• Image-based sexual abuse: A psychological perspective

      Fido, Dean; Harper, Craig, A; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University (Palgrave Macmillan, 2020-11-01)
    • Within these hyperporous walls: An examination of a rebundled online learning model of higher education

      Rhodes, Christine; Shaw, Paula; Gration, Marlies; stone, Julie; Green, Pauline; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (ASCILITE, 2020-10-26)
      Through this paper, we explore unbundling, the separation of various aspects of education, resources, teaching and assessment (Ossiannilsson et al., 2015) and rebundling, where these activities are “recombined into new configurations with little loss of functionality” (Ge et al., 2004, p. 1). We chart the evolution of online learning at the University of Derby, from a small-scale learning and certification bundle to a rebundled online university experience. In this rebundled model, a bespoke department is responsible for the operationalisation and quality of the university’s online experience. Firstly, we established the quality impact of this model, using higher education institution (HEI) value drivers. Secondly, focus groups explored macro (national), meso (institutional) and micro (practice) issues from strategic manager, academic and student experience perspectives. To facilitate discussion about the online university experience, we used a new conceptual pedagogic realignment with organisational priorities and horizon emergent technologies (PROPHET) framework. Based on our findings, we make recommendations to HEIs that are considering rebundling online learning. These include the equitable data capture and analysis of online student demographics; consideration of academic well-being and training; and the university-wide benefits obtained from knowledge exchange with online professionals, in relation to future-focused technologies and policymaking.
    • Commentary: A wellbeing champion and the role of self-reflective practice for ICU nurses during COVID-19 and beyond

      Wharton, Ciara; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Brennan, Sharon; Adult Intensive Care Unit, Stoke Mandeville Hospital, Buckinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust, Amersham, UK; University of Derby (Wiley, 2020-10-15)
      The purpose of this commentary is to highlight the importance of an intensive care unit (ICU) wellbeing champion, who promotes self-reflective practice and self-care to protect staff wellbeing. The wellbeing champion provides peer-to-peer support, delivers psychological first aid and through the “Look, Listen and Link” approach, signposts staff towards professional assistance when needed. Our ICU nominated a wellbeing champion from within the nursing team to take a bottom-up approach to staff wellbeing during the COVID-19 crisis where the stress levels in ICU are notably high.
    • Decomposing supply shocks in the US electricity industry: evidence from a time-varying Bayesian panel vector autoregression model

      Apergis, Nicholas; Polemis, Michael; University of Derby; University of Piraeus (Incisive Media, 2020-10-09)
      This paper investigates spillovers between electricity supply shocks and US growth, using monthly data from 48 US States, spanning the period January 2001-September 2016, while it employs a novel strategy for electricity supply shocks based on a time-varying Bayesian panel VAR model. It accounts for the decomposition of electricity supply per fuel mixture and links its possible interactions with the US macroeconomic conditions. In that sense, the methodology models the coefficients as a stochastic function of multiple structural characteristics. The findings document that GDP growth increases after a positive electricity supply shock, irrelevant to the source of energy that generates it. The absence of a sluggish adjustment mechanism, may reflect weak competition and significant market power by the incumbents in the electricity industry. Lastly, we argue that the rate of response of GDP growth per capita to electricity supply shocks, provides an indication that a market power effect prevails in the US electricity industry.
    • Artificial intelligence and disability: too much promise, yet too little substance?

      Smith, Laura; Smith, Peter; University of Sunderland (Springer, 2020-10-06)
      Much has been written about the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) to support, and even transform, the lives of disabled people. It is true that many advances have been made, ranging from robotic arms and other prosthetic limbs supported by AI, decision support tools to aid clinicians and the disabled themselves, and route planning software for those with visual impairment. Many individuals are benefiting from the use of such tools, improving our accessibility and changing lives. But what are the true limits of such tools? What are the ethics of allowing AI tools to suggest different courses of action, or aid in decision-making? And does AI offer too much promise for individuals? I have recently undergone a life changing accident which has left me severely disabled, and together with my daughter who is blind, we shall explore the day-to-day realities of how AI can support, and frustrate, disabled people. From this, we will draw some conclusions as to how AI software and technology might best be developed in the future.
    • Research proposal: qualitative investigation into internet-based interventions for professional dementia caregivers' wellbeing

