• Social ecological interventions to increase physical activity in children and young people living with and beyond cancer: a systematic review

      Cross, Ainslea; Howlett, Neil; Sheffield, David; University of Derby; University of Hertfordshire (Taylor & Francis, 2020-05-29)
      To identify the behaviour change techniques and intervention components associated with the promotion of physical activity (PA) for children and young people living with and beyond cancer. A systematic review and narrative synthesis was conducted on the evidence on PA interventions for children and young people (up to 30 years of age) living with and beyond cancer using a social ecological framework. Out of 12 studies, 8 were shown to change PA. Intervention components included (1) behavioural (Instruction on how to perform the behaviour, credible source, behavioural demonstration and rehearsal), (2) cognitive-emotional (targeting attitude, perceived behavioural control, intentions, resilience and achievement) (3) socio-cultural (family and peer support for PA), (4) environmental (providing access to resources, environmental restructuring, safety), (5) demographic (child, adolescent, young adult or mixed) and (6) medical (tailored exercise depending on age and cancer stage). Conclusions: Interventions designed to increase physical activity participation and adherence during and beyond cancer treatment for young people should integrate psychosocial (behavioural, cognitive-emotional, social), environmental and medical intervention components. Our conceptual model can be used to inform the development of interventions and guides future research objectives and priorities.
    • How will education 4.0 influence learning in higher education?

      Williams, Alan; Windle, Richard; Wharrad, Heather; University of Derby; University of Nottingham (Association for Learning Development in Higher Education, 2020-05-29)
      Higher education at the start of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Schwab, 2015) is undergoing unprecedented change because of the opportunities revealed through the use of digital technology. Though societies throughout time have undergone seismic change, it is the speed and magnitude of change now because of technology that is challenging higher education. The changes include access to knowledge, how that knowledge is shared and the increasing demand by students’ for their voice to be heard in their education and to be integral to the design of their learning. The opportunities revealed by the use of digital technology can lead to good and bad effects and it is essential academics and higher education investigate the design of learning objects used by students in higher education.
    • Don't slap the fish: The relationship between dietary Omega-3 intake and physical aggression is mediated by motor inhibition in response to distressed faces

      Fido, Dean; Heym, Nadja; Bloxsom, Claire A. J.; Hunter, Kirsty A.; Gregson, Michael; Sumich, Alexander L.; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University; Auckland University of Technology (Elsevier, 2020-05-25)
      The innate violence inhibition mechanism (VIM) purportedly regulates maladaptive aggressive behavior through motor inhibition, in response to expressions of distress, and is implicated in psychopathy-related aggression. Deficiency in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; an omega-3 fatty acid) is implicated in aggression and callous-unemotional (CU) traits, however, its relationship to the VIM remains unknown. Two studies tested relationships between EPA intake, personality (aggression, CU traits), and electrophysiological indices of the VIM. In study one (N=98), participants completed omega-3 intake (FFQ), CU traits (ICU), and aggression (BPAQ) measures. Physical aggression correlated positively with callousness and negatively with EPA intake. CU traits were unrelated to EPA. In study two (N=47), participants completed the same measures and an electroencephalography assessment of VIM. Stop-P300 amplitude (motor inhibition success) in response to facial expressions of distress mediated the relationship between EPA intake and physical aggression. This is the first demonstration of an association between EPA intake and electroencephalographic indices of the VIM. Findings support a role of EPA in regulating aggression through networks involved in distress-cued executive control over behaviour; and provide supporting data to direct future trial designs for nutritional supplementation in non-clinical, clinical and forensic arenas.
    • Revisiting the self-compassion scale-short form: Stronger associations with self-inadequacy and resilience

