• Education: When investment in technology is not enough.

      Blundell, Barry G.; University of Derby (Oxford Academic, 2016-05-16)
      Another day, another airport and following a delayed arrival, I queue for more than an hour to hire a car. Unthinkingly I stare at a large behind the counter display as it scrolls through seemingly endless ads for car rental options. Suddenly I’m aroused from catatonic lethargy by the slogan: ‘Who needs I Spy – When you have WiFi’. This is accompanied by enticing images of in-car tranquillity with youngsters in the rear seat engrossed in working their mobile media. Surely even the most tedious of traffic jams would pass unnoticed?
    • The effect of creative psychological interventions on psychological outcomes for adult cancer patients: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

      Archer, Stephanie; Buxton, Sarah; Sheffield, David; University of Derby; University of Derby; Derby UK; University of Derby; Derby UK; University of Derby; Derby UK (Wiley, 2014-06-21)
      Objective This systematic review examined the effectiveness of creative psychological interventions (CPIs) for adult cancer patients. In particular, the findings of randomised controlled trials of art, drama, dance/movement and music therapies on psychological outcomes were examined. Methods The review yielded 10 original studies analysing data from a total of 488 patients. Data extraction and quality assessment were conducted by two independent reviewers. Results Four of the papers focused on the use of art therapy, three studies used music therapy, one paper utilised dance therapy, one study used dance/movement therapy and the remaining paper used creative arts therapies, which was a combination of different art-based therapy approaches. Eight papers focused solely on breast cancer patients, and the remaining studies included mixed cancer sites/stages. The studies reported improvements in anxiety and depression, quality of life, coping, stress, anger and mood. However, few physical benefits of CPIs were reported; there was no significant impact of a CPI on physical aspects of quality of life, vigour-activity or fatigue-inertia or physical functioning. One study was assessed as high quality, seven studies were assessed as satisfactory and two studies were assessed to be of poorer quality. Conclusions There is initial evidence that CPIs benefit adult cancer patients with respect to anxiety and depression, quality of life, coping, stress, anger and mood; there was no evidence to suggest that any one type of CPI was especially beneficial. However, more and better quality research needs to be conducted, particularly in the areas of drama and dance/movement therapies.
    • Effects of a brief online mindfulness intervention on mindfulness, psychological distress and parenting stress in preschool parents.

      Chapman, C; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2018-03)
      Parents of preschool children are regularly challenged by oppositionist childhood behaviour, resulting in sub-optimal parent-child interactions and increased levels of parental stress. While healthy stress responses to parent-child conflict may be cultivated through mindful-ness, traditional mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) can be time consuming and their accessibility geo-graphically limited, which may be impractical for time-constrained parents. The purpose of this study was to pilot a three-day, online, MBI for reducing psychological distress and parenting stress in preschool parents (n=49). An open uncontrolled trial, with pre-post assessments, was con-ducted. Findings demonstrated a significant increase in mindfulness levels from pre- to post-intervention. There was also a significant decrease in both psychological distress and parenting stress. These preliminary findings support the feasibility of using of a brief, online mindfulness intervention within family wellbeing programs. Further research using randomised controlled trials is needed to support the findings of this preliminary study.
    • Effects of attachment-based compassion therapy (ABCT) on self-compassion and attachment style in healthy people.

