• Raising the profile of health psychology training, consultancy and practice issues through the new Health Psychology Update sub-section.

      Cross, Ainslea; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2019-03-20)
      A call for papers that share experiences or learning at any stage of a consultancy project, such as the negotiating, pitching and carrying out needs assessment for consultancy, as well as reflections on the outcomes or implementation of applied health psychology work. We are also looking for ‘works in progress’ describing treatment models, the development of applied practice roles for health psychologists or trainees, as well as self-reflections of the experiences of consultancy and applied practice. Contributions are welcomed to provide vital learning for trainee Health Psychologists (HPs) or established HPs looking to upskill in a different area.
    • Reactions to symptoms of mental disorder and help seeking in Sabah, Malaysia.

      Shoesmith, Wendy Diana; Borhanuddin, Awang Faisal Bin Awang; Yong Pau Lin, Pauline; Abdullah, Ahmad Faris; Nordin, Norhayati; Giridharan, Beena; Forman, Dawn; Fyfe, Sue; Universiti Malaysia Sabah; Hospital Mesra Bukit Padang; et al. (Sage, 2017-11-06)
      Abstract Background: A better understanding is needed about how people make decisions about help seeking. Materials: Focus group and individual interviews with patients, carers, healthcare staff, religious authorities, traditional healers and community members. Discussion: Four stages of help seeking were identified: (1) noticing symptoms and initial labelling, (2) collective decision-making, (3) spiritual diagnoses and treatment and (4) psychiatric diagnosis and treatment. Conclusion: Spiritual diagnoses have the advantage of being less stigmatising, giving meaning to symptoms, and were seen to offer hope of cure rather than just symptom control. Patients and carers need help to integrate different explanatory models into a meaningful whole.
    • Reflective self-attention: A more stable predictor of connection to nature than mindful attention.

      Richardson, Miles; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers, 2015-09-28)
      There is much to be gained from understanding the individual differences that predict our connection to nature, as those that are more connected tend to be more caring towards the environment and benefit from better well-being. Study 1 (n=137) found that reflective self-attention and mindful attention significantly predicted connection to nature, while anxious self-attention had a borderline significant negative association. With the introduction of personality measures, study 2 (n=161) found that reflective self-attention and openness had a stronger relationship to nature connection than mindful attention. Study 3 (n=99) found reflective self-attention, rather than mindful attention, to be associated with an increase in connection to nature. A pre-reflective and intentional self-attention account of nature connectedness is proposed with intentional self-reflection being a stronger factor than mindful attention.
    • The relationship between pain beliefs and physical and mental health outcome measures in chronic low back pain: direct and indirect effects

      Baird, Andrew; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (2016-08-19)
      Low back pain remains a major health problem with huge societal cost. Biomedical models fail to explain the disability seen in response to reported back pain and therefore patients’ beliefs, cognitions and related behaviours have become a focus for both research and practice. This study used the Pain Beliefs Questionnaire and had two aims: To examine the extent to which pain beliefs are related to disability, anxiety and depression; and to assess whether those relationships are mediated by pain self-efficacy and locus of control. In a sample of 341 chronic low back pain patients, organic and psychological pain beliefs were related to disability, anxiety and depression. However, organic pain beliefs were more strongly related to disability and depression than psychological pain beliefs. Regression analyses revealed that these relationships were in part independent of pain self-efficacy and locus of control. Further, mediation analyses revealed indirect pathways involving self-efficacy and, to a lesser extent chance locus of control, between organic pain beliefs, on the one hand, and disability, anxiety and depression, on the other. In contrast, psychological pain beliefs were only directly related to disability, anxiety and depression. Although longitudinal data are needed to corroborate our findings, this study illustrates the importance of beliefs about the nature of pain and beliefs in one’s ability to cope with pain in determining both physical and mental health outcomes in chronic low back pain patients.
    • Relationship between types of work motivation and worker profile in UK hospitality workers.