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Springer, 2020-05-24)
      The Self-Compassion Scale-Short Form (SCS-SF) was developed as an economical alternative for the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), one of the few scales to assess self-compassion. Despite the active use of the SCS-SF, a psychometric evaluation of this scale remains limited. This study analysed the factor structure, reliability, and construct validity of the SCS-SF in UK university student populations. Methods Of 365 students approached, 333 completed the SCS-SF, and other measures including negative psychological constructs (mental health problems, self-criticism, and mental health shame) and positive psychological constructs (self-reassurance, resilience, and wellbeing). Data were analysed through confirmatory factor analyses and correlations. Results CFA revealed that the six-factor structure, reported in the validation paper, was not replicated. The positive factor, consisting of the three positive subscales, was not strongly related to any variable, but moderately related to reassured-self, resilience, wellbeing, and inadequate-self. The negative factor, consisting of the three negative subscales, was strongly related to inadequate-self, and moderately related to resilience, reassured-self, stress, wellbeing, depression, and internal shame. Coefficients in the negative factor were in general larger than those in the positive factor. The total SCS-SF score was most strongly related to inadequate-self, followed by resilience. Inter-correlations of the six subscales did not follow Neff (2003b)'s theoretical model of self-compassion nor the full-scale factor solution. Conclusions Findings do not accord with the common use of the global SCS-SF score as an assessment of six factors of self-compassion, and suggest a two factor solution assessing self-criticism and self-compassion.
    • Laughter and humour for personal development: A systematic scoping review of the evidence

      Gonot-Schoupinsky, Freda N.; Garip, Gulcan; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2020-05-23)
      The accessibility of laughter and humour make them attractive choices for self-care, and integrative medicine. There is a growing body of literature, but both fields are fragmented and the overall evidence has not been systematically reviewed. The relationship between health and personal development is increasingly recognized. This review scopes the evidence for laughter and humour interventions from the perspective of their potential benefits on personal development. A systematic scoping review used Joanna Briggs guidelines and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews Scoping Review extension (PRISMA-ScR). All-population laughter and humour interventions described in primary and secondary research from 1970, and in English, were searched in Web of Science and PubMed/Medline. Analysis of 240 primary research articles (k), and 11 systematic reviews (K), identified k = 564 discrete articles with studies involving 574,611 participants (n). Twelve large studies (n >15,000) contributed 77% of participants. Classification analysis found more research relating to humour (k = 445, n = 334,996) than laughter (k = 119, n = 239,615) and identified diverse personal development outcomes associated with Biological, Psychological, Social, Environmental, and Behavioural (BPSE-B) factors. This review presents growing evidence for the diverse applications and benefits of laughter and humour. Multiple opportunities for self-care and interventional applications are described. The consideration of personal development outcomes may support tailored applications according to specific needs and objectives. An umbrella Personal Development Theory of laughter and humour, inclusive humour and laughter definitions, and a humour-laughter-affect model are proposed to unify the fields.
    • Reduction of visual acuity decreases capacity to evaluate radiographic image quality

      Sá dos Reis, C.; Soares, F.; Bartoli, G.; Dastan, K.; Dhlamini, Z.S.; Hussain, A.; Kroode, D.; McEntee, M.F.; Mekis, N.; Thompson, J.D.; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-05-16)
      To determine the impact of reduced visual acuity on the evaluation of a test object and appendicular radiographs. Visual acuity was reduced by two different magnitudes using simulation glasses and compared to normal vision (no glasses). During phase one phantom images were produced for the purpose of counting objects by 13 observers and on phase 2 image appraisal of anatomical structures was performed on anonymized radiographic images by 7 observers. The monitors were calibrated (SMPTE RP133 test pattern) and the room lighting was maintained at 7 ± 1 lux. Image display and data on grading were managed using ViewDEX (v.2.0) and the area under the visual grading characteristic (AUC VGC) was calculated using VGC Analyzer (v1.0.2). Inferential statistics were calculated using SPSS. For the evaluation of appendicular radiographs the total interpretation time was longer when visual acuity was reduced with 2 pairs of simulation glasses (15.4 versus 8.9 min). Visual grading analysis showed that observers can lose the ability to detect anatomical and contrast differences when they have a simulated visual acuity reduction, being more challenging to differentiate low contrast details. No simulation glasses, compared to 1 pair gives an AUC VGC of 0.302 (0.280, 0.333), that decreases to 0.197 (0.175, 0.223) when using 2 pairs of glasses. Reduced visual acuity has a significant negative impact on the evaluation of test objects and clinical images. Further work is required to test the impact of reduced visual acuity on visual search, technical evaluation of a wider range of images as well as pathology detection/characterization performance. It seems that visual performance needs to be considered to reduce the risks associated with incomplete or incorrect diagnosis. If employers or professional bodies were to introduce regular eye tests into health screening it may reduce the risk of misinterpretation as a result of poor vision.
    • Exploring the consistency and value of humour style profiles