      Navarro-Gil, Mayte; Lopez-del-Hoyo, Yolanda; Modrego-Alarcón, Marta; Montero-Marin, Jesus; Van Gordon, William; Shonin, Edo; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; Primary Care Prevention and Health Promotion Research Network; Foundation Institute of Health Research of Aragon; University of Derby; et al. (Springer, 2018-02-02)
      Attachment-based compassion therapy (ABCT) is a new protocol of compassion based on attachment theory. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of this protocol for improving self-compassion in a healthy population and determine whether improvements in self-compassion mediate changes towards a more secure attachment style. The study consisted of a non-randomized controlled trial with an intervention group (ABCT) and a waiting list control group. In addition to pre- and post-intervention assessments, a 6-month follow-up assessment was included. Participants were healthy adults attending ABCT courses who self-rated as not having any psychological disorders and self-reported as not receiving any form of psychiatric treatment. Compared to the control condition, ABCT was significantly more effective for improving self-compassion as evidenced by changes on all subscales on the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), except isolation. Effect sizes were in the moderate to large range and correlated with the number of sessions received. ABCT also led to improvements across all subscales of the Five Facets of Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), except describing. ABCT decreased psychological disturbance assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and decreased experiential avoidance assessed using the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-II). Furthermore, ABCT led to significant reductions in levels of anxiety and avoidance. Secure attachment style significantly increased in the ABCT group and was mediated by changes in self-compassion. In summary, ABCT may be an effective intervention for improving self-compassion and attachment style in healthy adults in the general populations.
    • Effects of mindfulness training on sleep problems in patients with fibromyalgia.

      Amutio, Alberto; Franco, Clemente; Sánchez-Sánchez, Laura C.; Pérez-Fuentes, María del C.; Gázquez-Linares, José J.; Van Gordon, William; Molero-Jurado, María del M.; University of Derby; Universidad Autónoma de Chile; University of Almería; et al. (Frontiers, 2018-08-03)
      Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a complex psychosomatic pain condition. In addition to generalized pain and various cognitive difficulties, new FMS diagnostic criteria acknowledge fatigue and sleep problems as core aspects of this condition. Indeed, poor sleep quality has been found to be a significant predictor of pain, fatigue, and maladaptive social functioning in this patient group. While there is promising evidence supporting the role of mindfulness as a treatment for FMS, to date, mindfulness intervention studies have principally focused on dimensions of pain as the primary outcome with sleep problems either not being assessed or included as a secondary consideration. Given the role of sleep problems in the pathogenesis of FMS, and given that mindfulness has been shown to improve sleep problems in other clinical conditions, the present study explored the effects of a mindfulness-based intervention known as Flow Meditation (Meditación-Fluir) on a range of sleep-related outcomes (subjective insomnia, sleep quality, sleepiness, and sleep impairment) in individuals with FMS. Adult women with FMS (n = 39) were randomly assigned to the 7 weeks mindfulness treatment or a waiting list control group. Results showed that compared to the control group, individuals in the mindfulness group demonstrated significant improvements across all outcome measures and that the intervention effects were maintained at a 3 month follow-up assessment. The Meditación-Fluir program shows promise for alleviating sleep problems relating to FMS and may thus have a role in the treatment of FMS as well as other pain disorders in which sleep impairment is a central feature of the condition.
    • Effects of pre-exposure on the indigenous biodegradation of 14 C-phenanthrene in Antarctic soils.

      Okere, Uchechukwu V.; Cabrerizo, Ana; Dachs, Jordi; Ogbonnaya, Uchenna O.; Jones, Kevin C.; Semple, Kirk T.; Lancaster University; IDAEA-CSIC Jordi Girona; Federal University Oye-Ekit (Elsevier, 2017-10-04)
      The aim of this study was to investigate the biodegradation of phenanthrene in five Antarctic soils over 150 days at various temperatures and under slurry conditions. The development of catabolic activity was measured over time (1, 30, 60, 150 days) by the addition of 14C-phenanthrene and measuring changes in the lag phases, rates and extents of 14C-phenanthrene degradation. As the temperature increased (4 °C, 12 °C, 22 °C, 22 °C slurry), the highest extents of 14C-phenanthrene mineralisation increased significantly (0.46%, 12.21%, 24.82%, 60.81%), respectively. This was due to changes in the water availability and 14C-phenanthrene dissolution in aqueous phase, thus enhancing bioaccessibility of the contaminant to indigenous microorganisms within the soil. High catabolic activities can develop in Antarctic soils where appropriate conditions are ensured. However, further studies are however needed to explore the changes in microbial community structure that occur at different incubation temperatures.
    • The efficacy of psychologically based interventions to improve anxiety, depression and quality of life in COPD: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Baraniak, Amy; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (2012-05-25)
      Objective: To systematically evaluate the efficacy of psychologically based interventions for addressing psychological outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Electronic databases, key journals and reference lists of included studies were scrutinised for inclusion; in addition authors were contacted for potential unpublished research. Nine studies were identified for inclusion. Data was extracted by two reviewers independently using a standardised extraction sheet and a series of meta-analyses completed for measures of anxiety, depression and quality of life. Results: Eight studies evaluated a cognitive behavioural- or psychotherapeutically based intervention and one study evaluated taped progressive muscle relaxation. The studies revealed some evidence for the interventions’ impact on anxiety, but, taken together interventions had limited effectiveness. The meta-analyses that were conducted revealed a small effect for anxiety only. Conclusion: The results are discussed considering the limitations of the research and previous work in this area. A systematic evaluation of psychological interventions on psychological co-morbidity in patients with COPD is recommended. Practice implications: There is some evidence that psychological interventions impact anxiety and this should be explored further and more interventions should target quality of life.
    • Efficacy of “attachment-based compassion therapy” in the treatment of fibromyalgia: A randomized controlled trial.

