• Self-criticism and self-reassurance as mediators between mental health attitudes and symptoms: Attitudes towards mental health problems in Japanese workers.

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Gilbert, Paul; Asano, Kenichi; Ishimura, Ikuo; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Wiley, 2018-12-13)
      Japanese workers suffer high rates of mental health symptoms, recognised recently by the Japanese government, which has enacted workplace well-being initiatives. One reason for poor mental health concerns negative attitudes about mental health problems such as shame, which may be mediated by self-reassurance and self-criticism. This study aimed to evaluate shame-based attitudes towards mental health problems, and explore the relationship between mental health attitudes, self-criticism, self-reassurance and mental health symptoms. Japanese workers (n=131) completed three measures; attitudes towards mental health problems, mental health symptoms, and self-criticism/reassurance. A high proportion of workers reported negative attitudes about mental health problems. There were strong relationships between mental health attitudes, mental health symptoms, self-criticism, and self-reassurance. Path analyses revealed that the total and indirect effects (through self-criticism and self- reassurance) of mental health attitudes on mental health were larger than the direct effect alone. Hated-self and family-reflected shame were identified as predictors for mental health symptoms. The findings suggest the importance of self-criticism and self-reassurance in mental health and mental health attitudes. Implications for help-seeking behaviours are also discussed. Interventions aimed at reducing self-criticism and enhancing self-reassurance are recommended to improve mental health attitudes and increase help-seeking in Japanese workers.
    • Self-injury and self-concept

      Ducasse, D.; Van Gordon, William; Courtet, P; Ollie, E; University of Derby; Neuropsychiatry Epidemiological and Clinical Research, Montpellier, Franc; Lapeyronie Hospital, Department of Emergency Psychiatry and Post Acute Care, CHRU Montpellier, France (Elsevier, 2019-07-30)
    • Setting up and initiating patient public involvement (PPI) as a collaborative process benefits research in its early stages

      Varkonyi-Sep, Judit; Cross, Ainslea; Howarth, Peter; University of Southampton; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2017-09)
    • Slips, trips and falls in crowds

      Filingeri, Victoria; Haslam, Roger; Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK; University of Derby, Derby, UK (Springer Link, 2018-08-05)
      Crowd situations are commonplace and involve circumstances known to lead to slips, trips and falls (STF). Data from focus groups with crowd participants (5 groups, n = 35 individuals); observations of crowd situations (n = 55); and interviews with crowd organisers (n = 41) were analysed to examine understanding of and responses to the risk of STF in crowds. Although safety was a high priority for both crowd participants and organisers, explicit consideration of STF as a safety concern was low among both groups. Crowd observations found STF risks mitigated on some occasions and present on others, without any discernible pattern for the variation. A risk management framework for STF risk in crowds is proposed. It is concluded that improved understanding is needed of the nature and pattern of STF occurrence in crowds and the efficacy of measures for prevention.
    • A snapshot of the lives of women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A photovoice investigation.

      Williams, Sophie; Sheffield, David; Knibb, Rebecca C.; University of Derby (Sage Publications, 2014-09-09)
      Polycystic ovary syndrome affects 6  percent of women. Symptoms include hirsutism, acne, and infertility. This research explores the impact of polycystic ovary syndrome on women’s lives using photovoice. Nine participants photographed objects related to their quality of life and made diary entries explaining each photograph. Three themes emerged from thematic analysis of the diaries: control (of symptoms and polycystic ovary syndrome controlling their lives), perception (of self, others, and their situation), and support (from relationships, health care systems, and education). These findings illuminate positive aspects of living with polycystic ovary syndrome and the role pets and social networking sites play in providing support for women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    • Social network analysis of dementia wards in psychiatric hospitals to explore the advancement of personhood in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.

