• Review of the evidence for adolescent and young person specific, community-based health services for NHS managers

      Ryan, Gemma Sinead; University of Derby; Leicestershire Partnership NHS Trust (Emerald, 2015-11)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the evidence surrounding the design and delivery of adolescent-specific health services for young people aged 14-25. This aims to make recommendations for National Health Service (NHS) senior management teams on the available literature relating to service design for children’s and young people's services within the UK. Design/methodology/approach – This paper presents a mini-review carried out in Spring 2013 using EMBASE, BNI, PSYCHinfo, MEDLINE and Google Scholar to systematically search available published and unpublished research papers. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses and evaluations of service models were included within this review. Adapted “GRADE” criteria were used to appraise the evidence. Findings – Of 70 papers found, 22 met the inclusion criteria. There were five main service designs found within the literature: hospital-based; school-linked or school-based; community based; combination and integrative; and other methods which did not fit into the four other categories. Research limitations/implications – This review is limited to the literature available within the inclusion criteria and search strategy used. It intends to inform management decisions in combination with other parameters and available evidence. Originality/value – There is range of research and evidence syntheses relating to adolescent services, but none of these have been conducted with a focus on the UK NHS and the information needs of managers re-designing services in the current climate within England.
    • Revisiting the self-compassion scale-short form: Stronger associations with self-inadequacy and resilience

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Springer, 2020-05-24)
      The Self-Compassion Scale-Short Form (SCS-SF) was developed as an economical alternative for the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), one of the few scales to assess self-compassion. Despite the active use of the SCS-SF, a psychometric evaluation of this scale remains limited. This study analysed the factor structure, reliability, and construct validity of the SCS-SF in UK university student populations. Methods Of 365 students approached, 333 completed the SCS-SF, and other measures including negative psychological constructs (mental health problems, self-criticism, and mental health shame) and positive psychological constructs (self-reassurance, resilience, and wellbeing). Data were analysed through confirmatory factor analyses and correlations. Results CFA revealed that the six-factor structure, reported in the validation paper, was not replicated. The positive factor, consisting of the three positive subscales, was not strongly related to any variable, but moderately related to reassured-self, resilience, wellbeing, and inadequate-self. The negative factor, consisting of the three negative subscales, was strongly related to inadequate-self, and moderately related to resilience, reassured-self, stress, wellbeing, depression, and internal shame. Coefficients in the negative factor were in general larger than those in the positive factor. The total SCS-SF score was most strongly related to inadequate-self, followed by resilience. Inter-correlations of the six subscales did not follow Neff (2003b)'s theoretical model of self-compassion nor the full-scale factor solution. Conclusions Findings do not accord with the common use of the global SCS-SF score as an assessment of six factors of self-compassion, and suggest a two factor solution assessing self-criticism and self-compassion.
    • Roles of positive psychology for mental health in UK social work students: self-compassion as a predictor of better mental health

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Green, Pauline; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Oxford Academic, 2019-11-29)
      Despite high shame about mental health symptoms among UK social work students, positive psychological approaches to their mental health have not been investigated in depth. Emotional resilience has been a core skill in social work practice, however its relationship with mental health is still unclear. Therefore, the primary purposes of this cross-sectional study were to (i) examine the relationships between mental health and positive psychological constructs, namely resilience, self-compassion, motivation, and engagement, and (ii) determine predictors of mental health in UK social work students. An opportunity sampling of 116 UK social work students (102 females, 14 males; 96 undergraduates, 20 postgraduates) completed five measures about these constructs. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted. Mental health was associated with resilience, self-compassion, and engagement. Self-compassion was a negative predictor, and intrinsic motivation was a positive predictor of mental health symptoms. Resilience did not predict mental health symptoms. The findings highlight the importance of self-compassion to the challenging mental health of UK social work students; they caution against the overuse and misunderstanding of resilience in the social work field.
    • Second-generation mindfulness-based interventions: toward more authentic mindfulness practice and teaching