      Evans, Thomas Rhys; Johannes, Niklas; Winska, Joanna; Glinksa-Newes, Aldona; van Stekelenburg, Aart; Nilsonne, Gustav; Dean, Laura; Fido, Dean; Galloway, Graeme; Jones, Sian; et al. (Taylor and Francis, 2020-05-12)
      Establishing generalisable humour style profiles promises to have significant value for educational, clinical, and occupational application. However, previous research investigating such profiles has thus far presented inconsistent results. To determine the generalisability and value of humour style profiles, a large and geographically diverse examination of humour styles was conducted through a cross-sectional questionnaire methodology involving 863 participants from across three world regions. Findings identify inconsistencies in the humour style profiles across countries tested and the extant literature, possibly indicative of cultural differences in the behavioural expression of trait humour. Furthermore, when directly compared, humour types, rather than humour styles, consistently provide the greatest predictive value for friendship and well-being outcomes. As such, with respect to both consistency and value, capturing humour style profiles appears to represent a relatively reductionist approach to appreciating the nuances in the use and consequences of humour.
    • International nurses day 2020: The importance of the healthcare sector to society

      Williams, Alan; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2020-05-11)
      Dr Alan Williams, Academic Lead for Nursing and Perioperative Practice at the University of Derby, marks International Nurses Day 2020 (May 12) by discussing why he is proud of his profession and the wider healthcare sector and why it should be celebrated and appreciated all year round.
    • Mental health of Malaysian university students: UK comparison, and relationship between negative mental health attitudes, self-compassion, and resilience

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Ting, Su-Hie; Neary, Siobhan; University of Derby (Springer, 2020-05-05)
      Poor mental health of university students is becoming a serious issue in many countries. Malaysia - a leading country for Asia-Pacific education - is one of them. Despite the government’s effort to raise awareness, Malaysian students’ mental health remains challenging, exacerbated by the students’ negative attitudes towards mental health (mental health attitudes). Relatedly, self-compassion and resilience have been reported to improve mental health and mental health attitudes. Malaysian students (n=153) responded to paper- based measures about mental health problems, negative mental health attitudes, self- compassion and resilience. Scores were compared with 105 UK students, who also suffered from poor mental health and negative mental health attitudes, to make a cross-cultural comparison, to contextualise Malaysian students’ mental health status, using t-tests (Aim 1). Correlation, path, and moderation analyses were conducted, to evaluate the relationships among these mental health constructs (Aim 2). Malaysian students scored higher on mental health problems and negative mental health attitudes, and lower on self-compassion and resilience than UK students. Mental health problems were positively associated with negative mental health attitudes, and negatively associated with self-compassion and resilience. While self-compassion mediated the relationship between negative mental health attitudes and mental health problems (high self-compassion weakened the impacts of negative mental health attitudes on mental health problems), resilience did not moderate the same relationship (the level of resilience did not influence the impact of negative mental health attitudes on mental health problems). Self-compassion training was suggested to counter the challenging mental health in Malaysian university students.
    • Functional fear predicts public health compliance in the COVID-19 pandemic

      Harper, Craig A.; Satchell, Liam; Fido, Dean; Latzman, Robert; Nottingham Trent University; University of Winchester; Georgia State University; University of Derby (Springer, 2020-04-27)
      In the current context of the global pandemic of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), health professionals are working with social scientists to inform government policy on how to slow the spread of the virus. An increasing amount of social scientific research has looked at the role of public message framing, for instance, but few studies have thus far examined the role of individual differences in emotional and personality-based variables in predicting virus-mitigating behaviors. In this study we recruited a large international community sample (N = 324) to complete measures of self-perceived risk of contracting COVID-19, fear of the virus, moral foundations, political orientation, and behavior change in response to the pandemic. Consistently, the only predictor of positive behavior change (e.g., social distancing, improved hand hygiene) was fear of COVID-19, with no effect of politically-relevant variables. We discuss these data in relation to the potentially functional nature of fear in global health crises.
    • Exploring the problem of establishing horizon emergent technologies within a higher education institution’s operational framework