      Lazzari, Carlo; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Thomas, Hywel; University of Derby; Swansea University (Bentham Science Publishers, 2019-06-12)
      Little is known on investigating how healthcare teams in dementia wards act for promoting personhood in persons with Alzheimer's disease (PWA). The current research aimed to identify the social networks of dementia health carers promoting the personhood of PWA in acute or long-term dementia wards in public and private psychiatric hospitals. We used a mixed-method research approach. Ethnographic observations and two-mode Social Network Analysis (SNA) captured the role and social networks of healthcare professionals promoting PWA personhood, using SocNetv version 2.4. The social network graphs illustrated how professionals participated in PWA care by computing the degree of centrality (%DC) for each professional; higher values indicated more statistical significance of a professional role compared to others in the provision of personhood care. The categories of personhood were biological, individual, and sociologic. Nurses, doctors, ward managers, hospital managers, clinical psychologists, occupational therapists, care coordinators, physiotherapists, healthcare assistants, and family members were observed if they were promoting PWA personhood. The highest %DC in SNA in biological personhood was held by the ward nurses (36%), followed by the ward doctors (20%) and ward managers (20%). All professional roles were involved in 16% of cases in the promotion of individual personhood, while the hospital managers had the highest %DC (33%) followed by the ward managers and nurses (27%) in the sociologic personhood. All professional roles were deemed to promote PWA personhood in dementia wards, although some limitation exists according to the context of the assessment.
    • Stress and risky decision making: Cognitive reflection, emotional learning or both.

      Simonovic, Boban; Stupple, Edward J. N.; Gale, Maggie; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Wiley, 2016-08-19)
      Stressful situations hinder judgment. Effects of stress induced by anticipated public speaking on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) were examined. The Cognitive Reflection Task (CRT) was used to examine the relationship between reflective thinking and IGT performance. The stress manipulation increased blood pressure and was associated with poorer IGT and CRT performance. Stressed participants were slower to avoid the disadvantageous decks. Moreover, CRT scores correlated with optimal deck selections indicating the importance of reflective thinking for good performance on the IGT. These correlations were observed in relatively early trials, which challenges the view that analytic thinking is not important when card contingencies are being learned. Data revealed that IGT performance in healthy individuals is not always optimal; stress levels impair performance. A mediation analysis was consistent with the proposal that the stress manipulation reduced IGT performance by impeding reflective thinking. Thus reflective processing is an important explanation of IGT performance in healthy populations. It was concluded that more reflective participants appear to learn from the outcomes of their decisions even when stressed.
    • Symptoms of anxiety and depression are related to cardiovascular responses to active, but not passive, coping tasks

      Yuenyongchaiwat, Kornanong; Baker, Ian S.; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Brazilian Psychiatric Association, 2016-11-07)
      Objective: Anxiety and depression have been linked to blunted blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) reactions to mental stress tests; however, most studies have not included indices of underlying hemodynamics nor multiple stress tasks. This study sought to examine the relationships of anxiety and depression with hemodynamic responses to acute active and passive coping tasks. Methods: A total of 104 participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales and mental arithmetic, speech, and cold pressor tasks while BP, HR, total peripheral resistance, and cardiac output (CO) were assessed. Results: After adjustment for traditional risk factors and baseline cardiovascular activity, depression scores were negatively associated with systolic BP, HR, and CO responses to the mental arithmetic task, while anxiety scores were inversely related to the systolic BP response to mental arithmetic. Conclusion: High anxiety or depression scores appear to be associated with blunted cardiac reactions to mental arithmetic (an active coping task), but not to the cold pressor test or speech tasks. Future research should further examine potential mechanisms and longitudinal pathways relating depression and anxiety to cardiovascular reactivity.
    • Systematic review and meta-synthesis of coping with retinitis pigmentosa: implications for improving quality of life

