• Education: When investment in technology is not enough.

      Blundell, Barry G.; University of Derby (Oxford Academic, 2016-05-16)
      Another day, another airport and following a delayed arrival, I queue for more than an hour to hire a car. Unthinkingly I stare at a large behind the counter display as it scrolls through seemingly endless ads for car rental options. Suddenly I’m aroused from catatonic lethargy by the slogan: ‘Who needs I Spy – When you have WiFi’. This is accompanied by enticing images of in-car tranquillity with youngsters in the rear seat engrossed in working their mobile media. Surely even the most tedious of traffic jams would pass unnoticed?
    • The effect of creative psychological interventions on psychological outcomes for adult cancer patients: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

      Archer, Stephanie; Buxton, Sarah; Sheffield, David; University of Derby; University of Derby; Derby UK; University of Derby; Derby UK; University of Derby; Derby UK (Wiley, 2014-06-21)
      Objective This systematic review examined the effectiveness of creative psychological interventions (CPIs) for adult cancer patients. In particular, the findings of randomised controlled trials of art, drama, dance/movement and music therapies on psychological outcomes were examined. Methods The review yielded 10 original studies analysing data from a total of 488 patients. Data extraction and quality assessment were conducted by two independent reviewers. Results Four of the papers focused on the use of art therapy, three studies used music therapy, one paper utilised dance therapy, one study used dance/movement therapy and the remaining paper used creative arts therapies, which was a combination of different art-based therapy approaches. Eight papers focused solely on breast cancer patients, and the remaining studies included mixed cancer sites/stages. The studies reported improvements in anxiety and depression, quality of life, coping, stress, anger and mood. However, few physical benefits of CPIs were reported; there was no significant impact of a CPI on physical aspects of quality of life, vigour-activity or fatigue-inertia or physical functioning. One study was assessed as high quality, seven studies were assessed as satisfactory and two studies were assessed to be of poorer quality. Conclusions There is initial evidence that CPIs benefit adult cancer patients with respect to anxiety and depression, quality of life, coping, stress, anger and mood; there was no evidence to suggest that any one type of CPI was especially beneficial. However, more and better quality research needs to be conducted, particularly in the areas of drama and dance/movement therapies.
    • Effect of element wall thickness on the homogeneity and isotropy of hardness in SLM IN718 using nanoindentation

      Abo Znemah, Reem; Wood, Paul; Gunputh, Urvashi Fowdar; Zhang, Cheng; Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA; University of Derby; Medtronic Inc., Tempe, Arizona, US (Elsevier, 2020-07-28)
      In this paper the homogeneity and isotropy of the mechanical hardness of thin-walled Inconel 718 (IN718) alloy samples manufactured by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) were examined using nanoindentation testing. SLM-produced honeycombed samples with wall thicknesses of 0.8, 0.6 and 0.4 mm respectively were studied by measuring the hardness across the wall thickness, and on the planes parallel and perpendicular to the build direction over the range of depths of 10-2000 nm. The average hardness values close to the edges were 4.0-6.5% lower than the areas away from the them. Interestingly the average hardness dropped by 15.2% with reduction in the cell wall thickness from 0.8 mm to 0.4 mm. Average hardness values were reported to be higher on the plane perpendicular to the build direction compared to the parallel plane. A variable material length scale was proposed in this work to describe the size effects of the microstructure. It was evaluated using the nanoindentation hardness test results and a computational model developed in previous studies by the first author and his co-workers.
    • Effect of powder bed fusion laser melting process parameters, build orientation and strut thickness on porosity, accuracy and tensile properties of an auxetic structure in IN718 alloy

      Bahi, S.; Gunputh, U.; Rusinek, A.; Wood, P.; Miguelez, M.H.; Laboratory of Microstructure Studies and Mechanics of Materials, UMR-CNRS; Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Carlos III of Madrid; Institute for Innovation in Sustainable Engineering, University of Derby (Elsevier, 2020-06-26)
      In this paper the geometry of an auxetic, re-entrant honeycomb structure made from Inconel 718 (IN718), was optimised with respect to the process parameters of laser melting process using a Renishaw AM250 after which the quasi static behaviour was analysed under tensile loading. Two different PBF process parameters were used with 2 different laser energy densities to manufacture the auxetic structures with 3 different strut thicknesses (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 mm) in 2 building orientations (XY and ZX plane). A strut thickness of 0.6 mm was found to have the least porosity and the best dimensional accuracy. The latter geometry was then manufactured as part of a tensile test sample which were then tested at a strain rate of 0.001 s−1 after which the stress strain curve, yield stress, structural stiffness, plastic work and Poisson's Ratio were compared. The building directions XY, ZX and XZ of the auxetic structure were investigated, as well as the orientation of the individual cells with respect to the loading direction. XY was found to provide the best mechanical properties and the kinematics of deformation was found to be dependent on the loading direction with respect to the cells direction which resulted in a significant change in Poisson's ratio. Finite Element Analysis was also done in order to compare the stress strain curves and the deformation mode obtained from numerical modelling and experiment, and a good agreement was observed.
    • Effects of a brief online mindfulness intervention on mindfulness, psychological distress and parenting stress in preschool parents.