      Shaw, Paula; Sheffield, David; Rawlinson, Sarah; University of Derby (Sciendo, 2020-04-24)
      Since the early 2000s, a plethora of web-based learning technologies has been developed, each proposing to improve the student experience. Yet, a study conducted by Martin et al. (2018) demonstrate sporadic new technology adoption in Higher Education (HE), despite wide-scale social interest and a wealth of academic publications. This paper aims to provide a framework to explore this problem from an institutional perspective, involving both educational planners and pedagogues. This framework, the Pedagogic Realignment with Organisational Priorities and Horizon Emergent Technologies Framework or PROPHET Framework, is a new three phase framework that combines two distinct research methodologies used by policy makers and pedagogues with a new dynamic multi-level diffusion of innovation (DMDI) model specifically designed to support dialogue between these stakeholders. Application of the PROPHET Framework will enable stakeholders to arrive at a common understanding about the efficacy of such new technologies and collaborative exploration of technology through these different lenses will lead to increased confidence in its value and relevance. It is hypothesised that undertaking this process will increase the adoption rate of Horizon Emergent Technologies, resulting in operational policy amendments and evidence of impact in the learning environment.
    • “Thumb Exercise”: an interpretative phenomenological analysis of psychosocial factors encouraging inactive adults to engage with their smartphones rather than physical activity

      Hedges, Tallulah; Garip, Gulcan; University of Derby (Ubiquity Press, 2020-04-09)
      Physical inactivity accounts for up to 1.6 million deaths each year. With UK adults spending approximately eleven times longer using their smartphones than exercising, research suggests that frequent smartphone use is linked to poor physical fitness. Previous research on the psychosocial influences of both problem smartphone use, and physical activity barriers and facilitators exist, however insight into the psychosocial underpinnings of why inactive individuals choose to engage with their smartphones rather than physical activity is understudied This study provides a qualitative exploration of the psychosocial factors that encourage inactive adults to engage with their smartphones rather than physical activity. Thirteen (female = 10) participants aged between 18 and 39 completed an online qualitative survey. The subjective experiences and perceptions from participants’ survey responses were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis, with a phenomenological epistemological approach. Three themes were identified: the first theme identified that the psychosocial influence of smartphone engagement was to escape unpleasant realities; the second theme depicts that the psychosocial barrier of physical activity engagement was perceptions in relation to the financial and task-oriented costs that physical activity incurs; the third theme captured that social support necessities are being fulfilled through smartphone communication, therefore as a counterpart, physical activity is deemed to be a desolate operation. The findings from this study provide recommendations that harness social support and smartphone capabilities for motivating inactive adults to maintain physically active lifestyles.
    • A case report of cognitive behavioural therapy for a Japanese female patient suffering from migraine

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Asano, Kenichi; University of Derby (Concurrent Disorders, 2020-04)
      Despite its prevalence, migraine was not regarded as a problematic disease until 2000. This third most common disease in the world is also common in Japan. While effective treatment and interventions are introduced in manuals and guidelines in the West, helpful information to treat migraine targeting Japanese patients is still scarce. Accordingly, this clinical note reports a Japanese female who suffered from long-term migraine. Similar to many Western cases, approaches based on cognitive behavioural therapy were deemed effective in this client’s case as well. Empirical evaluation was recommended.
    • Study protocol: a pilot study investigating mental health in the UK police force

