• On alternative approaches to 3D image perception: Monoscopic 3D techniques.

      Blundell, Barry G.; Auckland University of Technology (Springer, 2015-04-28)
      In the eighteenth century, techniques that enabled a strong sense of 3D perception to be experienced without recourse to binocular disparities (arising from the spatial separation of the eyes) underpinned the first significant commercial sales of 3D viewing devices and associated content. However following the advent of stereoscopic techniques in the nineteenth century, 3D image depiction has become inextricably linked to binocular parallax and outside the vision science and arts communities relatively little attention has been directed towards earlier approaches. Here we introduce relevant concepts and terminology and consider a number of techniques and optical devices that enable 3D perception to be experienced on the basis of planar images rendered from a single vantage point. Subsequently we allude to possible mechanisms for non-binocular parallax based 3D perception. Particular attention is given to reviewing areas likely to be thought-provoking to those involved in 3D display development, spatial visualization, HCI, and other related areas of interdisciplinary research.
    • On the uncertain future of the volumetric 3D display paradigm.

      Blundell, Barry G.; University of Derby (Springer, 2017-03-16)
      Volumetric displays permit electronically processed images to be depicted within a transparent physical volume and enable a range of cues to depth to be inherently associated with image content. Further, images can be viewed directly by multiple simultaneous observers who are able to change vantage positions in a natural way. On the basis of research to date, we assume that the technologies needed to implement useful volumetric displays able to support translucent image formation are available and so primarily focus on other issues that have impeded the broad commercialization and application of this display paradigm. This is of particular relevance given the recent resurgence of interest in developing commercially viable, general purpose, volumetric systems. We particularly consider image and display characteristics, usability issues and identify several advantageous attributes that need to be exploited in order to effectively capitalize on this display modality.
    • Online research methods: An interview with Dr Neil Coulson

      Williams, Sophie; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2014)
      Dr Neil Coulson, Associate Professor in Health Psychology at the University of Nottingham, is at the forefront of online research methods. His primary research explore the role of online support communities, online surveys, and the role of social networking sites for people with a range of health conditions. As part of the Working Party on Internet Mediated Research (a committee of the BPS Research Board), Dr Coulson has recently helped to revise the Ethics Guidelines for Conducting Internet Mediated Research.
    • Online social networks for patient involvement and recruitment in clinical research

      Ryan, Gemma Sinead; University of Derby; Leicestershire Partnership NHS Trust (RCNi, 2013-09)
      Aim To review current literature and discuss the potential of online social networking to engage patients and the public and recruit and retain participants in clinical research. Background Online social networking is becoming a large influence on people’s daily lives. Clinical research faces several challenges, with an increasing need to engage with patients and the public and for studies to recruit and retain increasing numbers of participants, particularly in under-served, under-represented and hard to reach groups and communities. Data sources Searches were conducted using EMBASE, BNI, ERIC, CINAHL, PSYCHinfo online databases and Google Scholar to identify any grey or unpublished literature that may be available. Review methods This is a methodology paper. Discussion/Conclusion Online social networking is a successful, cost-effective and efficient method by which to target and recruit a wide range of communities, adolescents, young people and underserved populations into quantitative and qualitative research. Retention of participants in longitudinal studies could be improved using social networks such as Facebook. Evidence indicates that a mixed approach to recruitment using social networking and traditional methods is most effective. Implications for practice/research Further research is required to strengthen the evidence available, especially in dissemination of research through online social networks. Researchers should consider using online social networking as a method of engaging the public, and also for the recruitment and follow up of participants.
    • Ontological addiction theory: Attachment to me, mine, and I.

      Van Gordon, William; Shonin, Edo; Diouri, Sofiane; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Griffiths, Mark D.; University of Derby; Centre for Psychological Research, University of Derby, Derby, UK; Awake to Wisdom Centre for Meditation and Mindfulness Research, Ragusa, Italy; Awake to Wisdom Centre for Meditation and Mindfulness Research, Ragusa, Italy; et al. (Akadémiai Kiadó, 2018-06-07)
      Background: Ontological addiction theory (OAT) is a novel metaphysical model of psychopathology and posits that human beings are prone to forming implausible beliefs concerning the way they think they exist, and that these beliefs can become addictive leading to functional impairments and mental illness. The theoretical underpinnings of OAT derive from the Buddhist philosophical perspective that all phenomena, including the self, do not manifest inherently or independently. Aims and methods: This paper outlines the theoretical foundations of OAT along with indicative supportive empirical evidence from studies evaluating meditation awareness training as well as studies investigating non-attachment, emptiness, compassion, and loving-kindness. Results: OAT provides a novel perspective on addiction, the factors that underlie mental illness, and how beliefs concerning selfhood are shaped and reified. Conclusion: In addition to continuing to test the underlying assumptions of OAT, future empirical research needs to determine how ontological addiction fits with extant theories of self, reality, and suffering, as well with more established models of addiction.
    • Pathways to sex addiction: Relationships with adverse childhood experience, attachment, narcissism, self-compassion and motivation in a gender-balanced sample

