• Issues, applications and outcomes in interprofessional education

      Forman, Dawn; University of Derby (MedKnow Publications, 2014-04)
      In this issue, we are very pleased to present six articles, each of which has a strong interprofessional theme and which, we believe, collectively provide a flavor of the diversity of interprofessional community-oriented education, practice and research activity occurring internationally.
    • 'It's like a frog leaping leaping about in your chest': Illness and treatment perceptions in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation

      Taylor, Elaina C; O'Neill, Mark; Carroll, Susan; Hughes, Lyndsay D; Moss-Morris, Rona; King's College London (Wiley, 2017-09-05)
      Persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) is an abnormal heart rhythm associated with low quality of life (QoL) and significant health-related costs. The purpose of the study was to examine patients’ illness and treatment beliefs and ways of coping with AF symptoms, to provide insight into promoting better QoL and treatment-specific management. Beliefs were explored across three procedural treatment-groups using a qualitative cross-sectional design. 30 semi-structured interviews were carried out with patients undertaking cardioversion (n=10), catheter ablation (n=11) and atrioventricular node ablation (n=9). Interviews were transcribed and analysed using inductive thematic analysis with elements of grounded theory. An overarching theme of a vicious cycle was evident, which related to perceived lack of knowledge and understanding of AF, attempts to control symptoms and negative emotional reactions to failed control attempts. This vicious cycle related to three subordinate themes (i) Unpredictability and uncertainty of AF and symptoms; (ii) Coping with symptoms through (a) avoidance (b) all-or-nothing- (c) slowing down behaviours; and (iii) Concerns and expectations about treatment. Patients outlined a need to gain control of unpredictable symptoms by monitoring and varying activity levels. These behaviours were often appraised as ineffective at controlling symptoms, leading to heightened uncertainty and increased activity-avoidance. Treatment concerns escalated with increasing number and invasiveness of procedures. Improving AF patients’ perceived understanding of their illness and treatment and promoting more effective symptom-management strategies may alleviate psychological distress and improve QoL. Themes elaborated on the Common-Sense-Model whereby patients’ beliefs about illness and treatment interact with coping behaviours.
    • Japanese managers’ experiences of neuro-linguistic programming: a qualitative investigation

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Van Gordon, William; UDOL (Emerald, 2019-04-08)
      Though several work-related mental health training initiatives have been implemented in Japan, the effectiveness of such approaches remains unclear. Consequently, some Japanese corporations prefer using interventions such as neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) to improve employee mental health and wellbeing. This language-based development methodology has been the subject of debate in terms of the quality of the underlying empirical evidence. However, a perspective missing from this debate is an evidence-based understanding of the first-hand experiences of employees that have undertaken NLP training. The purpose of this paper is to inform this debate by conducting a rigorous qualitative examination of the experiences of Japanese senior managers who had recently received training in NLP. Semi-structured interviews attended by 11 Japanese NLP master practitioners were analysed using thematic analysis. Four themes emerged from the data set: improving work-related mental health, NLP fosters a better understanding of the mind, NLP helps to reframe perspectives relating to work and mental health, and challenges of NLP training. While managers found NLP training skills such as reframing and neuro-logical levels useful to their managerial practice and mental health more generally, they raised concerns about NLP’s reputation as well as the utility of some of the techniques employed in NLP.
    • Joy and calm: how an evolutionary functional model of affect regulation informs positive emotions in nature

      Richardson, Miles; McEwan, Kirsten; Maratos, Frances A.; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Springer, 2016-08-23)
      Key theories of the human need for nature take an evolutionary perspective, and many of the mental well-being benefits of nature relate to positive affect. As affect has a physiological basis, it is important to consider these benefits alongside regulatory processes. However, research into nature and positive affect tends not to consider affect regulation and the neurophysiology of emotion. This brief systematic review and meta-analysis presents evidence to support the use of an existing evolutionary functional model of affect regulation (the three circle model of emotion) that provides a tripartite framework in which to consider the mental well-being benefits of nature and to guide nature-based well-being interventions. The model outlines drive, contentment and threat dimensions of affect regulation based on a review of the emotion regulation literature. The model has been used previously for understanding mental well-being, delivering successful mental health-care interventions and providing directions for future research. Finally, the three circle model is easily understood in the context of our everyday lives, providing an accessible physiological-based narrative to help explain the benefits of nature.
    • Laughter and humour for personal development: A systematic scoping review of the evidence