      Van Gordon, William; Shonin, Edo; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-11-15)
      In recent years, a dialogue has emerged concerning the extent to which mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) teach and embody the essence of mindfulness according to longstanding conceptualizations of the technique. Traditionally, mindfulness was an integral component of a broad spectrum of contemplative practices, that when practiced collectively and correctly, reflected a rounded path of spiritual practice (Shonin et al. 2014). However, as part of its recent integration into various applied settings, it appears that some MBIs have largely isolated mindfulness from the techniques and practice principles that traditionally supported it. In such cases, a question that arises is whether mindfulness should still be called “mindfulness”, or whether in some of its modern interventional forms, it has been transposed into an “attention-based psychological technique” (Van Gordon et al. 2016). Regardless of the answer to this question, evidence from thousands of empirical studies suggest that this transposed technique has applications for improving health and human performance. Thus, the aforementioned dialogue has less to do with whether MBIs have demonstrable efficacy, and more to do with whether (i) there is sufficient transparency and scrutiny concerning the claims made by some MBI proponents regarding the authenticity of the technique they purport to teach, (ii) there are contexts in which a more traditional intervention-based form of mindfulness would be more appropriate or efficacious, and (iii) some prospective mindfulness practitioners would welcome more choice in terms of the degree to which an MBI follows the traditional practice model.
    • Self-criticism and self-reassurance as mediators between mental health attitudes and symptoms: Attitudes towards mental health problems in Japanese workers.

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Gilbert, Paul; Asano, Kenichi; Ishimura, Ikuo; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Wiley, 2018-12-13)
      Japanese workers suffer high rates of mental health symptoms, recognised recently by the Japanese government, which has enacted workplace well-being initiatives. One reason for poor mental health concerns negative attitudes about mental health problems such as shame, which may be mediated by self-reassurance and self-criticism. This study aimed to evaluate shame-based attitudes towards mental health problems, and explore the relationship between mental health attitudes, self-criticism, self-reassurance and mental health symptoms. Japanese workers (n=131) completed three measures; attitudes towards mental health problems, mental health symptoms, and self-criticism/reassurance. A high proportion of workers reported negative attitudes about mental health problems. There were strong relationships between mental health attitudes, mental health symptoms, self-criticism, and self-reassurance. Path analyses revealed that the total and indirect effects (through self-criticism and self- reassurance) of mental health attitudes on mental health were larger than the direct effect alone. Hated-self and family-reflected shame were identified as predictors for mental health symptoms. The findings suggest the importance of self-criticism and self-reassurance in mental health and mental health attitudes. Implications for help-seeking behaviours are also discussed. Interventions aimed at reducing self-criticism and enhancing self-reassurance are recommended to improve mental health attitudes and increase help-seeking in Japanese workers.
    • Self-injury and self-concept

      Ducasse, D.; Van Gordon, William; Courtet, P; Ollie, E; University of Derby; Neuropsychiatry Epidemiological and Clinical Research, Montpellier, Franc; Lapeyronie Hospital, Department of Emergency Psychiatry and Post Acute Care, CHRU Montpellier, France (Elsevier, 2019-07-30)
    • Setting up and initiating patient public involvement (PPI) as a collaborative process benefits research in its early stages

      Varkonyi-Sep, Judit; Cross, Ainslea; Howarth, Peter; University of Southampton; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2017-09)
    • Slips, trips and falls in crowds

      Filingeri, Victoria; Haslam, Roger; Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK; University of Derby, Derby, UK (Springer Link, 2018-08-05)
      Crowd situations are commonplace and involve circumstances known to lead to slips, trips and falls (STF). Data from focus groups with crowd participants (5 groups, n = 35 individuals); observations of crowd situations (n = 55); and interviews with crowd organisers (n = 41) were analysed to examine understanding of and responses to the risk of STF in crowds. Although safety was a high priority for both crowd participants and organisers, explicit consideration of STF as a safety concern was low among both groups. Crowd observations found STF risks mitigated on some occasions and present on others, without any discernible pattern for the variation. A risk management framework for STF risk in crowds is proposed. It is concluded that improved understanding is needed of the nature and pattern of STF occurrence in crowds and the efficacy of measures for prevention.
    • A snapshot of the lives of women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A photovoice investigation.

