. Nature connectedness is therefore emerging as a key target to improve human and nature’s wellbeing. Using data from a large national survey in the UK, the present research investigates how nature contact and noticing nature activities predict nature connectedness. Multiple regression analyses revealed that noticing nature, through activities that involve active sensory engagement with wildlife, explained levels of nature connectedness over and above simply spending time in nature. Moreover, the activities engaged in when in nature had differential effects on nature connectedness. Watching, listening to and photographing wildlife were significant predictors of nature connectedness, whereas studying nature, looking at scenery through windows, observing celestial phenomena and collecting shells and rocks were not. The results have implications for how best to improve nature connectedness, both in terms of how to design and improve greenspaces, and in terms of how to better engage the public with nature for a healthy and sustainable future.
    • Insights into Public Perceptions of Earthship Buildings as Alternative Homes

      Booth, Colin; Rashid, Sona; Mahamadu, Abdul-Majeed; Horry, Rosemary; Manu, Patrick; Awuah, Kwasi Gyau Baffour; Aboagye-Nimo, Emmanuel; Georgakis, Panagiotis; University of the West of England; University of Derby; et al. (MDPI, 2021-08-25)
      Sustainable futures necessitate a concomitant requirement for both sustainable buildings and sustainable behaviours under one roof. The defining principles behind Earthship buildings are to promote the use of local, recycled, waste, natural and renewable materials in their construction, for the adoption of a passive solar design for internal heating/cooling, collection of rainwater as a potable water supply, and encourage the onsite recycling of used water for plants to aid food production. However, despite growth in Earthship buildings constructed across many countries of the world, their appeal has not yet made a noticeable contribution to mainstream housing. Therefore, this study is the first to attempt to explore public perceptions towards the benefits and barriers of Earthship buildings as a means of understanding their demand by potential home builders/owners. Opinions were sought through questionnaire surveys completed by visitors to the Brighton Earthship building. Results reveal that the public believe that the reclamation of rainwater and greywater, renewable energy consumption and use of recycled materials included in the design/build are the major benefits of Earthship buildings, whilst the opportunity for a modern living style in a conservative lifestyle/setting, having a building that is cheaper than an ordinary home and the possibility of living totally off grid are considered the least beneficial reasons for building Earthship homes. Results also reveal that the public believe acquiring necessary permits/permissions to build may be more complicated, securing financial support (mortgage/loan) may be more challenging, and identifying/attaining suitable building plots are major barriers of Earthship buildings, whilst the futuristic/alternative building design, being built from waste materials and being entirely dependent on renewable resources (rainfall/wind/sunshine) are considered the least important barriers to building Earthship homes. Notwithstanding the participants included in this study already having an interest in Earthship buildings/lifestyles, it is concluded that the general public deem the general principles of Earthships as an acceptable choice of building/living but it is the formal means of building or buying an Earthship home that is the greatest hurdle against the uptake of Earthship buildings. Therefore, if sustainable futures are to be realized, it is proposed that a shift away from traditional house building towards Earthship building will require the involvement of all stakeholders immersed in the building process (architects, planners, builders, investors, lawyers) to path an easier journey for Earthship buildings and sustainable living.
    • No single model for super-sized eruptions and their magma bodies

      Wilson, Colin J. N.; Cooper, George F; Chamberlain, Katy; Barker, Simon J; Myers, Madison L.; Illsley-Kemp, Finnigan; Farrell, Jamie; Victoria University of Wellington; Cardiff University; University of Derby; et al. (Nature, 2021-07-27)
      The largest explosive volcanic eruptions on Earth (‘supereruptions’) generate widespread ash-fall blankets and voluminous ignimbrites with accompanying caldera collapse. However, the mechanisms of generation, storage and evacuation of the parental silicic magma bodies remain controversial. In this Review, we synthesise field and laboratory evidence from Quaternary supereruptions to illustrate the great diversity in these phenomena. Despite their size, some supereruptions started mildly over weeks to months before escalating into climactic activity, whereas others went into vigorous activity immediately. Some eruptions occupied days or weeks, and others were prolonged over decades. Some were sourced from single bodies of magma, and others from multiple magma bodies that were simultaneously or sequentially tapped. In all cases the crystal-richer, deeper roots (>10 km) of the magmatic systems had lifetimes of tens to hundreds of thousands of years or more. In contrast, the erupted magmas were assembled at shallower depths (4-10 km) on shorter timescales, sometimes only centuries. Geological knowledge of past events, combined with modern geophysical techniques, demonstrates how large silicic caldera volcanoes (with past supereruptions) operate today. Future research is needed particularly on the processes behind modern volcanic unrest and the signals that might herald an impending eruption, regardless of size, at such volcanoes.
    • Self-identification of electronically scanned signatures (ESS) and digitally constructed signatures (DCS)