      Gonot-Schoupinsky, Freda N.; Garip, Gulcan; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2020-05-23)
      The accessibility of laughter and humour make them attractive choices for self-care, and integrative medicine. There is a growing body of literature, but both fields are fragmented and the overall evidence has not been systematically reviewed. The relationship between health and personal development is increasingly recognized. This review scopes the evidence for laughter and humour interventions from the perspective of their potential benefits on personal development. A systematic scoping review used Joanna Briggs guidelines and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews Scoping Review extension (PRISMA-ScR). All-population laughter and humour interventions described in primary and secondary research from 1970, and in English, were searched in Web of Science and PubMed/Medline. Analysis of 240 primary research articles (k), and 11 systematic reviews (K), identified k = 564 discrete articles with studies involving 574,611 participants (n). Twelve large studies (n >15,000) contributed 77% of participants. Classification analysis found more research relating to humour (k = 445, n = 334,996) than laughter (k = 119, n = 239,615) and identified diverse personal development outcomes associated with Biological, Psychological, Social, Environmental, and Behavioural (BPSE-B) factors. This review presents growing evidence for the diverse applications and benefits of laughter and humour. Multiple opportunities for self-care and interventional applications are described. The consideration of personal development outcomes may support tailored applications according to specific needs and objectives. An umbrella Personal Development Theory of laughter and humour, inclusive humour and laughter definitions, and a humour-laughter-affect model are proposed to unify the fields.
    • Laughter and humour interventions for well-being in older adults: A systematic review and intervention classification.

      Gonot-Schoupinsky, Freda N.; Garip, Gulcan; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2018-05-01)
      Objectives To assess the potential of laughter and humour interventions to increase well-being in a general population of adults aged 60 plus; and to develop a classification to compare approaches and potential benefits of different intervention types. Design A systematic search of Web of Science, PubMed/MEDLINE, PsychInfo, AMED, and PsychArticles used inclusive terms relating to laughter and humour interventions. A realist synthesis approach enabled heterogeneous interventions to be compared pragmatically. Setting Five laughter interventions, and one humour intervention, using one or more outcome related to well-being, were considered for inclusion after screening 178 primary research papers. The five laughter interventions, representing a sample of 369 participants, were retained. Main outcome measures Well-being related outcome measures reported in each intervention informed efficacy; Joanna Briggs Institute tools appraised design; and a realist approach enabled heterogeneous interventions to be measured on their overall potential to provide an evidence base. Results Well-being related measures demonstrated at least one significant positive effect in all interventions. Confounding factors inherent in the intervention types were observed. Individual participant laughter was not reported. Conclusions Laughter and humour interventions appear to enhance well-being. There is insufficient evidence for the potential of laughter itself to increase well-being as interventions contained a range of confounding factors and did not measure participant laughter. Interventions that isolate, track, and measure the parameters of individual laughter are recommended to build evidence for these potentially attractive and low-risk interventions. The classification proposed may guide the development of both evidence-oriented and population-appropriate intervention designs.
    • Leadership and collaboration: Further developments for interprofessional education

      Forman, Dawn; Jones, Marion; Thistlethwaite, Jill; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan, 2015)
      Leadership and Collaboration provides international examples of how leadership of interprofessional education and practice has developed in various countries and examines how interprofessional education and collaborative practice can make a difference to the care of the patient, client and community.
    • Leadership development for interprofessional education and collaborative practice

      Forman, Dawn; Jones, Marion; Thistlethwaite, Jill; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan, 2014)
      Leadership Development of Interprofessional Education and Collaborative Practice is an edited compilation of chapters written by international medical and health professional experts. The book provides historical and current perspectives on leadership in healthcare.
    • Leading research and evaluation in interprofessional education and collaborative practice

      Forman, Dawn; Jones, Marion; Thistlethwaite, Jill; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan, 2016)
      Expanding upon Leadership Development for Interprofessional Education and Collaborative Practice and Leadership and Collaboration, the third installment to this original and innovative collection of books considers a variety of research models and theories. Emphasizing research and evaluation in leadership aspects, Leading Research and Evaluation in Interprofessional Education and Collaborative Practice
    • Learners’ perceptions and experiences of studying psychology online

