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Sexual dimorphism in the loud calls of Azara’s owl monkeys (Aotus azarae): evidence of sexual selection?Garcia de la Chica, Alba; Huck, Maren; Depeine, Catherine; Rotundo, Marcelo; Adret, Patrice; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-11-15)Primates use different types of vocalizations in a variety of contexts. Some of the most studied types have been the long distance or loud calls. These vocalizations have been associated with mate defense, mate attraction, and resource defense, and it is plausible that sexual selection has played an important role in their evolution. Focusing on identified individuals of known sex and age, we evaluated the sexual dimorphism in a type of loud calls (hoots) in a population of wild owl monkeys (Aotus azarae) in Argentina. We found evidence of sexual dimorphism in call structure, with females and males only emitting one type of call, each differing in dominant frequency and Shannon entropy. In addition, both age-related and sex-specific differences in call usage were also apparent in response to the removal of one group member. Future acoustic data will allow us to assess if there are individual characteristics and if the structure of hoot calls presents differences in relation to the social condition of owl monkeys or specific sex responses to variants of hoot calls’ traits. This will provide deeper insights into the evolution of vocal mechanisms regulating pair bonding and mate choice strategies in this and other primate species.