      Montero-Marín, Jesús; Navarro-Gil, Mayte; Puebla-Guedea, Marta; Luciano, Juan V.; Van Gordon, William; Shonin, Edo; García-Campayo, Javier; Primary Care Prevention and Health Promotion Research Network; University of Zaragoza; Sant Joan de Deu Health Park; et al. (Frontiers, 2018-01-16)
      Objective: There is a growing interest in evaluating the effectiveness of compassion interventions for treating psychological disorders. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of “attachment-based compassion therapy” (ABCT) in the treatment of fibromyalgia (FM), and the role of psychological flexibility as a mediator of improvements. Methods: A total of 42 patients with FM were randomly assigned to ABCT or relaxation (active control group). Both the intervention and control condition were combined with treatment as usual (TAU). The primary outcome was functional status (FIQ), and the secondary outcomes were clinical severity (CGI-S), pain catastrophizing (PCS), anxiety (HADS-A), depression (HADS-D), quality of life (EQ-5D), and psychological flexibility (AAQ-II). Differences between the groups were estimated using mixed-effects models, and mediation assessments were conducted using path analyses. Results: The ABCT group demonstrated superior outcomes compared to the relaxation group, including better FIQ values after treatment (B = −3.01; p = 0.003). Differences in FIQ were maintained at 3-month follow-up (B = −3.33; p = 0.001). The absolute risk reduction in ABCT compared to relaxation increased by 40.0%, with an NNT = 3 based on criteria of ≥50% FIQ reduction after treatment. Psychological flexibility had a significant mediating effect on improvements. Conclusion: These results suggest that ABCT combined with TAU appears to be effective in the treatment of FM symptoms.
    • Electrophysiological study of the violence inhibition mechanism in relation to callous-unemotional and aggressive traits.

      Fido, Dean; Santo, Miguel G.E.; Bloxsom, Claire A.J.; Gregson, Michael; Sumich, Alexander L.; Nottingham Trent University; University of Oxford; University of Nottingham (Elsevier, 2017-08-04)
      The violence inhibition mechanism (VIM) proposes that observing another’s distress inhibits responses that can lead to violent behaviour. Dysfunction of this system is associated with disorders characterised by aggressive and callous-unemotional traits, such as psychopathy. This study examines electrophysiological indices of face processing and motor extinction, in the context of aggressive and callous-unemotional traits. Fifty-four participants completed the inventory of callous and unemotional traits, the aggression questionnaire, and a Facial Affect Stop-Go task whereby facial distress was used as stop signals. Uncaring traits inversely associated with N170 amplitude across all facial expressions and aggressive traits inversely associated with Stop-P300 amplitude to facial distress. The N170 and Stop-P300 might provide useful electrophysiological markers for deficits across face processing and motor extinction stages of the VIM, respectively.
    • Emirati women’s experiences of consanguineous marriage: A qualitative exploration of attitudes, health challenges, and coping styles