      Garip, Gulcan; Seneviratne, Sanju Rusara; Iacovou, Susan; University of Derby; University of Roehampton (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-06-13)
      This study aimed to explore the lived experiences of six international and mature online learners studying on an undergraduate psychology course to identify barriers and facilitators to studying online. A secondary aim was to deductively explore the applicability of the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation, and Behaviour model to participants' narratives related to self-regulated online learning. Online interviews with six demographically diverse participants were conducted and analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The overarching theme was 'the balancing act of online learners', which consisted of three major themes (and respective subthemes): (1) 'identity as an online learner' ('in today's world, we're all very busy'), (2) 'access to resources' ('importance of location' and 'comparing online to on-campus teaching and learning'), and (3) 'changing nature of social interactions' ('tutors as a crutch' and 'peer-to-peer interactions'). A number of facilitators and barriers related to these themes were identified, which are applicable to the COM-B model. The COM-B model offers a novel approach in designing and delivering learning materials and activities that may instil or help maintain self-regulated learning in online psychology students.
    • The lived experiences of experienced Vipassana Mahasi meditators: an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

      Ekici, Cimen; Garip, Gulcan; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby (Springer, 2018-11-27)
      Research into the effects and mechanisms of mindfulness training draws predominantly on quantitative research. There is a lack of understanding about the subjective experiences of experienced mindfulness meditators, which may provide additional insights into the effects, processes and context of mindfulness training. This qualitative study explored the lived experiences of a novel group of experienced mindfulness meditators who practise Vipassana Mahasi (VM) meditation. The study aimed to understand how experienced VM practitioners make sense of the effects of practice and what processes they ascribe to it. Participants attended semistructured interviews, and their responses were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results yielded overarching themes including (a) improvements in hedonic and eudaimonic well-being; (b) insights into self, others and perception of reality; (c) attaining equanimity; and (d) physical and interpersonal difficulties. Participants perceived VM as a ‘cleansing’ process whereby maladaptive responses were eliminated through mindfulness, other supportive mental qualities, decentering and nonattachment. The findings revealed a complex and dynamic set of interdependent outcomes and processes, which are reinforced by Buddhist teachings and ethical practices. This study highlights the need for additional interdisciplinary research into topics such as insight generation and supportive mental qualities cultivated during VM, novel states of well-being informed by Buddhist constructs and interpersonal difficulties related to long-term practice. Findings also suggest that incorporating Buddhist teachings and ethics into mindfulness-based interventions may enhance practitioner understanding and implementation of meditation techniques.
    • Looking to the future: Framing the implementation of interprofessional education and practice with scenario planning

      Forman, Dawn; Nicol, Pam; Nicol, Paul; University of Derby (Wolters Kluwer, 2015-12)
      Background: Adapting to interprofessional education and practice requires a change of perspective for many health professionals. We aimed to explore the potential of scenario planning to bridge the understanding gap and framing strategic planning for interprofessional education (IPE) and practice (IPP), as well as to implement innovative techniques and technology for large‑group scenario planning. Methods: A full‑day scenario planning workshop incorporating innovative methodology was designed and offered to participants. The 71 participants included academics from nine universities, as well as service providers, government, students and consumer organisations. The outcomes were evaluated by statistical and thematic analysis of a mixed method survey questionnaire. Results: The scenario planning method resulted in a positive response as a means of collaboratively exploring current knowledge and broadening entrenched attitudes. It was perceived to be an effective instrument for framing strategy for the implementation of IPE/IPP, with 81 percent of respondents to a post‑workshop survey indicating they would consider using scenario planning in their own organisations. Discussion: The scenario planning method can be used by tertiary academic institutions as a strategy in developing, implementing and embedding IPE, and for the enculturation of IPP in practice settings.
    • The Mandala of the present moment.

      Van Gordon, William; Shonin, Edo; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University; Miguel Servet Hospital (Springer, 2017-08-16)
      “Mandala” is a Sanskrit word generally used to refer to a painting, diagram, or architectural structure with a particular symbolic meaning. Mandalas are often artistically beautiful and can be used to depict stages of the spiritual journey, the teachings or realm of a spiritual adept, or even life or the universe more generally. Perhaps the most well-known type of mandala are those comprising colored sand that can take many weeks to construct. In certain meditation traditions, the offering of a sand mandala concludes with the mandala being wiped with a brush to signify impermanence. Although mandalas often have elaborate designs, they can also be very simple. For example, there is an amusing story about the Indian Buddhist saint Naropa who was walking in the desert with his teacher, Tilopa. In his typical spontaneous manner, Tilopa decided to perform an initiation but Naropa had nothing on his person to offer his teacher. Consequently, Naropa proceeded to urinate in the sand in order to create a mandala that he could offer to his teacher. This was acceptable to Tilopa who then continued with the transmission. Some people find mandalas to be useful aids to meditation and spiritual practice. Among other applications, they can help spiritual practitioners work mindfully (i.e., during the creation of the mandala), engage in purification and healing practices, request blessings from spiritual teachers, and remember the transitory nature of life and phenomena. This paper explores how the mandala principle can be used to deepen our relationship with the present moment.
    • Manipulating cardiovascular indices of challenge and threat using resource appraisals.