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Rhodes, Christine; UDOL; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2019-06-01)
      Research about sex addiction and its relationships with other constructs remains unexplored. We recruited a gender-balanced sample (53 men, 51 women) who responded to measures of sex addiction, adverse childhood experience, adult attachment, narcissism, self-compassion and motivation. Sex addiction was found to be statistically significantly associated with these constructs. Anxious attachment statistically significantly mediated the relationship between adverse childhood experience and sex addiction and the relationship between narcissism and sex addiction. Self-compassion did not statistically significantly moderate the relationship between anxious attachment and sex addiction. Therapeutic approaches targeting attachment and narcissism such as relation-based or mindfulness-based interventions are recommended.
    • Patterns of value change during the life span.

      Gouveia, Valdiney V.; Vione, Kátia C.; Milfont, Taciano L.; Fischer, Ronald; Federal University of Paraiba; Cardiff University; Victoria University of Wellington; Federal University of Paraiba, Brazil; Cardiff University, UK; Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand; et al. (Sage, 2015-07-17)
      Little research has examined mean-level change in values across the life span. Using large cross-sectional data (N = 36,845) from the five geo-social regions in Brazil, this study examines how mean levels of basic values differ as a function of age (from age 12 to 65; M = 28) and whether age effects are moderated by gender. Results show that mean-level value change is substantial throughout the life course. We observed both linear and curvilinear patterns of change as well as differential patterns by gender. The observed value change is consistent with age-related life circumstances and psychosocial development. Age effects are also value dependent, supporting the notion that values have different functions for different developmental stages.
    • The physiological and emotional effects of touch: Assessing a hand-massage intervention with high self-critics

      Maratos, Frances A.; Duarte, Joana; Barnes, Christopher; McEwan, Kirsten; Sheffield, David; Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby; University of Coimbra (Elsevier, 2017-01-25)
      Research demonstrates that highly self-critical individuals can respond negatively to the initial introduction of a range of therapeutic interventions. Yet touch as a form of therapeutic intervention in self-critical individuals has received limited prior investigation, despite documentation of its beneficial effects for well-being. Using the Forms of Self-Criticism/Self-Reassuring Scale, 15 high- and 14 low- self-critical individuals (from a sample of 139 females) were recruited to assess how self-criticism impacts upon a single instance of focused touch. All participants took part in a hand massage- and haptic control- intervention. Salivary cortisol and alpha amylase, as well as questionnaire measures of emotional responding were taken before and after the interventions. Following hand massage, analyses revealed cortisol decreased significantly across all participants; and that significant changes in emotional responding reflected well-being improvements across all participants. Supplementary analyses further revealed decreased alpha amylase responding to hand massage as compared to a compassion-focused intervention in the same (highly self-critical) individuals. Taken together, the physiological and emotional data indicate high self-critical individuals responded in a comparable manner to low self-critical individuals to a single instance of hand massage. This highlights that focused touch may be beneficial when first engaging highly self-critical individuals with specific interventions.
    • Positive psychology of Malaysian students: impacts of engagement, motivation, self-compassion and wellbeing on mental health

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Ting, Su-Hie; University of Derby; Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (Springer, 2019-12-18)
      Malaysia plays a key role in education of the Asia Pacific, expanding its scholarly output rapidly. However, mental health of Malaysian students is challenging, and their help-seeking is low because of stigma. This study explored the relationships between mental health and positive psychological constructs (academic engagement, motivation, self-compassion, and wellbeing), and evaluated the relative contribution of each positive psychological construct to mental health in Malaysian students. An opportunity sample of 153 students completed the measures regarding these constructs. Correlation, regression, and mediation analyses were conducted. Engagement, amotivation, self-compassion, and wellbeing were associated with, and predicted large variance in mental health. Self-compassion was the strongest independent predictor of mental health among all the positive psychological constructs. Findings can imply the strong links between mental health and positive psychology, especially selfcompassion. Moreover, intervention studies to examine the effects of self-compassion training on mental health of Malaysian students appear to be warranted.
    • Prescribing laughter to increase well-being in healthy adults: an exploratory mixed methods feasibility study of the Laughie