      Van Buren, Fiona; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby (Springer, 2019-08-26)
      Consanguineous marriage is associated with increased risk of congenital physical disabilities, as well as behavioural and mental health problems among consanguineous offspring. Furthermore, mental health problems have been highlighted as being prevalent among women involved in consanguineous marriages. Despite this, there has been limited research exploring the lived experiences of consanguineous marriage among women living in the United Arab Emirates, where up to 39% of all marriages are consanguineous. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of Emirati women involved in a consanguineous marriage in order to improve understanding of the experiential challenges faced by such individuals. Six Emirati women involved in a consanguineous marriage attended a focus group, and a thematic analysis of the interview transcript was subsequently undertaken. Five master themes emerged from the dataset: (i) Reasons for Marrying Consanguineously, (ii) Awareness and Fear of Hereditary Diseases, (iii) Emotional and Psychological Challenges, (iv) Coping Mechanisms, and (v) Confidence in Consanguineous Marriages. The master themes indicated a high level of family and parental influence as well as a cultural/traditional paradigm as being key causes for entering into a consanguineous marriage. Emotional and mental health challenges arouse due to the fear of genetic problems among offspring as well as difficulties coming to terms with consanguineous marriage dynamics. Self-help coping strategies were identified such as participants turning to religion in times of need, while shunning professional psychological help. Despite these challenges, participants generally retained confidence in the consanguineous marriage process. Findings shed light on the personal and health challenges experienced by Emirati women involved in consanguineous marriages, and highlight the need for further research to better understand the support needs of this population group.
    • Empathy mediates the relationship between nature connectedness and both callous and uncaring traits

      Fido, Dean; Richardson, Miles; University of Derby (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., 2019-03-07)
      Across the world and time, humans share an innate affinity with nature. In addition to its benefits for mental well-being, the psychological construct of nature connectedness has been associated with several psychopathy-relevant traits including agreeableness, perspective-taking, and empathic concern. This study is the first of its kind to investigate whether nature connectedness is associated with indices of psychopathy, specifically, and whether these associations are further mediated by individual variation in cognitive and affective empathy—traits long considered to be deficient in psychopathy. One hundred and ninety-five participants completed an online survey whereby they were asked to self-report nature connectedness, empathy, and callous, uncaring, and unemotional traits—proxy measures for the affective component of psychopathy in community samples. Nature connectedness was positively associated with cognitive and affective empathy and inversely associated with callous and uncaring, but not unemotional, facets of personality. Furthermore, whereas cognitive empathy mediated the relationship between nature connectedness and both callous and uncaring traits, affective empathy only mediated the relationship between nature connectedness and callous traits. These findings provide evidence that broadens our understanding of the potential benefits of nature connectedness in general, and how subsequently increasing one's nature connectedness and associated ability to take the perspective of another might impact psychopathy, more specifically. As such, this study establishes the groundwork for future investigation and intervention in forensic populations.
    • Engaging Leaders: The challenge of inspiring collective commitment in universities

      Gentle, Paul; Forman, Dawn; University of Derby (Routledge, 2014)
      Addressing the question of how leadership can work most successfully in universities, Engaging Leaders strengthens the sense of shared professional knowledge and capability amongst leaders in higher education. Presenting a narrative of change which not only spells out why universities need to work differently, this book also takes the reader through clear practical steps which any practising leader can take in order to build a collaborative professional culture which supports and challenges all members of an academic community.
    • English translation and validation of the Ikigai-9 in a UK Sample