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Adhikari, Prateek; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby (Global Academic Excellence, 2017-12-02)
      Objectives The UK hospitality industry employs more than two million workers and accounts for 7% of the country’s workforce. However, despite the number of people employed, work-related mental health issues are a cause for concern in this worker population. While our previous research in UK hospitality workers identified that work motivation was a predictor of mental health, the relationship between types of work motivation and worker profile (e.g. demography, work experience, position) has not been explored to date. This study aimed to i) identify the primary type of work motivation, and ii) explore relationships between worker profile and types of work motivation in UK hospitality workers. Methodology 103 UK hospitality workers completed a worker profile questionnaire and work motivation measure. Descriptive statistics were yielded to compare each type of motivation, and correlation analyses were conducted between worker profile and motivation type. Findings Levels of internal motivation were found to be significantly higher than external motivation. Male and longer time served in the industry were associated with amotivation, the lowest form of external motivation. A higher position in the organisation was associated with external regulation, the second lowest form of external motivation. Future research Research evaluating the effectiveness of interventions to enhance intrinsic motivation, particularly among male experienced workers or managers/owners is warranted. Furthermore, male hospitality workers’ high levels of external motivation may highlight the UK’s strong masculine culture as described in Hofstede’s cultural dimension theory. This echoes with our previous research finding that shame concerning mental health issues is a problem among UK hospitality workers. Cross-cultural comparisons of work motivation and mental health would be an important future direction to help place these findings in a global context.
    • The relationship between work motivation and worker profile in UK hospitality workers.

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Adhikari, Prateek; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby (Global Academic Excellence, 2018-01-04)
      While the UK hospitality industry is growing faster than the economy, mental health problems are a serious concern in this worker population. Our previous research identified that work motivation accounted for a significant variance in mental health, however, the relationship between types of work motivation and worker profile has not been explored to date. Therefore, this study aimed to i) identify the primary type of work motivation, and ii) explore relationships between types of work motivation and worker profile in UK hospitality workers. UK hospitality workers (n=103) completed a worker profile questionnaire and work motivation measure. Their internal motivation was significantly higher than external motivation. Male and longer industry experience were associated with amotivation, the lowest type of motivation. A higher position in the organisation was associated with external regulation, the second lowest type of motivation. Intervention research for intrinsic motivation, particularly among male experienced workers or managers/owners is warranted. Considering their low wages, the high levels of internal motivation may be explained by the ‘psychological justification’ strategies. Furthermore, male hospitality workers’ high levels of external motivation may highlight the UK’s strong masculine culture as described in Hofstede’s cultural dimension theory. Likewise, highly positioned workers' high levels of external motivation may relate to the UK's low power distance in the same theory. Cross-cultural comparisons of work motivation and mental health (e.g., with the high feminine Dutch culture and/or the high power distant Malaysian culture) would be an important future direction to help place these findings in a global context.
    • Renewable hydrogen anaerobic fermentation technology: problems and potentials

      Komolafe, Abiodun O.; Okere, Uchechukwu V.; University of Derby; Lancaster University; University of Southampton (Elsevier, 2019-08-21)
      Hydrogen technology is essential to the decarbonisation of global economies because it addresses the variability and storage limitation of renewable energy. Several research literatures on hydrogen technology have focused on energy systems with minimum attention given to other fossil fuel driven sectors such as chemical and material production. For effective decarbonisation, the application of hydrogen in global economies must extend beyond the use of energy systems. Renewable hydrogen anaerobic fermentation is a suitable technology for converting the hydrogen substrate into gaseous fuel and precursors for material and green chemical production. The technology leverages on the well-established anaerobic digestion (AD) technology and can be selectively operated for a specific product. Although there are some problems associated with renewable hydrogen anaerobic fermentation, studies show different technological advancements in mitigating these challenges. This review focuses on the technological breakthroughs and limitations associated with renewable hydrogen anaerobic fermentation and provides insights on other products that could be derived from it, especially for a circular economy and the emerging market of green chemicals, sustainable agriculture, and bio-based product development.
    • Repositioning interprofessional education from the margins to the centre of Australian health professional education - what is required?