      Kazmierczyk, Zuzanna; Turner, Ian J.; University of Derby (Informa UK, 2021-07-05)
      The use of electronic signatures as a form of identification is increasingly common, yet they have been shown to lack the dynamic features found in online signatures. In this study, handwritten signatures were scanned to produce electronically scanned signatures (ESS) which were then digitally altered to produce digitally constructed signatures (DCS). The ESS and DCS were presented back to participants to identify which were genuine. Only 1% of participants correctly identified all signatures, with a mean score of 57.6% identifications. The lack of self-recognition of ESS raises questions on their reliability and usefulness as means of personal identification.
    • Insights into the Cultured Bacterial Fraction of Corals

      Sweet, Michael; Villela, Helena; Keller-Costa, Tina; Costa, Rodrigo; Romano, Stefano; Bourne, David G.; Cárdenas, Anny; Huggett, Megan J.; Kerwin, Allison H.; Kuek, Felicity; et al. (American Society for Microbiology, 2021-06-22)
      Bacteria associated with coral hosts are diverse and abundant, withrecent studies suggesting involvement of these symbionts in host resilience toanthropogenic stress. Despite their putative importance, the work dedicated to cultur-ing coral-associated bacteria has received little attention. Combining published andunpublished data, here we report a comprehensive overview of the diversity and func-tion of culturable bacteria isolated from corals originating from tropical, temperate, andcold-wa ter habitats . A total of 3,055 isolat es from 52 studies were considered by ourmetasurvey. Of these, 1,045 had full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences, spanning 138 for-mally descri bed and 12 putativel y novel bacter ial gener a across the Proteobacteria,Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes,andActinobacteria phyla. We perfor me d compara ti ve genomi canalysis using the available genomes of 74 strains and identied potential signatures ofbenecial bacterium-coral symbioses among the strains. Our analysis revealed .400 bio-synthetic gene clusters that underlie the biosynthesis of antioxidant, antimicrobial, cyto-toxic, and other secondary metabolites. Moreover, we uncovered genomic features—notpreviously described for coral-bacterium symbioses—potentially involved in host coloni-zation and host-symbiont recognition, antiviral defense mechanisms, and/or integratedmetabolic interactions, which we suggest as novel targets for the screening of coralprobiotics. Our results highlight the importance of bacterial cultures to elu cidatecoral holob iont functioning and guide the selection of probiotic candidates to promote coral resilience and improve holistic and customized reef restoration and rehabilitation efforts.
    • Definitions of biodiversity from urban gardeners

      Norton, Briony, A.; Shang, Bowen; Sheffield, David; Ramsey, Andrew; University of Derby (Oxford University Press, 2021-06-14)
      Living in urban environments can leave people disconnected from nature and less likely to engage with biodiversity conservation. Within urban areas, residential gardens can occupy large proportions of greenspace and provide important habitat for biodiversity. Understanding the views and knowledge of garden owners who have collective responsibility for managing these areas is therefore important. We aimed to understand how urban garden owners understand biodiversity. We surveyed garden owners in Derby, UK, across 20 areas spanning a socioeconomic spectrum. Residents were asked to explain their understanding of ‘biodiversity’ in a short definition format. Responses were classified using thematic and word frequency analyses. Of 255 respondents, approximately one third were unable to provide a definition. From the definitions provided, themes that emerged in frequency order were: variety of species or environments; coexistence of organisms; conservation of nature; a synonym for habitat; and uncommon answers not clearly related to biodiversity. Members of wildlife or gardening charities were more likely than non-members to say they could define biodiversity and to use specific taxonomic terms. We detected no difference between keen and less keen gardeners. These short-form responses captured many themes longer and/or qualitative assessments have identified about people’s understanding of biodiversity and illustrate a diversity and, in some cases, a depth of understanding of the concepts of biodiversity, without necessarily adhering to the formal definition. Given the variety of understanding, at this critical period, technical terms, even common ones, should be used with caution and with an open mind about how people interpret them.
    • Explosive felsic eruptions on ocean islands: a case study from Ascension Island (South Atlantic)