      Fido, Dean; Kotera, Yasu; Asano, Kenichi; University of Derby; Mejiro University, Japan (Springer, 2019-10-25)
      The psychological construct of ‘ikigai’ reflects the sense of having a ‘reason for living’ and has been associated with various positive health-related outcomes. This study presents an English translation of the Ikigai-9, empirically explores the manifestation of ikigai in the United Kingdom, and outlines its associations with facets of well-being. Three hundred and forty-nine participants self-reported levels of ikigai as well as state measures of mental well-being, depression, anxiety, and stress. Confirmatory factor analysis did not support the original three-factor model, favouring instead a single-factor solution. Results indicated that above sex and age, ikigai predicted greater scores of mental well-being and lower scores of depression. The Ikigai-9 has high internal reliability and presents a logistically-convenient measure of ikigai for English-speaking populations. However, further validation (e.g., test-retest reliability) is required to develop a better understanding of the potential protective role of ikigai in mental health. Transparency files are available here: [https://osf.io/m4yjw/?view_only=26d526416a1e4746944ebaff64502152].
    • Ethical and professional issues: Reflections on course evolution, innovation and student engagement.

      Blundell, Barry G.; Lu, Louise Weiwei; Auckland University of Technology (British Computer Society (BCS), 2015-03-31)
      At INSPIRE 2013 we outlined our efforts to develop a core first year undergraduate course entitled ‘Computing Technology in Society’. A primary course objective is to demonstrate the potential impact that ever more complex, interconnected digital systems may have on the both the individual and on society in general. This provides the backdrop against which we endeavour to foster an ethos in which students are encouraged to establish a personal ethical position in relation to the application and deployment of digital systems. Here we reflect on further progress in developing this course with particular reference to ongoing curriculum development, student evaluation and, most crucially, student engagement. Additionally, we outline developments relating to our integration of technologies into the educational experience. We draw on our experience with the CTIS course to consider broader ramifications of technology infusion, particularly in relation to increased VLE integration and the streaming/recording of lectures.
    • Ethical judgement in UK business students: relationship with motivation, self-compassion and mental health.

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Conway, Elaine; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby (Springer, 2018-11-30)
      There is growing awareness of mental health problems among UK business students, which appears to be exacerbated by students’ attitudes of shame toward mental health. This study recruited 138 UK business students and examined the relationship between mental health and shame, and mental health and potential protective factors such as self-compassion and motivation. A significant correlation between each of the constructs was observed and self-compassion was identified as an explanatory variable for mental health. Shame moderated the relationship between self-compassion and mental health. Integrating self-compassion training into business study programs may help to improve the mental health of this student group.
    • Evaluating an interprofessional disease state and medication management review model

      Hoti, Kreshnik; Forman, Dawn; Hughes, Jeffery; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2013-11-18)
      There is lack of literature data reporting an incorporation of medication management reviews in students’ interprofessional education (IPE) and practice programs in aged care settings. This pilot study reports how an interprofessional disease state and medication management review program (DSMMR) was established in a residential aged care facility in Perth, Western Australia. Students from the professions of nursing, pharmacy and physiotherapy focused on a wellness check in the areas of cognition, falls and continence while integrating a medication management review. Students’ attitudes were explored using a pre- and post-placement questionnaire. Students indicated positive experience with the IPE DSMMR program which also resulted in their positive attitudinal shift towards IPE and practice. These findings indicated that aged care can be a suitable setting for student interprofessional programs focusing on DSMMR.
    • Evaluating the feasibility of a web-based weight loss programme for naval service personnel with excess body weight.

      Garip, Gulcan; Morton, Kate; Bridger, Robert; Yardley, Lucy; University of Derby; University of Southampton; Institute of Naval Medicine (2017-02-06)
      Overweight and obesity are a major concern that may influence the operational capacity of the UK Naval Service (NS). This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of trialling and implementing a modified web-based weight loss programme for overweight and obese NS personnel.
    • Evaluation of an educational website for parents of children with ADHD