      Dunston, Roger; Forman, Dawn; Thistlethwaite, Jill; Steketee, Carole; Rogers, Gary D.; Moran, Monica Catherine; University of Technology Sydney; University of Derby; University of Notre Dame; Griffith University; et al. (CSIRO, 2018-01-16)
      Abstract Objective This paper examines the implementation and implications of four development and research initiatives, collectively titled the Curriculum Renewal Studies program (CRS), occurring over a 6-year period ending in 2015 and focusing on interprofessional education (IPE) within Australian pre-registration health professional education. Methods The CRS was developed as an action-focused and participatory program of studies. This research and development program used a mixed-methods approach. Structured survey, interviews and extensive documentary analyses were supplemented by semi-structured interviews, focus groups, large group consultations and consensus building methods. Narrative accounts of participants’ experiences and an approach to the future development of Australian IPE were developed. Results Detailed accounts of existing Australian IPE curricula and educational activity were developed. These accounts were published and used in several settings to support curriculum and national workforce development. Reflective activities engaging with the findings facilitated the development of a national approach to the future development of Australian IPE – a national approach focused on coordinated and collective governance and development. Conclusion This paper outlines the design of an innovative approach to national IPE governance and development. It explores how ideas drawn from sociocultural theories were used to guide the choice of methods and to enrich data analysis. Finally, the paper reflects on the implications of CRS findings for health professional education, workforce development and the future of Australian IPE. What is known about the topic? IPE to enable the achievement of interprofessional and collaborative practice capabilities is widely accepted and promoted. However, many problems exist in embedding and sustaining IPE as a system-wide element of health professional education. How these implementation problems can be successfully addressed is a health service and education development priority. What does this paper add? The paper presents a summary of how Australian IPE was conceptualised, developed and delivered across 26 universities during the period of the four CRS studies. It points to strengths and limitations of existing IPE. An innovative approach to the future development of Australian IPE is presented. The importance of sociocultural factors in the development of practitioner identity and practice development is identified. What are the implications for practitioners? The findings of the CRS program present a challenging view of current Australian IPE activity and what will be required to meet industry and health workforce expectations related to the development of an Australian interprofessional- and collaborative-practice-capable workforce. Although the directions identified pose considerable challenges for the higher education and health sectors, they also provide a consensus-based approach to the future development of Australian IPE. As such they can be used as a blueprint for national development.
    • Review of preventative behavioural interventions for dermal and respiratory hazards.

      Lunt, J. A.; Sheffield, David; Bell, N.; Bennett, V.; Morris, L. A.; Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire; University of Derby, Centre for Psychological Research (2011-08)
      No previous systematic review of the evidence base has been undertaken to help occupational health professionals understand how to reliably lower the instance of occupational ill-health through reducing risk-taking behaviour.
    • Review of the evidence for adolescent and young person specific, community-based health services for NHS managers

      Ryan, Gemma Sinead; University of Derby; Leicestershire Partnership NHS Trust (Emerald, 2015-11)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the evidence surrounding the design and delivery of adolescent-specific health services for young people aged 14-25. This aims to make recommendations for National Health Service (NHS) senior management teams on the available literature relating to service design for children’s and young people's services within the UK. Design/methodology/approach – This paper presents a mini-review carried out in Spring 2013 using EMBASE, BNI, PSYCHinfo, MEDLINE and Google Scholar to systematically search available published and unpublished research papers. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses and evaluations of service models were included within this review. Adapted “GRADE” criteria were used to appraise the evidence. Findings – Of 70 papers found, 22 met the inclusion criteria. There were five main service designs found within the literature: hospital-based; school-linked or school-based; community based; combination and integrative; and other methods which did not fit into the four other categories. Research limitations/implications – This review is limited to the literature available within the inclusion criteria and search strategy used. It intends to inform management decisions in combination with other parameters and available evidence. Originality/value – There is range of research and evidence syntheses relating to adolescent services, but none of these have been conducted with a focus on the UK NHS and the information needs of managers re-designing services in the current climate within England.
    • Roles of positive psychology for mental health in UK social work students: self-compassion as a predictor of better mental health

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Green, Pauline; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Oxford Academic, 2019-11-29)
      Despite high shame about mental health symptoms among UK social work students, positive psychological approaches to their mental health have not been investigated in depth. Emotional resilience has been a core skill in social work practice, however its relationship with mental health is still unclear. Therefore, the primary purposes of this cross-sectional study were to (i) examine the relationships between mental health and positive psychological constructs, namely resilience, self-compassion, motivation, and engagement, and (ii) determine predictors of mental health in UK social work students. An opportunity sampling of 116 UK social work students (102 females, 14 males; 96 undergraduates, 20 postgraduates) completed five measures about these constructs. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted. Mental health was associated with resilience, self-compassion, and engagement. Self-compassion was a negative predictor, and intrinsic motivation was a positive predictor of mental health symptoms. Resilience did not predict mental health symptoms. The findings highlight the importance of self-compassion to the challenging mental health of UK social work students; they caution against the overuse and misunderstanding of resilience in the social work field.
    • Self-criticism and self-reassurance as mediators between mental health attitudes and symptoms: Attitudes towards mental health problems in Japanese workers.

