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The yips in sport: A systematic reviewThe yips are a psycho-neuromuscular movement disorder, which affects sports in which fine motor precision skills are required for success. This review aims to examine key components of the yips within sport literature using a systematic approach. Twenty-five published studies were used in the systematic review, the majority of which focused on the yips in golf (n = 18); case studies were the most popular methodological approach (n = 12). Four components of the yips were identified: psychological, physiological, neurological and performance. This review describes evidence associated with each component according to research design, sample characteristics and main findings. Key findings associated with each component are evaluated and gaps within the existent literature are highlighted. It is concluded that future research incorporates a multi-discipline theory-driven approach on a wider range of sports using a more precise definition of yips types in order to enhance our understanding of the predictors and mechanisms of the yips which, in turn, will allow practitioners to develop effective interventions for athletes.
Zen and the art of living mindfully: The health-enhancing potential of zen aestheticsAmidst the burgeoning enthusiasm for mindfulness in the West, there is a concern that the largely secular ‘de-contextualized’ way in which it is being harnessed is denuding it of its potential to improve health and well-being. As such, efforts are underway to ‘re-contextualize’ mindfulness, explicitly drawing on the wider framework of Buddhist ideas and practices in which it was initially developed. This paper aims to contribute to this, doing so by focusing on Zen Buddhism, and in particular on Zen aesthetic principles. The article concentrates on the seven principles identified by Hisamatsu (1971) in his classic text Zen and the Fine Arts: kanso (simplicity); fukinsei (asymmetry); koko (austere sublimity); shizen (naturalness); daisuzoku (freedom from routine); sei-jaku (tranquillity); and yūgen (profound grace). The presence of these principles in works of art is seen as reflecting and communicating insights that are central to Buddhism, such as non-attachment. Moreover, these principles do not only apply to the creation and appreciation of art, but have clear applications for treating health-related issues, and improving quality of life more generally. This paper makes the case that embodying these principles in their lives can help people enhance their psychosomatic well-being, and come to a truer understanding of the essence of mindful living.