      Chapman, C; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2018-03)
      Parents of preschool children are regularly challenged by oppositionist childhood behaviour, resulting in sub-optimal parent-child interactions and increased levels of parental stress. While healthy stress responses to parent-child conflict may be cultivated through mindful-ness, traditional mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) can be time consuming and their accessibility geo-graphically limited, which may be impractical for time-constrained parents. The purpose of this study was to pilot a three-day, online, MBI for reducing psychological distress and parenting stress in preschool parents (n=49). An open uncontrolled trial, with pre-post assessments, was con-ducted. Findings demonstrated a significant increase in mindfulness levels from pre- to post-intervention. There was also a significant decrease in both psychological distress and parenting stress. These preliminary findings support the feasibility of using of a brief, online mindfulness intervention within family wellbeing programs. Further research using randomised controlled trials is needed to support the findings of this preliminary study.
    • Effects of attachment-based compassion therapy (ABCT) on self-compassion and attachment style in healthy people.

      Navarro-Gil, Mayte; Lopez-del-Hoyo, Yolanda; Modrego-Alarcón, Marta; Montero-Marin, Jesus; Van Gordon, William; Shonin, Edo; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; Primary Care Prevention and Health Promotion Research Network; Foundation Institute of Health Research of Aragon; University of Derby; et al. (Springer, 2018-02-02)
      Attachment-based compassion therapy (ABCT) is a new protocol of compassion based on attachment theory. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of this protocol for improving self-compassion in a healthy population and determine whether improvements in self-compassion mediate changes towards a more secure attachment style. The study consisted of a non-randomized controlled trial with an intervention group (ABCT) and a waiting list control group. In addition to pre- and post-intervention assessments, a 6-month follow-up assessment was included. Participants were healthy adults attending ABCT courses who self-rated as not having any psychological disorders and self-reported as not receiving any form of psychiatric treatment. Compared to the control condition, ABCT was significantly more effective for improving self-compassion as evidenced by changes on all subscales on the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), except isolation. Effect sizes were in the moderate to large range and correlated with the number of sessions received. ABCT also led to improvements across all subscales of the Five Facets of Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), except describing. ABCT decreased psychological disturbance assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and decreased experiential avoidance assessed using the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-II). Furthermore, ABCT led to significant reductions in levels of anxiety and avoidance. Secure attachment style significantly increased in the ABCT group and was mediated by changes in self-compassion. In summary, ABCT may be an effective intervention for improving self-compassion and attachment style in healthy adults in the general populations.
    • Effects of mindfulness training on sleep problems in patients with fibromyalgia.

      Amutio, Alberto; Franco, Clemente; Sánchez-Sánchez, Laura C.; Pérez-Fuentes, María del C.; Gázquez-Linares, José J.; Van Gordon, William; Molero-Jurado, María del M.; University of Derby; Universidad Autónoma de Chile; University of Almería; et al. (Frontiers, 2018-08-03)
      Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a complex psychosomatic pain condition. In addition to generalized pain and various cognitive difficulties, new FMS diagnostic criteria acknowledge fatigue and sleep problems as core aspects of this condition. Indeed, poor sleep quality has been found to be a significant predictor of pain, fatigue, and maladaptive social functioning in this patient group. While there is promising evidence supporting the role of mindfulness as a treatment for FMS, to date, mindfulness intervention studies have principally focused on dimensions of pain as the primary outcome with sleep problems either not being assessed or included as a secondary consideration. Given the role of sleep problems in the pathogenesis of FMS, and given that mindfulness has been shown to improve sleep problems in other clinical conditions, the present study explored the effects of a mindfulness-based intervention known as Flow Meditation (Meditación-Fluir) on a range of sleep-related outcomes (subjective insomnia, sleep quality, sleepiness, and sleep impairment) in individuals with FMS. Adult women with FMS (n = 39) were randomly assigned to the 7 weeks mindfulness treatment or a waiting list control group. Results showed that compared to the control group, individuals in the mindfulness group demonstrated significant improvements across all outcome measures and that the intervention effects were maintained at a 3 month follow-up assessment. The Meditación-Fluir program shows promise for alleviating sleep problems relating to FMS and may thus have a role in the treatment of FMS as well as other pain disorders in which sleep impairment is a central feature of the condition.
    • Effects of pre-exposure on the indigenous biodegradation of 14 C-phenanthrene in Antarctic soils.