      Edwards, Ann-Marie; Kotera, Yasuhiro; University of Derby (Concurrent Disorders Society, 2020-04)
      Police workers in the United Kingdom suffer from poor mental health, which is exacerbated by stigma associated with mental health problems. Accordingly, this study protocol paper presents a pilot study aiming to appraise direct experiences of mental illness among police officers, and the culture in the police workforce towards officers suffering with a mental health problem, while evaluating the feasibility of a large study. Thematic analysis on semi-structured interviews was designed to capture their first-hand experience. Ethical considerations and dissemination plans were discussed.
    • Cost-utility of attachment-based compassion therapy (ABCT) for fibromyalgia compared to relaxation: a pilot randomized controlled trial

      D’Amico, Francesco; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Montero-Marín, Jesús; Peñarrubía-María, María T.; Navarro-Gil, Mayte; Van Gordon, William; García-Campayo, Javier; Luciano, Juan V.; London School of Economics and Political Science; Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu, 08950 Esplugues de Llobregat, Spain; et al. (MDPI AG, 2020-03-07)
      A recent study has supported the efficacy of Attachment-Based Compassion Therapy (ABCT) compared to relaxation (REL) for the management of fibromyalgia (FM). The main objective of this paper is to examine the cost-utility of ABCT compared to REL in terms of effects on quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) as well as healthcare costs. Forty-two Spanish patients with FM received 8 weekly group sessions of ABCT or REL. Data collection took place at pre- and 3-month follow-up. Cost-utility of the two treatment groups (ABCT vs. REL) was compared by examining treatment outcomes in terms of QALYs (obtained with the EQ-5D-3L) and healthcare costs (data about service use obtained with the Client Service Receipt Inventory). Data analyses were computed from a completers, ITT, and per protocol approach. Data analysis from the healthcare perspective revealed that those patients receiving ABCT exhibited larger improvements in quality of life than those doing relaxation, while being less costly 3 months after their 8-week treatment program had ended (completers: incremental cost M, 95% CI = €−194.1 (−450.3 to 356.1); incremental effect M, 95% CI = 0.023 QALYs (0.010 to 0.141)). Results were similar using an ITT approach (incremental cost M, 95% CI = €−256.3 (−447.4 to −65.3); incremental effect M, 95% CI = 0.021 QALYs (0.009 to 0.033)). A similar pattern of results were obtained from the per protocol approach. This RCT has contributed to the evidence base of compassion-based interventions and provided useful information about the cost-utility of ABCT for FM patients when compared to relaxation. However, the small sample size and short follow-up period limited the generalizability of the findings
    • Call for papers: case studies of applied health psychology practice, implementation and knowledge translation experiences

      Cross, Ainslea; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2020-03-01)
      Since our Spring 2019 call for papers (Cross & Sheffield, 2019) for the new Health Psychology Practice, Consultancy and Training section of Health Psychology Update (HPU) we have been fortunate to receive articles highlighting the value and impact of health psychology in practice within varied settings and contexts. We have featured practice articles on working as a health psychologist in community settings for adults with learning disabilities (Bains & Turnbull, 2019), public health (Lawes-Wickwar & Begum, 2020), the NHS (Anderson 2019) and the development of a student-delivered University health coaching service (Cooper, Allan, Dunsmore, Johnston & Leighton-Beck, 2020). To build on our progress in raising the profile of applied health psychology practice, we would like to invite articles on the following themes: (1) knowledge translation, featuring experiences of translating research into practice; (2) implementation, experiences of designing and delivering applied health psychology practice or interventions. We invite a range of flexible formats for presenting your work such as reflective accounts, case study reports or protocols of works in progress and lessons learned to date. HPU aims to provide an opportunity for anyone working in applied health psychology to share their work and projects in order to raise the profile of health psychology. If you would like to share your work with the health psychology community, please email your expression of interest to: hpu.professional@outlook.com and hpu.editor@outlook.com.
    • Examining adherence to medication in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation: The role of medication beliefs, attitudes and depression.