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Gilbert, Paul; Asano, Kenichi; Ishimura, Ikuo; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Wiley, 2018-12-13)
      Japanese workers suffer high rates of mental health symptoms, recognised recently by the Japanese government, which has enacted workplace well-being initiatives. One reason for poor mental health concerns negative attitudes about mental health problems such as shame, which may be mediated by self-reassurance and self-criticism. This study aimed to evaluate shame-based attitudes towards mental health problems, and explore the relationship between mental health attitudes, self-criticism, self-reassurance and mental health symptoms. Japanese workers (n=131) completed three measures; attitudes towards mental health problems, mental health symptoms, and self-criticism/reassurance. A high proportion of workers reported negative attitudes about mental health problems. There were strong relationships between mental health attitudes, mental health symptoms, self-criticism, and self-reassurance. Path analyses revealed that the total and indirect effects (through self-criticism and self- reassurance) of mental health attitudes on mental health were larger than the direct effect alone. Hated-self and family-reflected shame were identified as predictors for mental health symptoms. The findings suggest the importance of self-criticism and self-reassurance in mental health and mental health attitudes. Implications for help-seeking behaviours are also discussed. Interventions aimed at reducing self-criticism and enhancing self-reassurance are recommended to improve mental health attitudes and increase help-seeking in Japanese workers.
    • Self-injury and self-concept

      Ducasse, D.; Van Gordon, William; Courtet, P; Ollie, E; University of Derby; Neuropsychiatry Epidemiological and Clinical Research, Montpellier, Franc; Lapeyronie Hospital, Department of Emergency Psychiatry and Post Acute Care, CHRU Montpellier, France (Elsevier, 2019-07-30)
    • Setting up and initiating patient public involvement (PPI) as a collaborative process benefits research in its early stages

      Varkonyi-Sep, Judit; Cross, Ainslea; Howarth, Peter; University of Southampton; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2017-09)
    • Slips, trips and falls in crowds

      Filingeri, Victoria; Haslam, Roger; Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK; University of Derby, Derby, UK (Springer Link, 2018-08-05)
      Crowd situations are commonplace and involve circumstances known to lead to slips, trips and falls (STF). Data from focus groups with crowd participants (5 groups, n = 35 individuals); observations of crowd situations (n = 55); and interviews with crowd organisers (n = 41) were analysed to examine understanding of and responses to the risk of STF in crowds. Although safety was a high priority for both crowd participants and organisers, explicit consideration of STF as a safety concern was low among both groups. Crowd observations found STF risks mitigated on some occasions and present on others, without any discernible pattern for the variation. A risk management framework for STF risk in crowds is proposed. It is concluded that improved understanding is needed of the nature and pattern of STF occurrence in crowds and the efficacy of measures for prevention.
    • A snapshot of the lives of women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A photovoice investigation.

      Williams, Sophie; Sheffield, David; Knibb, Rebecca C.; University of Derby (Sage Publications, 2014-09-09)
      Polycystic ovary syndrome affects 6  percent of women. Symptoms include hirsutism, acne, and infertility. This research explores the impact of polycystic ovary syndrome on women’s lives using photovoice. Nine participants photographed objects related to their quality of life and made diary entries explaining each photograph. Three themes emerged from thematic analysis of the diaries: control (of symptoms and polycystic ovary syndrome controlling their lives), perception (of self, others, and their situation), and support (from relationships, health care systems, and education). These findings illuminate positive aspects of living with polycystic ovary syndrome and the role pets and social networking sites play in providing support for women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    • Social network analysis of dementia wards in psychiatric hospitals to explore the advancement of personhood in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.

      Lazzari, Carlo; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Thomas, Hywel; University of Derby; Swansea University (Bentham Science Publishers, 2019-06-12)
      Little is known on investigating how healthcare teams in dementia wards act for promoting personhood in persons with Alzheimer's disease (PWA). The current research aimed to identify the social networks of dementia health carers promoting the personhood of PWA in acute or long-term dementia wards in public and private psychiatric hospitals. We used a mixed-method research approach. Ethnographic observations and two-mode Social Network Analysis (SNA) captured the role and social networks of healthcare professionals promoting PWA personhood, using SocNetv version 2.4. The social network graphs illustrated how professionals participated in PWA care by computing the degree of centrality (%DC) for each professional; higher values indicated more statistical significance of a professional role compared to others in the provision of personhood care. The categories of personhood were biological, individual, and sociologic. Nurses, doctors, ward managers, hospital managers, clinical psychologists, occupational therapists, care coordinators, physiotherapists, healthcare assistants, and family members were observed if they were promoting PWA personhood. The highest %DC in SNA in biological personhood was held by the ward nurses (36%), followed by the ward doctors (20%) and ward managers (20%). All professional roles were involved in 16% of cases in the promotion of individual personhood, while the hospital managers had the highest %DC (33%) followed by the ward managers and nurses (27%) in the sociologic personhood. All professional roles were deemed to promote PWA personhood in dementia wards, although some limitation exists according to the context of the assessment.
    • Stress and risky decision making: Cognitive reflection, emotional learning or both.