      Aledeh, Muhammad; Kotera, Yasuhiro; University of Derby (Concurrent Disorders Society, 2020-10)
      This paper proposes a qualitative investigation into internet-based intervention for the wellbeing of professional dementia caregivers. Dementia care is associated with care burden leading to negative psychological consequences, such as stress, anxiety, and depression. The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has made access to the traditional face-to-face therapy challenging for dementia caregivers. Accordingly, some dementia caregivers have started to use therapy via information and communication technologies (ICTs) including internet-based interventions. The interventions offered in this medium include cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and psychoeducation. To date, research has only examined the effects of these ICTs interventions among informal/family dementia caregivers, suggesting a need to examine the effects on professional dementia caregivers. In order to capture their first-hand experience receiving ICTs interventions on wellbeing, a qualitative research, using thematic analysis on semi-structured interview is proposed. Interviews will focus on the strengths and weaknesses of ICTs interventions on their mental wellbeing and care burden. Findings can inform the utility of these interventions for professional dementia caregivers in COVID-19 to help protect them from severe mental distress such as burnout supporting long-lasting care for their patients/clients.
    • What is the role of stress cardiovascular reactivity in health behaviour change? a systematic review, meta-analysis, and research agenda

      Cross, Ainslea; Naughton, Felix; Sheffield, David; University of Derby; University of East Anglia (Taylor and Francis, 2020-09-30)
      The stress reactivity hypothesis posits that the extremes of exaggerated and low or blunted cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) to stress may lead to adverse health outcomes via psychophysiological pathways. A potential indirect pathway between CVR and disease outcomes is through health-related behaviour and behaviour change. However, this is a less well understood pathway. A registered systematic review was undertaken to determine the association between cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) and health behaviour change, as well as identify mediators and moderators. Eight papers that met the inclusion criteria, focused on smoking cessation and weight loss, were identified. Pooling data from studies exploring the prospective relationship between CVR (as systolic blood pressure) and smoking cessation found that exaggerated CVR was associated with smoking relapse (Hedges’ g = 0.39, SE = 0.00, 95% CI 0.38 – 0.40, p < .001; I2 = 0%; N = 257) but did not find evidence that CVR responses were associated with changes in weight. In order to advance our understanding of reactivity as a modifiable determinant of health behaviour change, our review recommends exploring the association between CVR and other health behaviours, to determine the influence of blunted reactivity versus low motivational effort identify mediators and moderators and determine the focus of interventions.
    • Credit supply conditions and business cycles: New evidence from bank lending survey data

      Apergis, Nicholas; Chatziantoniou, Ioannis; University of Derby; University of Portsmouth (Elsevier, 2020-09-28)
      In this study, we utilize an Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model in order to investigate the impact of changing lending standards on aggregate economic activity, considering the period 2000-2017 and five major economies, that is, Canada, Germany, Japan, the UK, and the US. We capture lending conditions using bank lending survey data that help extract the credit-supply side of the shock and, thus, direct the focus onto loan supply-factors. The main findings document that shocks associated with changes in lending standards play a substantial role in determining changes in real economic activity within each country. It should also be noted that these results remain robust even when we consider a structural break in our data and investigate these effects separately for the period immediately after the outbreak of the Global Financial Crisis of 2007-09. Overall, the findings suggest that bank lending survey data provide important informational content and deepen our understanding regarding changes in real economic activity. On a final note, we provide further insights regarding the relationship of both price and non-price elements of bank lending, particularly considering the risk-taking channel of monetary policy.
    • Examining the connection between nature connectedness and dark personality

      Fido, D.; Rees, A.; Clarke, P.; Petronzi, D.; Richardson, M.; University of Derby (Elsevier BV, 2020-09-24)
      The psychological construct of nature connectedness - the depth of an individual's relationship with the natural world - has not only been associated with benefits for mental well-being but has also shown relationships with personality traits relevant to the dark personality literature. These include agreeableness, cognitive and affective empathy, and callous and uncaring traits. Across two independently-sampled studies we delineate relationships between explicit and implicit indices of nature connectedness and dark personality. In Study 1 (N = 304), psychopathy (and Machiavellianism) was associated with self-reported, but not implicitly-measured, nature connectedness. Moreover, individuals scoring high on dark personality exhibited a preference for inner-city, relative to suburban or rural living. In Study 2 (N = 209), we replicated the findings of Study 1 in relation to explicit measures of nature connectedness but did not find further relationships between dark personality and the population densities of where participants had previously lived. Limitations of implicit and pseudo indices of nature connectedness are outlined, and the results are discussed in relation to future research and the potential role of nature connectedness interventions in forensic populations. Data, syntax, and the manuscript pre-print are available here: [https://osf.io/3mg5d/?view_only=b5c7749d4a7945c5a161f0915a2d0259].
    • Development of an offline-friend addiction questionnaire (O-FAQ): Are most people really social addicts?