      Gonot-Schoupinsky, Freda; Garip, Gulcan; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-02-16)
      Calls for a practical laughter prescription have been made by the medical community. This research developed the Laughie and evaluated its impact to elicit laughter and increase well-being in healthy adults. The Laughie is a user-created one minute recording of the user’s laughter, operated by re-playing it while laughing simultaneously. A mixed methods preliminary feasibility study was conducted between March and May 2018. Twenty-one participants aged 25–93 (x = 51, SD = 20) created a Laughie and were instructed to laugh with it three times a day for seven days, documenting each trial. Well-being was measured prior to and post-intervention using the World Health Organization (WHO five-item) well-being index. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Evaluation considered the Feasibility, Reach-out, Acceptability, Maintenance, Efficacy, Implementation and Tailorability (FRAME-IT) of the Laughie. The Laughie elicited laughter for most of the one minute in 89% of 420 Laughie trials; immediate well-being increased in 70% of them. Absolute overall WHO well-being scores increased post-intervention by 16%. Laughie evaluation using FRAME-IT showed the Laughie was feasible, acceptable, and tailorable. Four smart laughter techniques that facilitated maintenance/usage were identified. The Laughie was feasible, enjoyable, and effective as a laughter prescription in eliciting laughter. Fourteen participants reported absolute well-being increases of 10% or more. Ten participants found their laughter self-contagious. Smart laughter (laughing in a smart way for a smart reason on a smartphone) is a convenient way to harness the benefits of laughter. FRAME-IT is proposed as a practical planning and evaluation framework.
    • The prevalence, communicability and co-occurrence of inverted hallucinations: an overlooked global public health concern

      Van Gordon, William; Sapthaing, Supakyada; Ducasse, Deborah; Shonin, Edo; University of Derby (Concurrent Disorders Society, 2019-05)
      While scientific understanding concerning the role of biological pathogenic agents in the transmission of communicable diseases has increased markedly in recent decades, the possibility of a psychological pathogenic agent that underlies the transmission of a number of key global public health concerns has largely been overlooked. The present paper identifies inverted hallucinations as a novel category of hallucination that not only reflect a key public health concern in their own right, but also appear to play an active role in the gradual transmission of diseases traditionally deemed to be non-communicable, such as mental health problems, obesity, and social media addiction. More specifically, the present paper delineates the assumptions and indicative empirical support underlying inverted hallucination theory as well as the characteristic features, functional consequences, prevalence, communicability, and co-occurrence of inverted hallucinations in the general population. Inverted hallucinations appear to be both globally prevalent and communicable, and are estimated to affect the average person on at least an occasional basis. Inverted hallucinations cause individuals to succumb to states of mind wandering that distorts their perception of what is happening in the present moment and increases their susceptibility to other deleterious health conditions. Moreover, inverted hallucinations appear to reflect a key overlooked public health need that not only stunt human potential and quality of life but also pose a risk to the wellbeing of the population globally.
    • Psychopathy moderates the relationship between nature connectedness and cognitive reappraisal

      Fido, Dean; Rees, Alice; Wallace, Louise; Mantzorou, Lamprini; University of Derby (Mary Anne Liebert Inc, 2020)
      The innate relationship that humans share with the natural world is becoming increasingly strained. Our connection to nature - reflected through the psychological construct of nature connectedness - has been shown to benefit areas of physical and mental wellbeing; of which, several relationships are thought to be mediated by ones’ adaptive ability to regulate emotion. Emerging research has also indicated that nature connectedness and proficiency in emotion regulation share inverse relationships with deviant personality traits, such as psychopathy. However, it remains to be seen whether psychopathy, specifically, has a moderating role on the association between nature connectedness and emotion regulation. Three-hundred and nine participants completed an online survey whereby they were asked to self-report nature connectedness, emotion regulation strategy use, and psychopathy. Pearson correlations indicated a positive association between scores on nature connectedness and the use of cognitive reappraisal, but not expressive suppression strategies; a relationship found to be weaker in individuals scoring higher in psychopathy through moderation analysis. Evidence reported here support our hypotheses and indicate the necessity to acknowledge a more diverse array of personality constructs both when discussing the potential benefits of nature connectedness, and when testing the efficacy of nature-based interventions as a means of bringing about health- and wellbeing-related change.
    • The psychosocial impact of caregiving in dementia and quality of life: a systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative research.