      Ryan, Gemma Sinead; Haroon, Munib; Melvin, Gail; University of Derby; Leicestershire Partnership NHS Trust (Elsevier, 2015-07-26)
      Introduction ADHD is a relatively common neuro-developmental condition characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. The provision of timely and accurate information about the condition and about strategies to manage it is vital especially because of widespread misconceptions about it. Aim To see the effect of an educational website on (i) parental perceptions (ii) knowledge levels, and to obtain feedback to optimise user-experience. Method Parents whose children had ADHD (or were close to diagnosis) were recruited. Following a 30-item baseline knowledge test parents/carers were directed to an educational website on ADHD. After this they were re-contacted for follow up testing and feedback. Results n = 172, 14 were lost to follow up. Ninety-one (59.4 %) participants were known to have accessed the website at follow up. The majority of carers accessed the website just once or twice (32.7%). Of those who did not access the website 65% cited a lack of time as the reason while 29% cited they were unable to access the internet at the time. The majority (74%) of those accessing the site were just browsing for general information. Parents showed increased knowledge post website use p = 0.000. Of those accessing the website the majority (85.5%) felt it was relevant to them and would use it again (90.8%). Content analysis of open-ended feedback identified eight core themes including website appearance, content, functionality, perceptions, target audience, usability, usage patterns with areas for improvement noted in four areas. Conclusion Websites can be used as an adjunct to information given at clinic. Although a majority of parents will access them, there are still barriers to access e.g. time. Websites do seem to improve parent/carer knowledge levels.
    • Evaluation of the clinical and cost effectiveness of intermediate care clinics for diabetes (ICCD): A multicentre cluster randomised controlled trial

      Wilson, Andrew; O’Hare, Joseph Paul; Hardy, Ainslea; Raymond, Neil; Szczepura, Ala; Crossman, Ric; Baines, Darrin; Khunti, Kamlesh; Kumar, Sudhesh; Saravanan, Ponnusamy; et al. (PLOS, 2014-04-15)
      Background Configuring high quality care for the rapidly increasing number of people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major challenge worldwide for both providers and commissioners. In the UK, about two thirds of people with T2D are managed entirely in primary care, with wide variation in management strategies and achievement of targets. Pay for performance, introduced in 2004, initially resulted in improvements but disparities exist in ethnic minorities and the improvements are levelling off. Community based, intermediate care clinics for diabetes (ICCDs) were considered one solution and are functioning across the UK. However, there is no randomised trial evidence for the effectiveness of such clinics. Trial Design, Methods and Findings This is a cluster-randomised trial, involving 3 primary care trusts, with 49 general practices randomised to usual care (n = 25) or intervention (ICCDs; n = 24). All eligible adult patients with T2D were invited; 1997 were recruited and 1280 followed-up after 18-months intervention. Primary outcome: achievement of all three of the NICE targets [(HbA1c≤7.0%/53 mmol/mol; Blood Pressure <140/80 mmHg; cholesterol <154 mg/dl (4 mmol/l)]. Primary outcome was achieved in 14.3% in the intervention arm vs. 9.3% in the control arm (p = 0.059 after adjustment for covariates). The odds ratio (95% CI) for achieving primary outcome in the intervention group was 1.56 (0.98, 2.49). Primary care and community clinic costs were significantly higher in the intervention group, but there were no significant differences in hospital costs or overall healthcare costs. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of +£7,778 per QALY gained, indicated ICCD was marginally more expensive at producing health gain. Conclusions Intermediate care clinics can contribute to improving target achievement in patients with diabetes. Further work is needed to investigate the optimal scale and organisational structure of ICCD services and whether, over time, their role may change as skill levels in primary care increase. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00945204; National Research Register (NRR) M0014178167.
    • Event portfolios and cultural exhibitions in Canberra and Melbourne

      Gorchakova, Valentina; University of Derby, UK (Goodfellow Publishers, 2019-08)
      Event Portfolio Management' explores the phenomenon of the event portfolio as a policy tool for cities and destinations. Divided into two parts – ‘Theory’ and ‘Practice’ – the book critically analyses and summarises key underpinnings behind portfolio theory development and identifies key trends and issues in the event portfolio approach. It examines the processes of event portfolio development and management, leveraging, stakeholder networking and collaboration, portfolio design, risk assessment and evaluation. With a wide geographical reach, the book introduces the results of empirical research from different international case studies, including Auckland, Wellington and Dunedin in New Zealand, Canberra and Melbourne in Australia, and Manchester and Edinburgh in the UK.