• Mental health of UK hospitality Workers: Shame, self-criticism and self-reassurance

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Adhikari, Prateek; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2020-02-05)
      This study aimed to evaluate shame for mental health problems, and explore relationships between shame, self-criticism, self-reassurance, and mental health among UK hospitality workers, because this group of workers suffer from poor mental health yet report strong shame. An opportunity sample of 114 UK hospitality workers completed measures examining shame for mental health problems, self-criticism, self-reassurance, and mental health problems. A high proportion of workers scored over the midpoint in almost all the shame subscales. Shame, self-criticism, self-reassurance, and mental health were related to one another. External shame and self-criticism were positive predictors, and self-reassurance was a negative predictor for mental health problems. While self-criticism moderated the relationship between shame and mental health problems, self-reassurance did not. Online compassion training was recommended as it can reduce self-criticism and shame, can be undertaken without colleagues knowing and tailored to specific work patterns.
    • Mental health of UK university business students: Relationship with shame, motivation and self-compassion

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Conway, Elaine; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby; Centre for Psychological Research, University of Derby, Derby, UK;; Derby Business School, University of Derby, Derby, UK; Centre for Psychological Research, University of Derby, Derby, UK; (2018-09-20)
      There is growing awareness of mental health problems among UK business students, which appears to be exacerbated by students’ attitudes of shame toward mental health. This study recruited 138 UK business students and examined the relationship between mental health and shame, and mental health and potential protective factors such as self-compassion and motivation. A significant correlation between each of the constructs was observed and self-compassion was identified as an explanatory variable for mental health. Shame moderated the relationship between self-compassion and mental health. Integrating self-compassion training into business study programs may help to improve the mental health of this student group.
    • Mental health shame of UK construction workers: Relationship with masculinity, work motivation, and self-compassion.

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Green, Pauline; Sheffield, David; UDOL; University of Derby (Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos de Madrid, 2019-07-05)
      Despite their poor mental health, many UK construction workers do not seek out help, because of shame for mental health problems relating to masculinity. The purposes of this study were to investigate relationships among mental health shame, mental health problems, masculinity, self-compassion, and motivation, and examine whether self-compassion would mediate the relationship between mental health shame and mental health problems. Construction workers (n=155) completed measures for those five constructs. The five constructs were adequately correlated with each other, but masculinity and motivation were not related to shame. Self-compassion partially mediated the relationship between mental health shame and mental health problems. Findings may help construction workers understand the importance of mental health shame with mental health problems, and identify better solutions for poor mental health. Brief online self-compassion training was recommended to reduce shame and enhance self-compassion, and may be accessible for construction workers who work at diverse sites and hours.
    • Mental representations of the supernatural: A cluster analysis of religiosity, spirituality and paranormal belief

      Schofield, Malcolm B.; Baker, Ian S.; Staples, Paul; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (2016-06-25)
      The aim of the study was to establish a new typology of belief in the supernatural; categorising people, based on their levels of religiosity, spirituality and paranormal belief. Examining how the various beliefs are defined was a further objective. The reasons for people having different levels of these beliefs were discussed, highlighting ‘Metaphysical Chauvinism’ as a possible explanation. Previous research that used variousmethods to measure religiosity, spirituality and paranormal belief were discussed. Participants (n = 307) completed an online survey consisting of the revised Religious Life Inventory (rRLI), the Intrinsic Spirituality Scale (ISS) and the revised Paranormal Belief Scale (rPBS). Two cluster analyses were performed: one on the three main scales and a secondary analysis on the ISS, the subscales of the rRLI and the rPBS. The results revealed a four cluster solution for each analysis. For the main analysis the clusters were ‘believers’, ‘paranormal believers’, ‘sceptics’ and ‘religious believers’. Metaphysical Chauvinism was supported; however, it was acknowledged that there still appears to be a lack of consensus when defining supernatural beliefs. It is proposed that the cluster analysis approach is more effective than a simple scale when trying establish how a person believes.
    • Mental wellbeing of caring profession students: relationship with caregiver identity, self-compassion, and intrinsic motivation.