      Cross, Ainslea; Garip, Gulcan; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2018-09-27)
      A systematic meta-synthesis of qualitative studies was conducted to interpret and synthesise findings from studies investigating the experiences, quality of life, and psychosocial impact of caregiving on adult informal caregivers of people with dementia.
    • A qualitative investigation into the experience of neuro-linguistic programming certification training among Japanese career consultants

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; University of Derby (2017-05-12)
      Although the application of neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) has been reported worldwide, its scientific investigation is limited. Career consulting is one of the fields where NLP has been increasingly applied in Japan. This study explored why career consultants undertake NLP training, and what they find most useful to their practice. Thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with six career consultants, who had attended NLP certification training, revealed that they wanted to learn action-oriented NLP-based coaching skills in addition to their active-listening-based counselling skills. NLP provided frameworks to lead their clients’ thoughts efficiently, deepened their understanding of the human mind, and developed their attitude to understand others and themselves. The NLP skills found most useful were reframing and the Disney strategy.
    • Raising the profile of health psychology training, consultancy and practice issues through the new Health Psychology Update sub-section.

      Cross, Ainslea; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2019-03-20)
      A call for papers that share experiences or learning at any stage of a consultancy project, such as the negotiating, pitching and carrying out needs assessment for consultancy, as well as reflections on the outcomes or implementation of applied health psychology work. We are also looking for ‘works in progress’ describing treatment models, the development of applied practice roles for health psychologists or trainees, as well as self-reflections of the experiences of consultancy and applied practice. Contributions are welcomed to provide vital learning for trainee Health Psychologists (HPs) or established HPs looking to upskill in a different area.
    • Reactions to symptoms of mental disorder and help seeking in Sabah, Malaysia.

      Shoesmith, Wendy Diana; Borhanuddin, Awang Faisal Bin Awang; Yong Pau Lin, Pauline; Abdullah, Ahmad Faris; Nordin, Norhayati; Giridharan, Beena; Forman, Dawn; Fyfe, Sue; Universiti Malaysia Sabah; Hospital Mesra Bukit Padang; et al. (Sage, 2017-11-06)
      Abstract Background: A better understanding is needed about how people make decisions about help seeking. Materials: Focus group and individual interviews with patients, carers, healthcare staff, religious authorities, traditional healers and community members. Discussion: Four stages of help seeking were identified: (1) noticing symptoms and initial labelling, (2) collective decision-making, (3) spiritual diagnoses and treatment and (4) psychiatric diagnosis and treatment. Conclusion: Spiritual diagnoses have the advantage of being less stigmatising, giving meaning to symptoms, and were seen to offer hope of cure rather than just symptom control. Patients and carers need help to integrate different explanatory models into a meaningful whole.
    • Reduction of visual acuity decreases capacity to evaluate radiographic image quality

      Sá dos Reis, C.; Soares, F.; Bartoli, G.; Dastan, K.; Dhlamini, Z.S.; Hussain, A.; Kroode, D.; McEntee, M.F.; Mekis, N.; Thompson, J.D.; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-05-16)
      To determine the impact of reduced visual acuity on the evaluation of a test object and appendicular radiographs. Visual acuity was reduced by two different magnitudes using simulation glasses and compared to normal vision (no glasses). During phase one phantom images were produced for the purpose of counting objects by 13 observers and on phase 2 image appraisal of anatomical structures was performed on anonymized radiographic images by 7 observers. The monitors were calibrated (SMPTE RP133 test pattern) and the room lighting was maintained at 7 ± 1 lux. Image display and data on grading were managed using ViewDEX (v.2.0) and the area under the visual grading characteristic (AUC VGC) was calculated using VGC Analyzer (v1.0.2). Inferential statistics were calculated using SPSS. For the evaluation of appendicular radiographs the total interpretation time was longer when visual acuity was reduced with 2 pairs of simulation glasses (15.4 versus 8.9 min). Visual grading analysis showed that observers can lose the ability to detect anatomical and contrast differences when they have a simulated visual acuity reduction, being more challenging to differentiate low contrast details. No simulation glasses, compared to 1 pair gives an AUC VGC of 0.302 (0.280, 0.333), that decreases to 0.197 (0.175, 0.223) when using 2 pairs of glasses. Reduced visual acuity has a significant negative impact on the evaluation of test objects and clinical images. Further work is required to test the impact of reduced visual acuity on visual search, technical evaluation of a wider range of images as well as pathology detection/characterization performance. It seems that visual performance needs to be considered to reduce the risks associated with incomplete or incorrect diagnosis. If employers or professional bodies were to introduce regular eye tests into health screening it may reduce the risk of misinterpretation as a result of poor vision.
    • Reflective self-attention: A more stable predictor of connection to nature than mindful attention.