      Preece, Katie; Barclay, Jenni; Brown, Richard J.; Chamberlain, Katy; Mark, Darren F.; Swansea University; University of East Anglia; Durham University; University of Derby; Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, East Kilbride; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-05-19)
      Ocean island volcanism is generally considered to be dominated by basaltic eruptions, yet felsic products associated with more hazardous explosive eruptive events are also present in the geological record of many of these islands. Ascension Island, recently recognised as an active volcanic system, exhibits explosive felsic eruption deposits but their age, eruptive styles and stratigraphic association with mafic volcanism are thus far unclear. Here we present a felsic pyroclastic stratigraphy for Ascension Island, supplemented by 26 new 40Ar/39Ar ages and whole rock geochemical XRF data. More than 80 felsic pyroclastic eruptions have occurred over the last ~ 1 Myr, including subplinian and phreatomagmatic eruptions, which produced pumice fall and pyroclastic density current deposits. Detailed sampling suggests felsic events are unevenly distributed in space and time. Subaerial activity can be divided into four Periods: Period 1 (~1000 – 500 ka) felsic and mafic eruptions, with felsic explosive eruptions, linked to a Central Felsic Complex; Period 2 (~ 500 – 100 ka) mafic period; Period 3 (~ 100 – 50 ka) felsic eruptions associated with the Eastern Felsic Complex; Period 4 (< 50 ka) mafic eruptions. The last explosive eruption occurred at ~ 60 ka. This work highlights the cyclical nature of ocean island volcanism and the timescales over which changes between predominantly mafic and felsic volcanism occur. The prevalence of past felsic explosive eruptions on Ascension highlights the need to consider the possibility of future subplinian or phreatomagmatic events in hazard management plans, with any potential risk compounded by Ascension’s small size 41 and remote location.
    • A review of the diversity and impact of invasive non-native species in tropical marine ecosystems

      Alidoost Salimi, Parisa; Creed, Joel C.; Esch, Melanie M.; Fenner, Douglas; Jaafar, Zeehan; Levesque, Juan C.; Montgomery, Anthony D.; Alidoost Salimi, Mahsa; Edward, J. K. Patterson; Raj, K. Diraviya; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-04-23)
      Tropical marine ecosystems are biologically diverse and economically invaluable. However, they are severely threatened from impacts associated with climate change coupled with localized and regional stressors, such as pollution and overfishing. Non-native species (sometimes referred to as ‘alien’ species) are another major threat facing these ecosystems, although rarely discussed and overshadowed by the other stressors mentioned above. NNS can be introduced accidentally (for example via shipping activities) and/or sometimes intentionally (for aquaculture or by hobbyists). Understanding the extent of the impacts NNS have on native flora and fauna often remains challenging, along with ascertaining when the species in question actually became ‘invasive’. Here we review the status of this threat across key tropical marine ecosystems such as coral reefs, algae meadows, mangroves, and seagrass beds. We aim to provide a baseline of where invasive NNS can be found, when they are thought to have been introduced and what impact they are thought to be having on the native ecosystems they now inhabit. In the appended material we provide a comprehensive list of NNS covering key groups such as macroalgae, sponges, seagrasses and mangroves, anthozoans, bryozoans, ascidians, fishes, and crustaceans.
    • Mapping a super-invader in a biodiversity hotspot, an eDNA-based success story

      Baudry, Thomas; Mauvisseau, Quentin; Goût, Jean-Pierre; Arqué, Alexandre; Delaunay, Carine; Smith-Ravin, Juliette; Sweet, Michael; Grandjean, Frédéric; Route de la Pointe de Jaham - BP7212, Schoelcher 97274, Martinique, France; Fort-de-France, Martinique, France; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2021-04-02)
      The lesser Antilles archipelago in the Caribbean is known as a biodiversity hotspot, hosting many endemic species. However, recent introduction of a highly invasive species, the Australian redclaw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus), has led to significant threats to this fragile ecosystem. Here we developed, validated, and optimized a species-specific eDNA-based detection protocol targeting the 16S region of the mitochondrial gene of C. quadricarinatus. Our aim was to assess the crayfish distribution across Martinique Island. Our developed assay was species-specific and showed high sensitivity in laboratory, mesocosm and field conditions. A significant and positive correlation was found between species biomass, detection probability and efficiency through mesocosm experiments. Moreover, we found eDNA persisted up to 23 days in tropical freshwaters. We investigated a total of 83 locations, spread over 53 rivers and two closed water basins using our novel eDNA assay and traditional trapping, the latter, undertaken to confirm the reliability of the molecular-based detection method. Overall, we detected C. quadricarinatus at 47 locations using eDNA and 28 using traditional trapping, all positive trapping sites were positive for eDNA. We found that eDNA-based monitoring was less time-consuming and less influenced by the crayfishes often patchy distributions, proving a more reliable tool for future large-scale surveys. The clear threat and worrying distribution of this invasive species is particularly alarming as the archipelago belongs to one of the 25 identified biodiversity hotspots on Earth.
    • Species-Specific Variations in the Metabolomic Profiles of Acropora hyacinthus and Acropora millepora Mask Acute Temperature Stress Effects in Adult Coral Colonies