      Garip, Gulcan; Kamal, Atiya; University of Derby (BMC/ Springer Nature, 2019-08-13)
      Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are a group of incurable and inherited eye conditions, and the leading cause of inherited blindness in people under the age of 60. The aim of this systematic review and meta-synthesis was to present a comprehensive overview of qualitative papers on experiences and coping strategies of adults living with RP, and how these influence quality of life. A pre-registered search strategy was applied in nine databases and 12 articles met eligibility criteria. Studies included were from Australia, Brazil, Ireland, Netherlands, Republic of Korea, United Kingdom, and USA. The overall sample was based on 126 people with RP (ages ranging from 18 to 85; at least 65 female). Principles of meta-ethnography were used to synthesise the articles revealing five higher-level meta-themes. The five higher-level meta-themes were, 1) managing identity: making sense of RP, managing autonomy and independence; 2) living with RP: practical and emotional issues; 3) experiences with healthcare professionals and other social support; 4) adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies; and 5) impact of RP on work and career. A conceptual model was developed by grouping higher-level meta-themes as intra- and inter-individual factors and how they may be implicated with coping strategies and quality of life. This review established factors that can be explored as potential psychosocial influences in the relationship between coping strategies and quality of life in people with RP. Further understanding of these factors and mechanisms can help inform intervention development to support adaptive coping in living with RP and positively impact quality of life.
    • Three good things in nature: Noticing nearby nature brings sustained increases in connection with nature.

      Richardson, Miles; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2017-01-12)
      Connecting people more fully with nature is emerging as a societal issue owing to the state of nature, links to pro-environmental behaviour and benefits to wellbeing. Simple, low-cost, interventions that deliver sustained increases in nature connectedness would be valuable. Participants (n=50) noted three good things in nature each day for five days and a control group noted three factual things (n=42). The intervention group showed sustained and significant increases in nature connectedness compared to the control group. Increases in nature connectedness were associated with psychological health improvement in the intervention group. Noting the good things in nature each day can deliver sustained increases in peoples’ connection with nature.; Connecting people more fully with nature is emerging as a societal issue owing to the state of nature, links to pro-environmental behaviour and benefits to wellbeing. Simple, low-cost interventions that deliver sustained increases in nature connectedness would be valuable. Participants (n = 50) noted three good things in nature each day for five days and a control group noted three factual things (n = 42). The intervention group showed sustained and significant increases in nature connectedness compared to the control group. Increases in nature connectedness were associated with psychological health improvement in the intervention group. Noting the good things in nature each day can deliver sustained increases in people’s connection with nature.
    • Towards another kind of borderlessness: online students with disabilities

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Cockerill, Victoria; Green, Pauline; Hutchinson, Lucy; Shaw, Paula; Bowskill, Nicholas; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2019-04-09)
      Online learning is crucial to success for higher education institutions. Whilst the existing literature predominantly focused on its economic advantages, we focused on its inclusivity. At an online learning unit of a UK university, the number of students with disabilities (SWD) is three times higher than the national average. Having a degree makes significant financial and psychological differences in the lives of SWD. Though recent literature focused on inclusivity of online learning, an appraisal of first-hand experience of SWD studying online is a missing perspective. Accordingly, we aimed to explore their experience, using thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews involving ten SWD. Three themes emerged: (1) having control over studies as an advantage of online learning, (2) personal touch helps SWD’s online learning, and (3) challenges SWD experience with the social element of online learning. Our findings will help to develop the inclusivity of online learning to a new level.
    • Trapped particle makes 3D images.

      Blundell, Barry G.; University of Derby (Springer Nature, 2018-01-25)
      A technique employing photophoretic trapping has been applied to the implementation of a three-dimensional (3D) volumetric display system. This may ultimately enable the production of high-quality, free space images.
    • Using a research-informed interprofessional curriculum framework to guide reflection and future planning of interprofessional education in a multi-site context