      Richardson, Miles; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers, 2015-09-28)
      There is much to be gained from understanding the individual differences that predict our connection to nature, as those that are more connected tend to be more caring towards the environment and benefit from better well-being. Study 1 (n=137) found that reflective self-attention and mindful attention significantly predicted connection to nature, while anxious self-attention had a borderline significant negative association. With the introduction of personality measures, study 2 (n=161) found that reflective self-attention and openness had a stronger relationship to nature connection than mindful attention. Study 3 (n=99) found reflective self-attention, rather than mindful attention, to be associated with an increase in connection to nature. A pre-reflective and intentional self-attention account of nature connectedness is proposed with intentional self-reflection being a stronger factor than mindful attention.
    • The relationship between pain beliefs and physical and mental health outcome measures in chronic low back pain: direct and indirect effects

      Baird, Andrew; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (2016-08-19)
      Low back pain remains a major health problem with huge societal cost. Biomedical models fail to explain the disability seen in response to reported back pain and therefore patients’ beliefs, cognitions and related behaviours have become a focus for both research and practice. This study used the Pain Beliefs Questionnaire and had two aims: To examine the extent to which pain beliefs are related to disability, anxiety and depression; and to assess whether those relationships are mediated by pain self-efficacy and locus of control. In a sample of 341 chronic low back pain patients, organic and psychological pain beliefs were related to disability, anxiety and depression. However, organic pain beliefs were more strongly related to disability and depression than psychological pain beliefs. Regression analyses revealed that these relationships were in part independent of pain self-efficacy and locus of control. Further, mediation analyses revealed indirect pathways involving self-efficacy and, to a lesser extent chance locus of control, between organic pain beliefs, on the one hand, and disability, anxiety and depression, on the other. In contrast, psychological pain beliefs were only directly related to disability, anxiety and depression. Although longitudinal data are needed to corroborate our findings, this study illustrates the importance of beliefs about the nature of pain and beliefs in one’s ability to cope with pain in determining both physical and mental health outcomes in chronic low back pain patients.
    • Relationship between types of work motivation and worker profile in UK hospitality workers.

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Adhikari, Prateek; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby (Global Academic Excellence, 2017-12-02)
      Objectives The UK hospitality industry employs more than two million workers and accounts for 7% of the country’s workforce. However, despite the number of people employed, work-related mental health issues are a cause for concern in this worker population. While our previous research in UK hospitality workers identified that work motivation was a predictor of mental health, the relationship between types of work motivation and worker profile (e.g. demography, work experience, position) has not been explored to date. This study aimed to i) identify the primary type of work motivation, and ii) explore relationships between worker profile and types of work motivation in UK hospitality workers. Methodology 103 UK hospitality workers completed a worker profile questionnaire and work motivation measure. Descriptive statistics were yielded to compare each type of motivation, and correlation analyses were conducted between worker profile and motivation type. Findings Levels of internal motivation were found to be significantly higher than external motivation. Male and longer time served in the industry were associated with amotivation, the lowest form of external motivation. A higher position in the organisation was associated with external regulation, the second lowest form of external motivation. Future research Research evaluating the effectiveness of interventions to enhance intrinsic motivation, particularly among male experienced workers or managers/owners is warranted. Furthermore, male hospitality workers’ high levels of external motivation may highlight the UK’s strong masculine culture as described in Hofstede’s cultural dimension theory. This echoes with our previous research finding that shame concerning mental health issues is a problem among UK hospitality workers. Cross-cultural comparisons of work motivation and mental health would be an important future direction to help place these findings in a global context.