      Williams, Sophie; Sheffield, David; Knibb, Rebecca C.; University of Derby (Sage Publications, 2014-09-09)
      Polycystic ovary syndrome affects 6  percent of women. Symptoms include hirsutism, acne, and infertility. This research explores the impact of polycystic ovary syndrome on women’s lives using photovoice. Nine participants photographed objects related to their quality of life and made diary entries explaining each photograph. Three themes emerged from thematic analysis of the diaries: control (of symptoms and polycystic ovary syndrome controlling their lives), perception (of self, others, and their situation), and support (from relationships, health care systems, and education). These findings illuminate positive aspects of living with polycystic ovary syndrome and the role pets and social networking sites play in providing support for women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    • Social ecological interventions to increase physical activity in children and young people living with and beyond cancer: a systematic review

      Cross, Ainslea; Howlett, Neil; Sheffield, David; University of Derby; University of Hertfordshire (Taylor & Francis, 2020-05-29)
      To identify the behaviour change techniques and intervention components associated with the promotion of physical activity (PA) for children and young people living with and beyond cancer. A systematic review and narrative synthesis was conducted on the evidence on PA interventions for children and young people (up to 30 years of age) living with and beyond cancer using a social ecological framework. Out of 12 studies, 8 were shown to change PA. Intervention components included (1) behavioural (Instruction on how to perform the behaviour, credible source, behavioural demonstration and rehearsal), (2) cognitive-emotional (targeting attitude, perceived behavioural control, intentions, resilience and achievement) (3) socio-cultural (family and peer support for PA), (4) environmental (providing access to resources, environmental restructuring, safety), (5) demographic (child, adolescent, young adult or mixed) and (6) medical (tailored exercise depending on age and cancer stage). Conclusions: Interventions designed to increase physical activity participation and adherence during and beyond cancer treatment for young people should integrate psychosocial (behavioural, cognitive-emotional, social), environmental and medical intervention components. Our conceptual model can be used to inform the development of interventions and guides future research objectives and priorities.
    • Social network analysis of dementia wards in psychiatric hospitals to explore the advancement of personhood in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.

      Lazzari, Carlo; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Thomas, Hywel; University of Derby; Swansea University (Bentham Science Publishers, 2019-06-12)
      Little is known on investigating how healthcare teams in dementia wards act for promoting personhood in persons with Alzheimer's disease (PWA). The current research aimed to identify the social networks of dementia health carers promoting the personhood of PWA in acute or long-term dementia wards in public and private psychiatric hospitals. We used a mixed-method research approach. Ethnographic observations and two-mode Social Network Analysis (SNA) captured the role and social networks of healthcare professionals promoting PWA personhood, using SocNetv version 2.4. The social network graphs illustrated how professionals participated in PWA care by computing the degree of centrality (%DC) for each professional; higher values indicated more statistical significance of a professional role compared to others in the provision of personhood care. The categories of personhood were biological, individual, and sociologic. Nurses, doctors, ward managers, hospital managers, clinical psychologists, occupational therapists, care coordinators, physiotherapists, healthcare assistants, and family members were observed if they were promoting PWA personhood. The highest %DC in SNA in biological personhood was held by the ward nurses (36%), followed by the ward doctors (20%) and ward managers (20%). All professional roles were involved in 16% of cases in the promotion of individual personhood, while the hospital managers had the highest %DC (33%) followed by the ward managers and nurses (27%) in the sociologic personhood. All professional roles were deemed to promote PWA personhood in dementia wards, although some limitation exists according to the context of the assessment.
    • Stress and risky decision making: Cognitive reflection, emotional learning or both.

      Simonovic, Boban; Stupple, Edward J. N.; Gale, Maggie; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Wiley, 2016-08-19)
      Stressful situations hinder judgment. Effects of stress induced by anticipated public speaking on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) were examined. The Cognitive Reflection Task (CRT) was used to examine the relationship between reflective thinking and IGT performance. The stress manipulation increased blood pressure and was associated with poorer IGT and CRT performance. Stressed participants were slower to avoid the disadvantageous decks. Moreover, CRT scores correlated with optimal deck selections indicating the importance of reflective thinking for good performance on the IGT. These correlations were observed in relatively early trials, which challenges the view that analytic thinking is not important when card contingencies are being learned. Data revealed that IGT performance in healthy individuals is not always optimal; stress levels impair performance. A mediation analysis was consistent with the proposal that the stress manipulation reduced IGT performance by impeding reflective thinking. Thus reflective processing is an important explanation of IGT performance in healthy populations. It was concluded that more reflective participants appear to learn from the outcomes of their decisions even when stressed.
    • Study protocol: a pilot study investigating mental health in the UK police force