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Green, Pauline; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2018)
      Aims To assess mental well-being in a sample of UK caring profession students and explore the relationship between mental well-being, psychological distress, caregiver role identity, self-compassion, and motivation. Background Students of caring profession subjects in UK universities typically follow a demanding educational and clinical training curriculum. Consequently, compared to other UK student groups, levels of psychological distress and mental illness are high. Design A cross-sectional observational study was conducted during the 2016-2017 academic year. Methods UK caring profession students (n=116) completed measures assessing mental well-being, psychological distress, caregiver role identity, self-compassion, and motivation. Significant correlations and independent predictors of mental well-being and psychological distress were identified. Results/Findings The current sample of UK caring profession students had low levels of mental well-being and two-thirds were deemed to have severe levels of psychological distress. Mental well-being and psychological distress were negatively associated with role identity, and positively associated with self-compassion and intrinsic motivation. Role identity, self-compassion and intrinsic motivation were significant independent predictors of mental well-being and psychological distress. Conclusion This study accords with other studies reporting that levels of psychological distress and mental illness are high amongst UK caring profession students. Findings suggest role identity, self-compassion, and intrinsic motivation are key factors that influence the mental well-being of this student group. Further research is warranted to determine whether adjusting the training curriculum to change how students identify with their caregiver role, as well as improve student levels of self-compassion and intrinsic motivation, leads to improvements in mental well-being and academic completion.
    • Mindfulness and nature

      Van Gordon, William; Shonin, Edo; Richardson, Miles; University of Derby (Springer, 2018-01-23)
    • Mindfulness for addressing key public health concerns in young people: Preventative applications and safety concerns.

      Sapthiang, S.; Shonin, E.; Griffiths, M.D.; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby; University of Essex; Nottingham Trent University (Schools Health Education Unit, 2019-04-15)
    • Mindfulness for pain, depression, anxiety, and quality of life in people with spinal cord injury: a systematic review

      Hearne, Jasmine; Cross, Ainslea; Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Derby (Springer Nature, 2020-01-21)
      Populations with reduced sensory and motor function, such as spinal cord injury (SCI) are at increased risk of depression, anxiety, pain, and poorer quality of life (QoL). Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBIs) have been developed with the aim of improving outcomes for people with SCI. To understand the value of MBIs, a systematic review was conducted pertaining to the use of MBIs, and interventions including elements of mindfulness, with people with SCI. Databases were reviewed from 1996 to October 2018 (updated January 2020). Eligibility criteria included the assessment of at least one of the common secondary consequences of SCI (i.e. risk of depression, anxiety, pain, and QoL), describe the use of mindfulness training as a component part of an intervention, or as the whole intervention. The Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias and The Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tools were utilised for quality appraisals. Two assessors appraised the studies and demonstrated good agreement (Cohen’s k=.848,p<.001). Five papers met the inclusion criteria, and demonstrated a range of results of interventions delivered individually, in a group format, in person, and online. Only one study reported significant reductions in pain-related outcomes (with moderate effect sizes), with the remaining studies (n=4 ) demonstrating no change. Four studies described reductions in depressive symptoms and three reported reductions in anxiety. Despite the importance of good QoL as a goal for people with SCI, few studies (n=2) assessed this as an outcome with no improvements reported. Study quality ranged from high to low/weak. The findings in this review provide mixed support for the use of mindfulness to improve outcomes after SCI. In particular, findings indicate that mindfulness may be particularly effective for improving symptoms of depression and anxiety. This review highlights the requirement for more rigorous, high-quality research, particularly larger randomised-controlled trials with long-term follow-up, in this area. The small number of studies included in the present review mean that conclusions drawn are preliminary and thus reflects the paucity of the research in the area to date. Keywords: Meditation, Mind-body, Yoga, Paraplegia, Acceptance
    • Mindfulness in schools: a health promotion approach to improving adolescent mental health.

      Sapthiang, Supakyada; Van Gordon, William; Shonin, Edo; University of Derby (Springer., 2018-10-16)
      Between 10 and 20% of adolescents worldwide experience a mental health problem within a given 12-month period. Mental health problems impact on an adolescent’s potential to live a fulfilling and productive life and lead to challenges such as stigma, isolation and discrimination. To address this need, in recent years, there has been growing interest into broad-based school-integrated health promotion interventions that seek to build resilience and augment protective factors in adolescents. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) reflect one such approach that have been administered to adolescent populations in both resilience building and treatment contexts. This paper discusses the utility of school-based MBIs as an adolescent health promotion approach and makes recommendations for intervention design, delivery and evaluation. Emerging evidence indicates that school-integrated MBIs may be a cost-effective means of not only meeting government objectives relating to adolescent mental health, but also for improving the wellbeing of teachers and parents. Furthermore, there is growing evidence indicating that mindfulness can elicit improvements in student learning performance and general classroom behaviour. However, notwithstanding these beneficial properties, there remains a need to conduct large-scale empirical investigations that seek to evaluate the effectiveness of school-integrated MBIs at a regional or national level. A further challenge is the need to ensure that mindfulness instructors are able to impart to adolescents an experiential understanding of this ancient contemplative technique.
    • Mindfulness: the art of being human

      Van Gordon, William; Shonin, Edo; University of Derby; Awake to Wisdom Centre for Meditation and Mindfulness Research (Springer, 2017-09-27)
    • Motivation types and mental health of UK hospitality workers.