      Taylor, Elaina C.; Hughes, Lyndsay D; O'Neill, Mark; Bennett, Peter; King's College London (Wolters Kluwer, 2020-02-21)
      This study examined whether beliefs about medicines, drug attitudes, and depression independently predicted anticoagulant and antiarrhythmic adherence (focusing on the implementation phase of nonadherence) in patients with atrial fibrillation(AF). This cross-sectional study was part of a larger longitudinal study. Patients with AF (N = 118) completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-8. The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire, Drug Attitude Inventory, and Morisky-Green-Levine Medication Adherence Scale (self-report adherence measure), related to anticoagulants and antiarrhythmics, were also completed. Correlation and logistic regression analyses were conducted. There were no significant differences in non-adherence to anticoagulants or antiarrhythmics. Greater concerns (r = 0.23, P = .01) were significantly, positively associated with anticoagulant nonadherence only. Depression and drug attitudes were not significantly associated with anticoagulant/antiarrhythmic adherence. Predictors reliably distinguished adherers and non-adherers to anticoagulant medication in the regression model, explaining 14% of the variance, but only concern beliefs (odds ratio, 1.20) made a significant independent contribution to prediction (χ2 =11.40, P=.02,with df = 4). When entered independently into a regression model, concerns (odds ratio, 1.24) significantly explained 10.3% of the variance (χ2 = 7.97, P = .01, with df = 1). Regressions were not significant for antiarrhythmic medication (P = .30). Specifying medication type is important when examining nonadherence in chronic conditions. Concerns about anticoagulants, rather than depression, were significantly associated with non-adherence to anticoagulants but not antiarrhythmics. Anticoagulant concerns should be targeted at AF clinics, with an aim to reduce nonadherence and potentially modifiable adverse outcomes such as stroke.
    • Mental health of UK hospitality Workers: Shame, self-criticism and self-reassurance

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Adhikari, Prateek; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2020-02-05)
      This study aimed to evaluate shame for mental health problems, and explore relationships between shame, self-criticism, self-reassurance, and mental health among UK hospitality workers, because this group of workers suffer from poor mental health yet report strong shame. An opportunity sample of 114 UK hospitality workers completed measures examining shame for mental health problems, self-criticism, self-reassurance, and mental health problems. A high proportion of workers scored over the midpoint in almost all the shame subscales. Shame, self-criticism, self-reassurance, and mental health were related to one another. External shame and self-criticism were positive predictors, and self-reassurance was a negative predictor for mental health problems. While self-criticism moderated the relationship between shame and mental health problems, self-reassurance did not. Online compassion training was recommended as it can reduce self-criticism and shame, can be undertaken without colleagues knowing and tailored to specific work patterns.
    • Can mindfulness help address the global obesity epidemic in children and adolescents?

      Sapthaing, Supakyada; Van Gordon, William; Shonin, Edo; Zangeneh, Masood; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2020-02-05)
    • Ethics in computing, science, and engineering: A student's guide to doing things right

      Blundell, Barry G.; University of Derby (Springer-Nature, 2020-02)
      This comprehensive textbook introduces students to the wide-ranging responsibilities of computing, science and engineering professionals by laying strong transdisciplinary foundations and by highlighting ethical issues that may arise during their careers. The work is well illustrated, and makes extensive use of activities, ethical dilemmas and case studies designed to stimulate discussion and engagement. A broad range of technologies are introduced and examined within an ethical framework. These include biometrics, surveillance systems (including facial recognition), radio frequency identification devices, drone technologies, the Internet of Things, and robotic systems. The application and potential societal ramifications of such systems are examined in detail, not only in their current context but also in terms of their ongoing evolution. The reader is asked to consider whether we can afford to allow ongoing developments to be primarily driven by market forces, or whether a more cautious approach is needed. Further chapters examine the benefits of ethical leadership, environmental issues relating to the technology product lifecycle (from inception to e-waste), ethical considerations in research (including medical experimentation), and the need to develop educational programs which will better prepare students for a more fluid employment landscape. The final chapter introduces a structured approach to ethical issue resolution, providing a valuable, long-term reference. In addition, it emphasises the ethical responsibilities of the professional, and considers issues that can arise when we endeavour to effect ethically sound change within organisations. Examples are provided which highlight the possible ramifications of exercising ethical valour. The author has created an extensively referenced textbook that catalyses student interest, is internationally relevant, and which is multicultural in both its scope and outlook.