      Moran, Monica Catherine; Steketee, Carole; Forman, Dawn; Dunston, Roger; University of Curtin (Canadian Institute for Studies in Publishing Press, 2015-03)
      Background: Over the past two years health educators in Australia have benefited from funding made available from national organizations such as the Office of Learning and Teaching (OLT) and Health Workforce Australia (HWA). Funded research has been conducted into educational activities across the country that aim to promote integrated and sustainable interprofessional learning. Methods and Findings: A collaboration between multiple stakeholders led to the establishment of a consortium of nine universities and interprofessional organizations. This collaboration resulted in a series of research studies and the development of a conceptual framework to guide the planning and review of interprofessional health curricula. A case study of the development of a suite of health education programs at a regional university in Australia is used to demonstrate how the framework can be used to guide curricular reflection and to plan for the future. Shedding a light on interprofessional health education activities across multiple sites provides a rich picture of current practices and future trends. Commonalities, gaps, and challenges become much more obvious and allow for the development of shared opportunities and solutions. Conclusions: The production of a shared conceptual framework to facilitate interprofessional curriculum development provides valuable strategies for curricular reflection, review, and forward planning.
    • Using a research-informed interprofessional curriculum framework to guide reflection and future planning of Interprofessional Education in a Multi-site Context

      Moran, Monica Catherine; Steketee, Carole; Forman, Dawn; Dunston, Roger; University of Derby (2015-03)
      Abstract Background: Over the past two years health educators in Australia have benefited from funding made available from national organizations such as the Office of Learning and Teaching (OLT) and Health Workforce Australia (HWA). Funded research has been conducted into educational activities across the country that aim to promote integrated and sustainable interprofessional learning. Methods and Findings: A collaboration between multiple stakeholders led to the establishment of a consortium of nine universities and interprofessional organizations. This collaboration resulted in a series of research studies and the development of a conceptual framework to guide the planning and review of interprofessional health curricula. A case study of the development of a suite of health education programs at a regional university in Australia is used to demonstrate how the framework can be used to guide curricular reflection and to plan for the future. Shedding a light on interprofessional health education activities across multiple sites provides a rich picture of current practices and future trends. Commonalities, gaps, and challenges become much more obvious and allow for the development of shared opportunities and solutions. Conclusions: The production of a shared conceptual framework to facilitate interprofessional curriculum development provides valuable strategies for curricular reflection, review, and forward planning.
    • Validation of a scale for assessing social validity in mindfulness-based education programs

      López-González, L.; Herrero-Fernández, D.; Amutio, A.; Santamaría, T.; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby (Springer, 2019-03-30)
      Social validity (SV) is a concept used in intervention research and is concerned with the overall acceptability, relevance, and utility of an intervention to all intervention stakeholders. SV not only takes into account efficacy in respect of the pre-defined study outcomes, but also participants’ perceptions of the intervention as well as the wider social context in which it will be applied. There are a growing number of mindfulness-based educational programs (MBEPs) being empirically evaluated and implemented in educational settings. However, due to a lack of scientifically validated instruments that can assess SV in MBEPs, a systematic evaluation of SV in such programs has not been undertaken to date. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Social Validity Scale of Mindfulness-Based Programs for Adolescents (Escala de Validez Social de Programas de Mindfulness para Adolescentes—EVSPM-A), composed of 20 items. The sample comprised 512 compulsory secondary education and high school students (mean age = 14.5; SD = 1.57) from three Spanish educational centers that had completed an MBEP known as the TREVA Program. Results The final version of the scale showed good psychometric properties and factor analyses yielded five factors: global impact-satisfaction, acceptance and viability, individual perceived effectiveness, perceived classroom climate; training feasibility, and applicability of techniques. The EVSPM-A appears to be a suitable means of assessing SV in MBEPs delivered to adolescents. Using the EVSPM-A to evaluate SV can help improve the implementation and long-term efficacy of MBEPs.
    • The value of art therapy in antenatal and postnatal care: A brief literature review with recommendations for future research

      Hogan, Susan; Sheffield, David; Woodward, Amelia; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2017-09-01)
      There is a very small body of literature addressing the use of the arts or art therapy in antenatal and post-natal care, and much of it is qualitative, including some rich and complex data which is worthy of discussion and consideration. Overall, it points to a promising use of supportive and therapeutic arts in this area. This article presents some background on the use of the arts specifically focusing on post-natal depression and birth trauma. It then moves on to present a brief survey of literature in the field, followed by some further reflections and discussion about further research needed to establish clinical utility and economic viability.
    • Volumetric 3D displays.