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Adhikari, Prateek; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby (Springer, 2018-01-30)
      The primary purposes of this study were to (i) assess levels of different types of work motivation in a sample of UK hospitality workers and make a cross-cultural comparison with Chinese counterparts and (ii) identify how work motivation and shame-based attitudes towards mental health explain the variance in mental health problems in UK hospitality workers. One hundred three UK hospitality workers completed self-report measures, and correlation and multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify significant relationships. Findings demonstrate that internal and external motivation levels were higher in UK versus Chinese hospitality workers. Furthermore, external motivation was more significantly associated with shame and mental health problems compared to internal motivation. Motivation accounted for 34–50% of mental health problems. This is the first study to explore the relationship between motivation, shame, and mental health in UK hospitality workers. Findings suggest that augmenting internal motivation may be a novel means of addressing mental health problems in this worker population.
    • Nature: a new paradigm for well-being and ergonomics

      Richardson, Miles; Maspero, Marta; Golightly, David; Sheffield, David; Staples, Vicki; Lumber, Ryan; University of Derby; University of Nottingham (2016-03-22)
      Nature is presented as a new paradigm for ergonomics. As a discipline concerned with well-being, the importance of natural environments for wellness should be part of ergonomics knowledge and practice. This position is supported by providing a concise summary of the evidence of the value of the natural environment to well-being. Further, an emerging body of research has found relationships between well-being and a connection to nature, a concept that reveals the integrative character of human experience which can inform wider practice and epistemology in ergonomics. Practitioners are encouraged to bring nature into the workplace, so that ergonomics keeps pace with the move to nature-based solutions, but also as a necessity in the current ecological and social context.
    • 'A new normal with chemobrain': Experiences of the impact of chemotherapy-related cognitive deficits in long-term breast cancer survivors

      Cross, Ainslea; Baraniak, Amy; University of Derby (Sage, 2019-01-01)
      Chemobrain is one of the most commonly reported side-effects of cancer treatment. However, there is limited research into its psychosocial concomitants. This study aimed to explore the long-term lived experience of chemobrain. Interpretative phenomenological analysis allowed an in-depth investigation of 12 breast cancer survivors suffering from perceived cognitive deficits at least 1-year post-treatment. Themes were organised around the illness representations framework. Commonly reported cognitive deficits related to memory, language and processing speed, which affected participants' sense of identity and their interactions with others. Individual experiences were mediated by health beliefs regarding controllability, validation and impairment trajectory.
    • NLP for Japanese workers' mental well-being: pilot study.

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Emerald, 2019-08-15)
      Although numerous national and organisational level approaches have taken to improve their mental health, Japanese workers still suffer from high rates of mental health problems. Despite its worldwide application, neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) has not been evaluated for these problems in-depth. The purpose of this pilot study is to examine the effects of NLP training for mental health among Japanese workers. A pre-post test design with repeated measurements was used with 30 Japanese workers, who were undertaking NLP Practitioner Certification training. The effects on mental health were assessed with the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) and the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) at pre-training, post-training, and a three-month follow-up. The mean scores of depression and stress decreased significantly, and mental well-being increased significantly between pre-training and post-training and between pre-training and follow-up. There was no significant difference between post-training and the follow-up for any of the measures. The results suggest this training was effective for mental health of Japanese workers, and the positive effects on mental well-being were sustained. This is the first ever study to empirically evaluate the effects of the regulated NLP training on the mental health of Japanese workers, conducted by researchers well-versed in NLP. This training might be conducive to improving the mental health of the Japanese workforce. Larger scale and/or controlled studies are needed.
    • Numeracy apprehension in young children: Insights from children aged 4-7 years and primary care providers

      Petronzi, Dominic; Staples, Paul; Sheffield, David; Fitton-Wilde, Sandra; University of Derby (2018-08-19)
      The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the factors that children perceive as influencing attitudes towards numeracy, and to explore the primary care providers’ observations of children’s attitudes and responses. The participants were children aged 4-7 years, in three primary schools in the United Kingdom, parents and primary teachers. The research suggested negative attitudes toward numeracy develop in early education and are influenced by multiple factors.
    • A nurse-led sleep service for children and young people with disability