      Edwards, Ann-Marie; Kotera, Yasuhiro; University of Derby (Concurrent Disorders Society, 2020-04)
      Police workers in the United Kingdom suffer from poor mental health, which is exacerbated by stigma associated with mental health problems. Accordingly, this study protocol paper presents a pilot study aiming to appraise direct experiences of mental illness among police officers, and the culture in the police workforce towards officers suffering with a mental health problem, while evaluating the feasibility of a large study. Thematic analysis on semi-structured interviews was designed to capture their first-hand experience. Ethical considerations and dissemination plans were discussed.
    • Symptoms of anxiety and depression are related to cardiovascular responses to active, but not passive, coping tasks

      Yuenyongchaiwat, Kornanong; Baker, Ian S.; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Brazilian Psychiatric Association, 2016-11-07)
      Objective: Anxiety and depression have been linked to blunted blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) reactions to mental stress tests; however, most studies have not included indices of underlying hemodynamics nor multiple stress tasks. This study sought to examine the relationships of anxiety and depression with hemodynamic responses to acute active and passive coping tasks. Methods: A total of 104 participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales and mental arithmetic, speech, and cold pressor tasks while BP, HR, total peripheral resistance, and cardiac output (CO) were assessed. Results: After adjustment for traditional risk factors and baseline cardiovascular activity, depression scores were negatively associated with systolic BP, HR, and CO responses to the mental arithmetic task, while anxiety scores were inversely related to the systolic BP response to mental arithmetic. Conclusion: High anxiety or depression scores appear to be associated with blunted cardiac reactions to mental arithmetic (an active coping task), but not to the cold pressor test or speech tasks. Future research should further examine potential mechanisms and longitudinal pathways relating depression and anxiety to cardiovascular reactivity.
    • Systematic review and meta-synthesis of coping with retinitis pigmentosa: implications for improving quality of life

      Garip, Gulcan; Kamal, Atiya; University of Derby (BMC/ Springer Nature, 2019-08-13)
      Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are a group of incurable and inherited eye conditions, and the leading cause of inherited blindness in people under the age of 60. The aim of this systematic review and meta-synthesis was to present a comprehensive overview of qualitative papers on experiences and coping strategies of adults living with RP, and how these influence quality of life. A pre-registered search strategy was applied in nine databases and 12 articles met eligibility criteria. Studies included were from Australia, Brazil, Ireland, Netherlands, Republic of Korea, United Kingdom, and USA. The overall sample was based on 126 people with RP (ages ranging from 18 to 85; at least 65 female). Principles of meta-ethnography were used to synthesise the articles revealing five higher-level meta-themes. The five higher-level meta-themes were, 1) managing identity: making sense of RP, managing autonomy and independence; 2) living with RP: practical and emotional issues; 3) experiences with healthcare professionals and other social support; 4) adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies; and 5) impact of RP on work and career. A conceptual model was developed by grouping higher-level meta-themes as intra- and inter-individual factors and how they may be implicated with coping strategies and quality of life. This review established factors that can be explored as potential psychosocial influences in the relationship between coping strategies and quality of life in people with RP. Further understanding of these factors and mechanisms can help inform intervention development to support adaptive coping in living with RP and positively impact quality of life.
    • Three good things in nature: Noticing nearby nature brings sustained increases in connection with nature.

      Richardson, Miles; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2017-01-12)
      Connecting people more fully with nature is emerging as a societal issue owing to the state of nature, links to pro-environmental behaviour and benefits to wellbeing. Simple, low-cost, interventions that deliver sustained increases in nature connectedness would be valuable. Participants (n=50) noted three good things in nature each day for five days and a control group noted three factual things (n=42). The intervention group showed sustained and significant increases in nature connectedness compared to the control group. Increases in nature connectedness were associated with psychological health improvement in the intervention group. Noting the good things in nature each day can deliver sustained increases in peoples’ connection with nature.; Connecting people more fully with nature is emerging as a societal issue owing to the state of nature, links to pro-environmental behaviour and benefits to wellbeing. Simple, low-cost interventions that deliver sustained increases in nature connectedness would be valuable. Participants (n = 50) noted three good things in nature each day for five days and a control group noted three factual things (n = 42). The intervention group showed sustained and significant increases in nature connectedness compared to the control group. Increases in nature connectedness were associated with psychological health improvement in the intervention group. Noting the good things in nature each day can deliver sustained increases in people’s connection with nature.
    • “Thumb Exercise”: an interpretative phenomenological analysis of psychosocial factors encouraging inactive adults to engage with their smartphones rather than physical activity