      Satchell, Liam P.; Fido, Dean; Harper, Craig A.; Shaw, Heather; Davidson, Brittany; Ellis, David A.; Hart, Claire M.; Jalil, Rahul; Bartoli, Alice Jones; Kaye, Linda K.; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-09-24)
      A growing number of self-report measures aim to define interactions with social media in a pathological behavior framework, often using terminology focused on identifying those who are ‘addicted’ to engaging with others online. Specifically, measures of ‘social media addiction’ focus on motivations for online social information seeking, which could relate to motivations for offline social information seeking. However, it could be the case that these same measures could reveal a pattern of friend addiction in general. This study develops the Offline-Friend Addiction Questionnaire (O-FAQ) by re-wording items from highly cited pathological social media use scales to reflect “spending time with friends”. Our methodology for validation follows the current literature precedent in the development of social media ‘addiction’ scales. The O-FAQ had a three-factor solution in an exploratory sample of N = 807 and these factors were stable in a 4-week retest (r = .72 to .86) and was validated against personality traits, and risk-taking behavior, in conceptually plausible directions. Using the same polythetic classification techniques as pathological social media use studies, we were able to classify 69% of our sample as addicted to spending time with their friends. The discussion of our satirical research is a critical reflection on the role of measurement and human sociality in social media research. We question the extent to which connecting with others can be considered an ‘addiction’ and discuss issues concerning the validation of new ‘addiction’ measures without relevant medical constructs. Readers should approach our measure with a level of skepticism that should be afforded to current social media addiction measures.
    • Persistence in silver prices and the influence of solar energy

      Apergis, Nicholas; Gil-Alana, Luis; Carmona-González, Nieves; University of Derby; University of Navarra; University Francisco de Vitoria (Elsevier, 2020-09-14)
      This paper deals with the analysis of silver prices and the influence of solar energy production on its behaviour. For this purpose, the analysis uses long memory methods based on fractional integration and cointegration. The results indicate that the two variables are very persistent, though any long run equilibrium relationship between them is not observed. Nevertheless, the results illustrate some short-run negative effects from solar energy capacity on silver prices.
    • Energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth: Fresh evidence from 57 countries and panel quantile regressions

      Apergis, Nicholas; Altinoz, Buket; Aslan, Alper; University of Derby; Nisantasi University; Erciyes University (Asian Pacific Economic Association, 2020-09-11)
      This paper analyzes the association across energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth. According to the results of panel quantile regression model for 57 countries from three different regions, deviations from sustainable growth after the middle growth level in the full sample and the European and Asian countries sample are prominent. Similar results are obtained from Middle East and African countries, but the deviations begin earlier. In the case of the Latin American findings, the estimates clearly document that carbon emissions (at all levels) and energy consumption (at the medium and high levels) exert a negative impact on economic growth, indicating the inability of Latin American countries to achieve sustainable economic growth targets.
    • The role of Covid-19 for Chinese stock returns: evidence from a GARCHX model

      Apergis, Nicholas; Apergis, Emmanuel; University of Derby; University of Huddersfield (Taylor & Francis, 2020-09-03)
      This paper examines the effect of Covid-19 pandemic on the Chinese stock market returns and their volatility using the generalized autoregressive conditionally heteroskedastic GARCHX model. The GARCHX model allows us to include Covid-19 information within the GARCH framework. The findings document that daily increases in total confirmed Covid-19 cases in China, measured as total daily deaths and cases, have a significant negative impact on stock returns, with the negative impact of the Covid-19 on stock returns being more pronounced when total deaths proxy the effect of this infectious disease. The results also document that Covid-19 has a positive and statistically significant effect on the volatility of these market returns. Overall, new evidence is offered that infectious diseases, such as Covid-19, can seriously impact market returns, as well as their volatility. The findings could be essential in understanding the implications of Covid-19 for the stock market in China.
    • Inflation expectations, volatility and Covid-19: Evidence from the US inflation swap rates

      Apergis, Nicholas; Apergis, Emmanuel; University of Derby; University of Huddersfield (Taylor & Francis, 2020-08-28)
      The goal of this work is to explore the role of the Covid-19 pandemic event in the course of inflation expectations and their volatility through US inflation swap rates. The findings document that inflation expectations and their volatility are positively affected by the Covid-19 pandemic. These results have real activity implications, while close monitoring of inflation expectations could signal inflation expectations un-anchoring risks.
    • U.S. monetary policy and herding: Evidence from commodity markets

      Apergis, Nicholas; Christou, Christina; Hayat, Tasawar; Saeed, Tareq; University of Derby; Open University of Cyprus; King Abdulaziz University (Springer, 2020-08-28)
      This paper investigates the presence of herding behavior across a spectrum of commodities (i.e., agricultural, energy, precious metals, and metals) futures prices obtained from Datastream. The main novelty of this study is, for the first time in the literature, the explicit investigation of the role of deviations of U.S. monetary policy decisions from a standard Taylor-type monetary rule, in driving herding behavior with respect to commodity futures prices, spanning the period 1990-2017. The results document that the commodity markets are characterized by herding, while such herding behavior is not only driven by U.S. monetary policy decisions, but also such decisions exert asymmetric effects this behavior. An additional novelty of the results is that they document that herding is stronger in discretionary monetary policy regimes.
    • Threshold effects of housing affordability and financial development on the house price-consumption nexus