      Sweet, Michael; Bulling, Mark; Varshavi, Dorsa; Lloyd, Gavin R.; Jankevics, Andris; Najdekr, Lukáš; Weber, Ralf J. M.; Viant, Mark R.; Craggs, Jamie; University of Derby; et al. (Frontiers Media SA, 2021-03-25)
      Coral reefs are suffering unprecedented declines in health state on a global scale. Some have suggested that human assisted evolution or assisted gene flow may now be necessary to effectively restore reefs and pre-condition them for future climate change. An understanding of the key metabolic processes in corals, including under stressed conditions, would greatly facilitate the effective application of such interventions. To date, however, there has been little research on corals at this level, particularly regarding studies of the metabolome of Scleractinian corals. Here, the metabolomic profiles [measured using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)] of two dominant reef building corals, Acropora hyacinthus and A. millepora, from two distinct geographical locations (Australia and Singapore) were characterized. We assessed how an acute temperature stress (an increase of 3.25°C ± 0.28 from ambient control levels over 8 days), shifted the corals’ baseline metabolomic profiles. Regardless of the profiling method utilized, metabolomic signatures of coral colonies were significantly distinct between coral species, a result supporting previous work. However, this strong species-specific metabolomic signature appeared to mask any changes resulting from the acute heat stress. On closer examination, we were able to discriminate between control and temperature stressed groups using a partial least squares discriminant analysis classification model (PLSDA). However, in all cases “late” components needed to be selected (i.e., 7 and 8 instead of 1 and 2), suggesting any treatment effect was small, relative to other sources of variation. This highlights the importance of pre-characterizing the coral colony metabolomes, and of factoring that knowledge into any experimental design that seeks to understand the apparently subtle metabolic effects of acute heat stress on adult corals. Further research is therefore needed to decouple these apparent individual and species-level metabolomic responses to climate change in corals.
    • Improving the reliability of eDNA data interpretation

      Burian, Alfred; Mauvisseau, Quentin; Bulling, Mark; Domisch, Sami; Qian, Song; Sweet, Michael; University of Derby; Marine Ecology Department, Lurio University, Nampula, Mozambique; Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig, Germany; Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; et al. (Wiley, 2021-03-25)
      Global declines in biodiversity highlight the need to effectively monitor the density and distribution of threatened species. In recent years, molecular survey methods detecting DNA released by target‐species into their environment (eDNA) have been rapidly on the rise. Despite providing new, cost‐effective tools for conservation, eDNA‐based methods are prone to errors. Best field and laboratory practices can mitigate some, but the risks of errors cannot be eliminated and need to be accounted for. Here, we synthesize recent advances in data processing tools that increase the reliability of interpretations drawn from eDNA data. We review advances in occupancy models to consider spatial data‐structures and simultaneously assess rates of false positive and negative results. Further, we introduce process‐based models and the integration of metabarcoding data as complementing approaches to increase the reliability of target‐species assessments. These tools will be most effective when capitalizing on multi‐source data sets collating eDNA with classical survey and citizen‐science approaches, paving the way for more robust decision‐making processes in conservation planning.
    • Oxygen consumption during digestion in Anodonta anatina and Unio pictorum in response to algal concentration

      Zapitis, Charitos; Huck, Maren; Ramsey, Andrew; University of Derby (Springer, 2021-03-16)
      Abstract The metabolic activity of unionid mussels influences the oxygen fluxes and other physical and chemical characteristics in aquatic systems. Unionid oxygen consumption rate during digestion and its dependency on food availability is understudied. In laboratory conditions, we quantified the oxygen consumption rate of Anodonta anatina and Unio pictorum in response to algal concentration—0.05, 6.0 and 12.0 mg of Ash Free Dry Mass of Chlorella vulgaris L-1 —and mussel dry soft-tissue mass at 19 ± 1C. Following a 5-h feeding-period, the oxygen consumption rate (mg O2 h-1 ) increased with algal concentration and mussel dry mass in both species during a 2-h digestion-period. The mean oxygen consumption per gram of dry mass (mg O2 gDM-1 h-1 ) increased with the algal concentration in both species. The oxygen consumption rate of A. anatina was significantly greater than that of U. pictorum at a given algal concentration. The A. anatina oxygen consumption per gram of dry mass decreased with increasing dry mass. Oxygen consumption rate during digestion shows inter-specific differences and is dependent on food availability. The findings inform the species specific quantification of oxygen consumption, and validation is required in in situ conditions.
    • Sharing SoTL findings with students: an intentional knowledge mobilization strategy