      Blundell, Barry G.; Auckland University of Technology (Springer, 2016)
      Volumetric displays enable electronically processed images to be depicted within a transparent volume, and so they are able to occupy three spatial dimensions. A broad range of depth cues are inherently associated with such images, including the parallax and oculomotor cues. Accommodation-convergence breakdown and depth cue conflict are avoided. Here we review aspects of this display modality, identify various key characteristics, and refer to a number of exemplar technologies. Brief consideration is given to the formation of opaque images and the implementation of an ethereal form of image space.
    • Who thrives under pressure? predicting the performance of elite academy cricketers using the cardiovascular indicators of challenge and threat states

      Turner, Martin J.; Jones, Marc V.; Sheffield, David; Slater, Matthew J.; Barker, Jamie B.; Bell, James J.; Staffordshire University, Centre for Sport, Health and Exercise Research; University of Derby, Centre for Psychological Research (2013-08)
      This study assessed whether cardiovascular (CV) reactivity patterns indexing challenge and threat states predicted batting performance in elite male county (N = 12) and national (N = 30) academy cricketers. Participants completed a batting test under pressure, before which CV reactivity was recorded in response to ego-threatening audio instructions. Self-reported self-efficacy, control, achievement goals, and emotions were also assessed. Challenge CV reactivity predicted superior performance in the Batting Test, compared with threat CV reactivity. The relationships between self-report measures and CV reactivity, and self-report measures and performance were inconsistent. A small subsample of participants who exhibited threat CV reactivity, but performed well, reported greater self-efficacy than participants who exhibited threat CV reactivity, but performed poorly. Also a small subsample of participants who exhibited challenge reactivity, but performed poorly, had higher avoidance goals than participants with challenge reactivity who performed well. The mechanisms for the observed relationship between CV reactivity and performance are discussed alongside implications for future research and applied practice.
    • Work based assessment of teamwork: an interprofessional approach.

      Thistlethwaite, Jill; Forman, Dawn; Dunston, Roger; Moran, Monica Catherine; University of Derby (Office for Learning and Teaching Australia, 2015)
      This report Work-based assessment of teamwork: an interprofessional approach describes the Office for Learning and Teaching (OLT) funded project of the same name. It focuses on the rationale for, the development of and the piloting of a tool for observing and giving feedback on an individual student’s behavior in an interprofessional team based activity. The study was conducted during 2012–2014 with a project team initially led by the University of Queensland, and included team members from five Australian universities in three states (University of Queensland, University of Technology Sydney, The University of Sydney, Central Queensland University and Curtin University), as well as from the UK (University of Derby) and Canada (University of British Columbia).
    • Work-life balance of UK construction workers: Relationship with mental health

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Green, Pauline; Sheffield, David; UDOL (Taylor & Francis, 2019-06-18)
      Although the importance of work-life balance (WLB) is related to occupational psychological outcomes in many countries and industries, these relationships have not been explored in UK construction industry, a major sector of the UK economy. This workforce suffers from high rates of mental health problems and low help-seeking. Accordingly, the purposes of this study were to explore relationships between WLB, mental health, attitudes towards mental health problems, along with work schedules. One hundred and forty-four UK workers in the construction industry completed measures of those three constructs. WLB was negatively associated with mental health problems, and mental health attitudes. Mental health attitudes did not mediate the relationship between WLB and mental health problems with a small effect size. WLB was the strongest predictor of mental health problems. Mental health problems scores differed by work pattern groups; day time workers had poorer mental health than mixed workers. Findings will help UK construction workers, employers, and organisational researchers deepen their understanding of WLB and identify better solutions to poor WLB and mental health.