      Simonovic, Boban; Stupple, Edward J. N.; Gale, Maggie; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Wiley, 2016-08-19)
      Stressful situations hinder judgment. Effects of stress induced by anticipated public speaking on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) were examined. The Cognitive Reflection Task (CRT) was used to examine the relationship between reflective thinking and IGT performance. The stress manipulation increased blood pressure and was associated with poorer IGT and CRT performance. Stressed participants were slower to avoid the disadvantageous decks. Moreover, CRT scores correlated with optimal deck selections indicating the importance of reflective thinking for good performance on the IGT. These correlations were observed in relatively early trials, which challenges the view that analytic thinking is not important when card contingencies are being learned. Data revealed that IGT performance in healthy individuals is not always optimal; stress levels impair performance. A mediation analysis was consistent with the proposal that the stress manipulation reduced IGT performance by impeding reflective thinking. Thus reflective processing is an important explanation of IGT performance in healthy populations. It was concluded that more reflective participants appear to learn from the outcomes of their decisions even when stressed.
    • Symptoms of anxiety and depression are related to cardiovascular responses to active, but not passive, coping tasks

      Yuenyongchaiwat, Kornanong; Baker, Ian S.; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Brazilian Psychiatric Association, 2016-11-07)
      Objective: Anxiety and depression have been linked to blunted blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) reactions to mental stress tests; however, most studies have not included indices of underlying hemodynamics nor multiple stress tasks. This study sought to examine the relationships of anxiety and depression with hemodynamic responses to acute active and passive coping tasks. Methods: A total of 104 participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales and mental arithmetic, speech, and cold pressor tasks while BP, HR, total peripheral resistance, and cardiac output (CO) were assessed. Results: After adjustment for traditional risk factors and baseline cardiovascular activity, depression scores were negatively associated with systolic BP, HR, and CO responses to the mental arithmetic task, while anxiety scores were inversely related to the systolic BP response to mental arithmetic. Conclusion: High anxiety or depression scores appear to be associated with blunted cardiac reactions to mental arithmetic (an active coping task), but not to the cold pressor test or speech tasks. Future research should further examine potential mechanisms and longitudinal pathways relating depression and anxiety to cardiovascular reactivity.
    • Systematic review and meta-synthesis of coping with retinitis pigmentosa: implications for improving quality of life

      Garip, Gulcan; Kamal, Atiya; University of Derby (BMC/ Springer Nature, 2019-08-13)
      Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are a group of incurable and inherited eye conditions, and the leading cause of inherited blindness in people under the age of 60. The aim of this systematic review and meta-synthesis was to present a comprehensive overview of qualitative papers on experiences and coping strategies of adults living with RP, and how these influence quality of life. A pre-registered search strategy was applied in nine databases and 12 articles met eligibility criteria. Studies included were from Australia, Brazil, Ireland, Netherlands, Republic of Korea, United Kingdom, and USA. The overall sample was based on 126 people with RP (ages ranging from 18 to 85; at least 65 female). Principles of meta-ethnography were used to synthesise the articles revealing five higher-level meta-themes. The five higher-level meta-themes were, 1) managing identity: making sense of RP, managing autonomy and independence; 2) living with RP: practical and emotional issues; 3) experiences with healthcare professionals and other social support; 4) adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies; and 5) impact of RP on work and career. A conceptual model was developed by grouping higher-level meta-themes as intra- and inter-individual factors and how they may be implicated with coping strategies and quality of life. This review established factors that can be explored as potential psychosocial influences in the relationship between coping strategies and quality of life in people with RP. Further understanding of these factors and mechanisms can help inform intervention development to support adaptive coping in living with RP and positively impact quality of life.