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Spatio-genetic population structure in mustached tamarins,Saguinus mystaxHuck, Maren; Roos, Christian; Heymann, Eckhard W.; Abteilung für Verhaltensökologie & Soziobiologie, Deutsches Primatenzentrum; Gene Bank of Primates, FG Primatengenetik, Deutsches Primatenzentrum (2007)Dispersal and philopatry influence gene flow and thus the spatio-genetic structure within and between populations. In callitrichids the flexible social and mating system corresponds with a variable migration pattern where both sexes might be philopatric or might disperse. We investigated the relationship between the spatiogenetic structure and migration patterns in a population of mustached tamarins, Saguinus mystax. Using the rapidly evolving hypervariable region I (HVI) of the mitochondrial control region and 11 microsatellite markers we detected a high variation (HVI: 16 haplotypes in 69 individuals; microsatellites: HO ¼ 0.75, average: 7.45 alleles/locus), with mating partners usually not sharing the same haplotype, indicating that matings are generally between partners that are not closely related. Similar high variance of haplotype differences for male-male and female-female pairs, along with a slightly higher number of haplotype differences in males show that both sexes habitually migrate. Spatial analyses suggest that females usually migrate longer distances, corresponding to very limited breeding positions for females in a polyandrous social mating system.