      Ryan, Gemma Sinead; Burton, Louise; Bromley, Debbie; University of Derby; Leicestershire Partnership NHS Trust (RCNi, 2014-06-25)
      Aim To evaluate the outcomes from a nurse-led, community-based sleep hygiene service for children and young people, which was designed and implemented in a community NHS trust. The project aimed to provide evidence for wider implementation of such a service across the trust. Method The project recruited 22 participants to an eight-week programme over six months and collected quantitative and qualitative data. It included evaluating service costs and collecting information about how the child’s sleep problem affected the carer and family pre- and post-intervention. Findings There was a significant, positive effect on quality-of-life measures, with two thirds of participants achieving 40% of their expectations by the end of the eight weeks. Parents said they felt ‘less helpless’ and they valued the support given in the home setting. Conclusion Cost and benefit analysis showed that the service could reduce costs associated with high-cost prescriptions. It could also positively affect community paediatric waiting lists and clinic appointments.
    • On alternative approaches to 3D image perception: Monoscopic 3D techniques.

      Blundell, Barry G.; Auckland University of Technology (Springer, 2015-04-28)
      In the eighteenth century, techniques that enabled a strong sense of 3D perception to be experienced without recourse to binocular disparities (arising from the spatial separation of the eyes) underpinned the first significant commercial sales of 3D viewing devices and associated content. However following the advent of stereoscopic techniques in the nineteenth century, 3D image depiction has become inextricably linked to binocular parallax and outside the vision science and arts communities relatively little attention has been directed towards earlier approaches. Here we introduce relevant concepts and terminology and consider a number of techniques and optical devices that enable 3D perception to be experienced on the basis of planar images rendered from a single vantage point. Subsequently we allude to possible mechanisms for non-binocular parallax based 3D perception. Particular attention is given to reviewing areas likely to be thought-provoking to those involved in 3D display development, spatial visualization, HCI, and other related areas of interdisciplinary research.
    • On the uncertain future of the volumetric 3D display paradigm.

      Blundell, Barry G.; University of Derby (Springer, 2017-03-16)
      Volumetric displays permit electronically processed images to be depicted within a transparent physical volume and enable a range of cues to depth to be inherently associated with image content. Further, images can be viewed directly by multiple simultaneous observers who are able to change vantage positions in a natural way. On the basis of research to date, we assume that the technologies needed to implement useful volumetric displays able to support translucent image formation are available and so primarily focus on other issues that have impeded the broad commercialization and application of this display paradigm. This is of particular relevance given the recent resurgence of interest in developing commercially viable, general purpose, volumetric systems. We particularly consider image and display characteristics, usability issues and identify several advantageous attributes that need to be exploited in order to effectively capitalize on this display modality.
    • Online research methods: An interview with Dr Neil Coulson

      Williams, Sophie; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2014)
      Dr Neil Coulson, Associate Professor in Health Psychology at the University of Nottingham, is at the forefront of online research methods. His primary research explore the role of online support communities, online surveys, and the role of social networking sites for people with a range of health conditions. As part of the Working Party on Internet Mediated Research (a committee of the BPS Research Board), Dr Coulson has recently helped to revise the Ethics Guidelines for Conducting Internet Mediated Research.
    • Online social networks for patient involvement and recruitment in clinical research

      Ryan, Gemma Sinead; University of Derby; Leicestershire Partnership NHS Trust (RCNi, 2013-09)
      Aim To review current literature and discuss the potential of online social networking to engage patients and the public and recruit and retain participants in clinical research. Background Online social networking is becoming a large influence on people’s daily lives. Clinical research faces several challenges, with an increasing need to engage with patients and the public and for studies to recruit and retain increasing numbers of participants, particularly in under-served, under-represented and hard to reach groups and communities. Data sources Searches were conducted using EMBASE, BNI, ERIC, CINAHL, PSYCHinfo online databases and Google Scholar to identify any grey or unpublished literature that may be available. Review methods This is a methodology paper. Discussion/Conclusion Online social networking is a successful, cost-effective and efficient method by which to target and recruit a wide range of communities, adolescents, young people and underserved populations into quantitative and qualitative research. Retention of participants in longitudinal studies could be improved using social networks such as Facebook. Evidence indicates that a mixed approach to recruitment using social networking and traditional methods is most effective. Implications for practice/research Further research is required to strengthen the evidence available, especially in dissemination of research through online social networks. Researchers should consider using online social networking as a method of engaging the public, and also for the recruitment and follow up of participants.