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Rain-fed granite rock basins accumulate a high diversity of dormant microbial eukaryotesVelasco-González, Ismael; Sanchez-Jimenez, Abel; Singer, David; Murciano, Antonio; Díez-Hermano, Sergio; Lara, Enrique; Martín-Cereceda, Mercedes; Departamento de Genética, Fisiología y Microbiología. Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), C/ José Antonio Novais 12, 28040, Madrid, Spain; Departamento de Biodiversidad, Ecología y Evolución. Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, UCM, Madrid, Spain; University of Neuchâtel, Rue Emile-Argand 11, CH-2000, Neuchâtel, Switzerland; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-12-03)Rain fed granite rock basins are ancient geological landforms of worldwide distribution and structural simplicity. They support habitats that can switch quickly from terrestrial to aquatic along the year. Diversity of animals and plants, and the connexion between communities in different basins have been widely explored in these habitats, but hardly any research has been carried out on microorganisms. The aim of this study is to provide the first insights on the diversity of eukaryotic microbial communities from these environments. Due to the ephemeral nature of these aquatic environments, we predict that the granitic basins should host a high proportion of dormant microeukaryotes. Based on an environmental DNA diversity survey, we reveal diverse communities with representatives of all major eukaryotic taxonomic supergroups, mainly composed of a diverse pool of low abundance OTUs. Basin communities were very distinctive, with alpha and beta diversity patterns non-related to basin size or spatial distance respectively. Dissimilarity between basins was mainly characterised by turnover of OTUs. The strong microbial eukaryotic heterogeneity observed among the basins may be explained by a complex combination of deterministic factors (diverging environment in the basins), spatial constraints, and randomness including founder effects. Most interestingly, communities contain organisms that cannot coexist at the same time because of incompatible metabolic requirements, thus suggesting the existence of a pool of dormant organisms whose activity varies along with the changing environment. These organisms accumulate in the pools, which turns granitic rock into high biodiversity microbial islands whose conservation and study deserve further attention.