      Turner, Martin J.; Jones, Marc V.; Sheffield, David; Barker, Jamie B.; Coffee, Peter; Staffordshire University; University of Derby; University of Stirling (Elsevier, 2014-07-15)
      Challenge and threat reflect two distinct psychophysiological approaches to motivated performance situations. Challenge is related to superior performance in a range of tasks compared to threat, thus methods to promote challenge are valuable. In this paper we manipulate challenge and threat cardiovascular reactivity using only resource appraisals, without altering perceived task demands between challenge and threat conditions. Study 1 used a competitive throwing task and Study 2 used a physically demanding climbing task. In both studies challenge task instructions led to challenge cardiovascular reactivity and threat task instructions led to threat cardiovascular reactivity. In Study 1, participants who received challenge instructions performed better than participants who received threat instructions. In Study 2, attendance at the climbing task did not differ across groups. The findings have implications for stress management in terms of focusing on manipulating appraisals of upcoming tasks by promoting self-efficacy and perceived control and focusing on approach goals. Future research could more reliably assess the influence of similar task instructions on performance.
    • Math anxiety, intrusive thoughts and performance: Exploring the relationship between mathematics anxiety and performance: The role of intrusive thoughts

      Hunt, Thomas E.; Clark-Carter, David; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (2014-08-21)
      The current study examined the relationship between math anxiety and arithmetic performance by focusing on intrusive thoughts experienced during problem solving. Participants (N = 122) performed two-digit addition problems on a verification task. Math anxiety significantly predicted response time and error rate. Further, the extent to which intrusive thoughts impeded calculation mediated the relationship between math anxiety and per cent of errors on problems involving a carry operation. Moreover, results indicated that participants experienced a range of intrusive thoughts and these were related to significantly higher levels of math anxiety. The findings lend support to a deficient inhibition account of the math anxiety-to-performance relationship and highlight the importance of considering intrusive thoughts in future work.
    • Matthew Hall and Jeff Hearn, revenge pornography: gender, sexualities and motivations

      Fido, Dean; University of Derby (SAGE Publications, 2019-09-03)
    • The mediating role of shared flow and perceived emotional synchrony on compassion for others in a mindful-dancing program

      Pizarro, José J.; Basabe, Nekane; Amutio, Alberto; Telletxea, Saioa; Harizmendi, Miren; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby; University of the Basque Country, Spain (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-08-02)
      While there is a growing understanding of the relationship between mindfulness and compassion, this largely relates to the form of mindfulness employed in first-generation mindfulness-based interventions such as Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction. Consequently, there is limited knowledge of the relationship between mindfulness and compassion in respect of the type of mindfulness employed in second-generation mindfulness-based interventions (SG-MBIs), including those that employ the principle of working harmoniously as a “secular sangha.” Understanding this relationship is important because research indicates that perceived emotional synchrony (PES) and shared flow—that often arise during participation in harmonized group contemplative activities—can enhance outcomes relating to compassion, subjective well-being, and group identity fusion. This pilot study analyzed the effects of participation in a mindful-dancing SG-MBI on compassion and investigated the mediating role of shared flow and PES. A total of 130 participants were enrolled into the study that followed a quasi-experimental design with an intervention and control group. Results confirmed the salutary effect of participating in a collective mindful-dancing program, and demonstrated that shared flow and PES fully meditated the effects of collective mindfulness on the kindness and common humanity dimensions of compassion. Further research is warranted to explore whether collective mindfulness approaches, such as mindful dancing, may be a means of enhancing compassion and subjective well-being outcomes due to the mediating role of PES and shared flow.
    • Meditation awareness training for the treatment of workaholism: A controlled trial