      Maurer, Trent W.; Woolmer, Cherie; Powell, Nichole L.; Sisson, Carol; Snelling, Catherine; Stalheim, Odd Rune; Turner, Ian J.; Georgia Southern University; Mount Royal University; Emory University; et al. (International Society for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 2021-03-07)
      This paper critically examines the reasons for and processes of sharing SoTL findings with students. Framed by our commitment to SoTL’s role to make teaching “community property,” we interpret sharing SoTL findings with students as an act of knowledge mobilization, where SoTL might be disseminated, translated, or co-created with the student as a legitimate knowledge broker. We connect these knowledge mobilization processes with four primary reasons why faculty might want to share SoTL findings with students. Finally, we provide examples of knowledge mobilization that use different “voices” found in contemporary communication settings and that reach various student audiences in micro, meso, macro, and mega contexts.
    • Going with the flow: How corals in high‐flow environments can beat the heat

      Fifer, James; Bentlage, Bastian; Lemer, Sarah; Fujimura, Atsushi G.; Sweet, Michael; Raymundo, Laurie J.; University of Guam Marine Laboratory, UOG Station, Mangilao, GU, USA; Boston University, Boston, MA, USA; University of Derby (Wiley, 2021-03-02)
      Coral reefs are experiencing unprecedented declines in health on a global scale leading to severe reductions in coral cover. One major cause of this decline is increasing sea surface temperature. However, conspecific colonies separated by even small spatial distances appear to show varying responses to this global stressor. One factor contributing to differential responses to heat stress is variability in the coral's micro‐environment, such as the amount of water flow a coral experiences. High flow provides corals with a variety of health benefits, including heat stress mitigation. Here, we investigate how water flow affects coral gene expression and provides resilience to increasing temperatures. We examined host and photosymbiont gene expression of Acropora cf. pulchra colonies in discrete in situ flow environments during a natural bleaching event. In addition, we conducted controlled ex situ tank experiments where we exposed A. cf. pulchra to different flow regimes and acute heat stress. Notably, we observed distinct flow‐driven transcriptomic signatures related to energy expenditure, growth, heterotrophy and a healthy coral host–photosymbiont relationship. We also observed disparate transcriptomic responses during bleaching recovery between the high‐ and low‐flow sites. Additionally, corals exposed to high flow showed “frontloading” of specific heat‐stress‐related genes such as heat shock proteins, antioxidant enzymes, genes involved in apoptosis regulation, innate immunity and cell adhesion. We posit that frontloading is a result of increased oxidative metabolism generated by the increased water movement. Gene frontloading may at least partially explain the observation that colonies in high‐flow environments show higher survival and/or faster recovery in response to bleaching events.
    • The importance of Forest School and the pathways to nature connection

      Cudworth, Dave; Lumber, Ryan; DeMontfort University; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-02-18)
      Over the past 25 years Forest School in the UK has been growing in popularity as part of a wider resurgence of interest in outdoor learning. A key driver behind this recurrence of interest has been a growing concern over the lack of child exposure to outdoor experiences and with the natural world and their ensuing nature-deficit disorder. This article considers Forest School as linked with the concept of nature connection that is the sensation of belonging to a wider natural community. This sense of belonging developed by being in nature can also be a key factor in promoting attachment and sense of place which in turn is associated with the promotion of health, wellbeing and pro-environmental behaviours. As such the origins towards achieving nature connection are a formal part of the Forest School Association’s (FSA 2016). Forest School principals, with growing research linking Forest School and nature connection as concomitant. Recent work has suggested that contact, emotion, meaning, compassion, and beauty are key pathways for the formation of nature connection and there is a strong need to better understand children’s nature connection in this context. Further, from the premise that what goes on in spaces and places is fundamentally linked to both social and spatial processes, this article also attempts to understand the spatialities of Forest School in order to frame the development of nature connection within a socio-spatial analytic.