      Apergis, Nicholas; Coskun, Esra; Coskun, Yener; University of Derby; University of Huddersfield; University of Sheffield (Wiley, 2020-08-28)
      The study explores the asymmetric effect of housing and financial wealth on household consumption behavior using panel data from 24 OECD countries, spanning the period 2000 to 2016 by employing a financial development (FD) index (proxy for financial deepening) and the house price-to-income (HPI) ratio (proxy for housing affordability) through a threshold empirical framework. The analysis tests certain hypotheses, such as: (i) the housing wealth effect on consumption is stronger than its financial counterpart, (ii) overall wealth effects increase (decrease) during bubble (post bubble) periods, (iii) the higher level of financial development and the lower level of housing affordability ratio both result in stronger wealth effects, (iv) increasing wealth effects show a bubble formation. The results suggest that housing wealth has generally a greater positive effect on consumption. The effect of housing and financial wealth on consumption increases, depending on higher financial development and declining housing affordability. The evidence also suggests that the impact of housing and stock market wealth has increased during the dot.com and housing bubble periods.
    • Developing more inclusive schools for pupils with special educational needs: key messages for school leaders and communities

      Robinson, Deborah; Hanson, Jill; Codina, Geraldene; Dimitrellou, Eleni; Qureshi, Sarwat; University of Derby (2020-08-26)
      This paper will provide an outline of a unique local area project of school improvement for inclusion and special educational needs called the ‘SEND Peer Challenger programme’ so that its principles might be understood and/or emulated by school leaders who are looking for new ways to improve provision for pupils with special educational needs and disabilities (SENDs) in general classrooms. Its aims are to: Provide an example of how researchers in universities, front line educationalists and local governors can collaborate to deepen the reach of school improvement initiatives for SEND and inclusion in mainstream schools. Share the findings of a research study that cast light on the character of effective leadership and management for high quality SEND provision in mainstream education. Explore the implications of these findings for researchers, local governors, and school leaders through understanding the elements of high-quality SEND provision in general classrooms. Operationalising leadership and management approaches to improve SEND provision in general classrooms.
    • Airbnb and hotel revenues in popular Greek destinations

      Apergis, Nicholas; Hayat, Tasawar; Saeed, Tareq; University of Derby; King Abdulaziz University (Emerald, 2020-08-19)
      This paper explores the role of Airbnb listings on hotel revenues in certain popular Greek tourist destinations. The analysis makes use of the panel GMM method, while the findings document that the Airbnb listings exert a negative impact on hotel revenues. Moreover, the results indicate that it is primarily non-business and low-price hotels that are being influenced, while the hotel industry responds to the competition through lower room prices and not through occupancy rates. The paper documents that although the Airbnb is a new factor in the Greek tourism industry, it has turned into a significant competitor against hotels. The findings of this paper are expected to provide further insights into the workings of the sector and the potential regulated policies needed to be adopted by tourism authorities.
    • The role of fiscal policy in the link between income inequality and banking crises

      Apergis, Nicholas; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2020-08-16)
      This paper explores the link between income inequality and banking crises, when inequality is affected by fiscal policy. Using a two-stage probit least squares method and a panel of 21 countries, spanning the period 1971-2017, the findings indicate that inequality impacts the probability of banking crises through budget deficits, followed by government expenses.
    • Effect of element wall thickness on the homogeneity and isotropy of hardness in SLM IN718 using nanoindentation

      Abo Znemah, Reem; Wood, Paul; Gunputh, Urvashi Fowdar; Zhang, Cheng; Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA; University of Derby; Medtronic Inc., Tempe, Arizona, US (Elsevier, 2020-07-28)
      In this paper the homogeneity and isotropy of the mechanical hardness of thin-walled Inconel 718 (IN718) alloy samples manufactured by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) were examined using nanoindentation testing. SLM-produced honeycombed samples with wall thicknesses of 0.8, 0.6 and 0.4 mm respectively were studied by measuring the hardness across the wall thickness, and on the planes parallel and perpendicular to the build direction over the range of depths of 10-2000 nm. The average hardness values close to the edges were 4.0-6.5% lower than the areas away from the them. Interestingly the average hardness dropped by 15.2% with reduction in the cell wall thickness from 0.8 mm to 0.4 mm. Average hardness values were reported to be higher on the plane perpendicular to the build direction compared to the parallel plane. A variable material length scale was proposed in this work to describe the size effects of the microstructure. It was evaluated using the nanoindentation hardness test results and a computational model developed in previous studies by the first author and his co-workers.