      Van Gordon, William; Shonin, Edo; Dunn, Thomas J.; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; Demarzo, Marcelo; Griffiths, Mark D.; University of Derby; Awake to Wisdom Centre for Meditation and Mindfulness Research; Bishop Grosseteste University; University of Zaragoza; et al. (Akadémiai Kiadó, 2017-04-20)
      Background and aims Workaholism is a form of behavioral addiction that can lead to reduced life and job satisfaction, anxiety, depression, burnout, work–family conflict, and impaired productivity. Given the number of people affected, there is a need for more targeted workaholism treatments. Findings from previous case studies successfully utilizing second-generation mindfulness-based interventions (SG-MBIs) for treating behavioral addiction suggest that SG-MBIs may be suitable for treating workaholism. This study conducted a controlled trial to investigate the effects of an SG-MBI known as meditation awareness training (MAT) on workaholism. Methods Male and female adults suffering from workaholism (n = 73) were allocated to MAT or a waiting-list control group. Assessments were performed at pre-, post-, and 3-month follow-up phases. Results MAT participants demonstrated significant and sustained improvements over control-group participants in workaholism symptomatology, job satisfaction, work engagement, work duration, and psychological distress. Furthermore, compared to the control group, MAT participants demonstrated a significant reduction in hours spent working but without a decline in job performance. Discussion and conclusions MAT may be a suitable intervention for treating workaholism. Further controlled intervention studies investigating the effects of SG-MBIs on workaholism are warranted.
    • Meditation-induced near-death dxperiences: a 3-year longitudinal study.

      Van Gordon, William; Shonin, Edo; Dunn, Thomas J.; Sheffield, David; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; Griffiths, Mark D.; University of Derby; Awake to Wisdom Centre for Meditation and Mindfulness Research; Bishop Grosseteste University; University of Zaragoza; et al. (Springer, 2018-03-12)
      Near-death experiences (NDEs) are life transformational events that are increasingly being subjected to empirical research. However, to date, no study has investigated the phenomenon of a meditation-induced near-death experience (MI-NDE) that is referred to in ancient Buddhist texts. Given that some advanced Buddhist meditators can induce NDEs at a pre-planned point in time, the MI-NDE may make NDEs more empirically accessible and thus advance understanding into the psychology of death-related processes. The present study recruited 12 advanced Buddhist meditators and compared the MI-NDE against two other meditation practices (i.e. that acted as control conditions) in the same participant group. Changes in the content and profundity of the MI-NDE were assessed longitudinally over a 3-year period. Findings demonstrated that compared to the control conditions, the MI-NDE prompted significantly greater pre-post increases in NDE profundity, mystical experiences and non-attachment. Furthermore, participants demonstrated significant increases in NDE profundity across the 3-year study period. Findings from an embedded qualitative analysis (using grounded theory) demonstrated that participants (i) were consciously aware of experiencing NDEs, (ii) retained volitional control over the content and duration of NDEs and (iii) elicited a rich array of non-worldly encounters and spiritual experiences. In addition to providing corroborating evidence in terms of the content of a “regular” (i.e. non-meditation-induced) NDE, novel NDE features identified in the present study indicate that there exist unexplored and/or poorly understood dimensions to NDEs. Furthermore, the study indicates that it would be feasible—including ethically feasible—for future research to recruit advanced meditators in order to assess real-time changes in neurological activity during NDEs.
    • Mental contrasting as a behaviour change technique: a systematic review protocol paper of effects, mediators and moderators on health

      Cross, Ainslea; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Biomed Central, 2016-11-25)
      Background Mental contrasting is a self-regulation strategy that is required for strong goal commitment. In mental contrasting, individuals firstly imagine a desired future or health goal that contrasted with the reality proceeding the goal state, which after reflection is viewed as an obstacle (Oettingen et al. J Pers Soc Psychol 80:736–753, 2001). Mentally contrasting a positive future with reality enables individuals to translate positive attitudes and high efficacy into strong goal commitment. Methods A systematic review of the literature is proposed to explore the efficacy of mental contrasting as a behaviour change technique (Michie et al., Ann Behav Med 46: 81-95, 2013) for health. The review also aims to identify the effects of mental contrasting on health-related behaviour, as well as identifying mediator and moderator variables. Discussion This will be the first systematic review of mental contrasting as a health behaviour change technique. With sufficient studies, a meta-analysis will be conducted with sensitivity and sub group analyses. If meta-analysis is not appropriate, a narrative synthesis of the reviewed studies will be conducted. Systematic review registration Review protocol registered on PROSPERO reference CRD42016034202.