      Hedges, Tallulah; Garip, Gulcan; University of Derby (Ubiquity Press, 2020-04-09)
      Physical inactivity accounts for up to 1.6 million deaths each year. With UK adults spending approximately eleven times longer using their smartphones than exercising, research suggests that frequent smartphone use is linked to poor physical fitness. Previous research on the psychosocial influences of both problem smartphone use, and physical activity barriers and facilitators exist, however insight into the psychosocial underpinnings of why inactive individuals choose to engage with their smartphones rather than physical activity is understudied This study provides a qualitative exploration of the psychosocial factors that encourage inactive adults to engage with their smartphones rather than physical activity. Thirteen (female = 10) participants aged between 18 and 39 completed an online qualitative survey. The subjective experiences and perceptions from participants’ survey responses were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis, with a phenomenological epistemological approach. Three themes were identified: the first theme identified that the psychosocial influence of smartphone engagement was to escape unpleasant realities; the second theme depicts that the psychosocial barrier of physical activity engagement was perceptions in relation to the financial and task-oriented costs that physical activity incurs; the third theme captured that social support necessities are being fulfilled through smartphone communication, therefore as a counterpart, physical activity is deemed to be a desolate operation. The findings from this study provide recommendations that harness social support and smartphone capabilities for motivating inactive adults to maintain physically active lifestyles.
    • Towards another kind of borderlessness: online students with disabilities

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Cockerill, Victoria; Green, Pauline; Hutchinson, Lucy; Shaw, Paula; Bowskill, Nicholas; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2019-04-09)
      Online learning is crucial to success for higher education institutions. Whilst the existing literature predominantly focused on its economic advantages, we focused on its inclusivity. At an online learning unit of a UK university, the number of students with disabilities (SWD) is three times higher than the national average. Having a degree makes significant financial and psychological differences in the lives of SWD. Though recent literature focused on inclusivity of online learning, an appraisal of first-hand experience of SWD studying online is a missing perspective. Accordingly, we aimed to explore their experience, using thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews involving ten SWD. Three themes emerged: (1) having control over studies as an advantage of online learning, (2) personal touch helps SWD’s online learning, and (3) challenges SWD experience with the social element of online learning. Our findings will help to develop the inclusivity of online learning to a new level.
    • Trapped particle makes 3D images.

      Blundell, Barry G.; University of Derby (Springer Nature, 2018-01-25)
      A technique employing photophoretic trapping has been applied to the implementation of a three-dimensional (3D) volumetric display system. This may ultimately enable the production of high-quality, free space images.
    • Underestimation of COVID-19 cases in Japan: an analysis of RT-PCR testing for COVID-19 among 47 prefectures in Japan

      Sawano, Toyoaki; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Ozaki, Akihiko; Murayama, Anju; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Sah, Ranjit; Wang, Jiwei; Fukushima Medical University, Japan; University of Derby; Tohoku University, Japan; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2020-06-19)
      Under the unique Japanese policy to restrict reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, a nationwide number of its confirmed cases and mortality remains to be low. Yet the information is lacking on geographical differences of these measures and their associated factors. Evaluation of prefecture-based geographical differences and associated predictors for the incidence and number of RT-PCR tests for COVID-19. Cross-sectional study using regression and correlation analysis. We retrieved domestic laboratory-confirmed cases, deaths, and the number of RT-PCR testing for COVID-19 from January 15 to April 6, 2020 in 47 prefectures in Japan, using publicly-available data by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. We did descriptive analyses of these three measures and identified significant predictors for the incidence and RT-PCR testing through multiple regression analyses and correlates with the number of deaths through correlation analysis. The median prefectural-level incidence and number of RT-PCR testing per 100,000 population were 1.14 and 38.6, respectively. Multiple regression analyses revealed that significant predictors for the incidence were prefectural-level population (p < 0.001) and the number of RT-PCR testing (p = 0.03); and those for RT-PCR testing were the incidence (p = 0.025), available beds (p = 0.045) and cluster infections (p = 0.034). Considering bidirectional association between the incidence and RT-PCR testing, there may have been an underdiagnosed population for the infection. The restraint policy for RT-PCR testing should be revisited to meet the increasing demand under the COVID-19 epidemic.