      Okere, Uchechukwu V.; Cabrerizo, Ana; Dachs, Jordi; Ogbonnaya, Uchenna O.; Jones, Kevin C.; Semple, Kirk T.; Lancaster University; IDAEA-CSIC Jordi Girona; Federal University Oye-Ekit (Elsevier, 2017-10-04)
      The aim of this study was to investigate the biodegradation of phenanthrene in five Antarctic soils over 150 days at various temperatures and under slurry conditions. The development of catabolic activity was measured over time (1, 30, 60, 150 days) by the addition of 14C-phenanthrene and measuring changes in the lag phases, rates and extents of 14C-phenanthrene degradation. As the temperature increased (4 °C, 12 °C, 22 °C, 22 °C slurry), the highest extents of 14C-phenanthrene mineralisation increased significantly (0.46%, 12.21%, 24.82%, 60.81%), respectively. This was due to changes in the water availability and 14C-phenanthrene dissolution in aqueous phase, thus enhancing bioaccessibility of the contaminant to indigenous microorganisms within the soil. High catabolic activities can develop in Antarctic soils where appropriate conditions are ensured. However, further studies are however needed to explore the changes in microbial community structure that occur at different incubation temperatures.
    • Effects of shinrin-yoku (forest bathing) and nature therapy on mental health: A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Richardson, Miles; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Springer, 2020-07-28)
      Shinrin-yoku (forest-bathing), immersing oneself in nature using one's senses, has been receiving increased attention internationally. While most of the existing studies have focused on physical health, this systematic review and meta-analysis examined the mental health benefits of shinrin-yoku (i.e., depression, anxiety, anger), using the PRISMA guidelines (PROSPERO registery: BLINDED). Articles in English were retrieved on research databases including PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. Of 481 articles retrieved, twenty met the inclusion criteria (eight non-randomised and twelve randomised controlled trials). All studies were conducted in Asia and Europe and used a variety of different bathing approaches (e.g., breathing, walking, yoga). While noting a need for more rigorous research and more extensive follow-up assessments, the findings indicate that shinrin-yoku can be effective in reducing negative mental health symptoms in the short-term (large effects, g> .80); particularly, the effects on anxiety were largest. Overall, forest bathing improved depression, anxiety and anger in the short-term but there were a number of moderators of the effects. More careful examination of shinrin-yoku practices are needed; longer follow-up with participants from a range of countries along with greater examination of potential mechanisms of action are needed for shinrin-yoku to be accepted into mainstream interventions.
    • The efficacy of psychologically based interventions to improve anxiety, depression and quality of life in COPD: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Baraniak, Amy; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (2012-05-25)
      Objective: To systematically evaluate the efficacy of psychologically based interventions for addressing psychological outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Electronic databases, key journals and reference lists of included studies were scrutinised for inclusion; in addition authors were contacted for potential unpublished research. Nine studies were identified for inclusion. Data was extracted by two reviewers independently using a standardised extraction sheet and a series of meta-analyses completed for measures of anxiety, depression and quality of life. Results: Eight studies evaluated a cognitive behavioural- or psychotherapeutically based intervention and one study evaluated taped progressive muscle relaxation. The studies revealed some evidence for the interventions’ impact on anxiety, but, taken together interventions had limited effectiveness. The meta-analyses that were conducted revealed a small effect for anxiety only. Conclusion: The results are discussed considering the limitations of the research and previous work in this area. A systematic evaluation of psychological interventions on psychological co-morbidity in patients with COPD is recommended. Practice implications: There is some evidence that psychological interventions impact anxiety and this should be explored further and more interventions should target quality of life.
    • Efficacy of “attachment-based compassion therapy” in the treatment of fibromyalgia: A randomized controlled trial.

      Montero-Marín, Jesús; Navarro-Gil, Mayte; Puebla-Guedea, Marta; Luciano, Juan V.; Van Gordon, William; Shonin, Edo; García-Campayo, Javier; Primary Care Prevention and Health Promotion Research Network; University of Zaragoza; Sant Joan de Deu Health Park; et al. (Frontiers, 2018-01-16)
      Objective: There is a growing interest in evaluating the effectiveness of compassion interventions for treating psychological disorders. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of “attachment-based compassion therapy” (ABCT) in the treatment of fibromyalgia (FM), and the role of psychological flexibility as a mediator of improvements. Methods: A total of 42 patients with FM were randomly assigned to ABCT or relaxation (active control group). Both the intervention and control condition were combined with treatment as usual (TAU). The primary outcome was functional status (FIQ), and the secondary outcomes were clinical severity (CGI-S), pain catastrophizing (PCS), anxiety (HADS-A), depression (HADS-D), quality of life (EQ-5D), and psychological flexibility (AAQ-II). Differences between the groups were estimated using mixed-effects models, and mediation assessments were conducted using path analyses. Results: The ABCT group demonstrated superior outcomes compared to the relaxation group, including better FIQ values after treatment (B = −3.01; p = 0.003). Differences in FIQ were maintained at 3-month follow-up (B = −3.33; p = 0.001). The absolute risk reduction in ABCT compared to relaxation increased by 40.0%, with an NNT = 3 based on criteria of ≥50% FIQ reduction after treatment. Psychological flexibility had a significant mediating effect on improvements. Conclusion: These results suggest that ABCT combined with TAU appears to be effective in the treatment of FM symptoms.
    • Electrophysiological study of the violence inhibition mechanism in relation to callous-unemotional and aggressive traits.

      Fido, Dean; Santo, Miguel G.E.; Bloxsom, Claire A.J.; Gregson, Michael; Sumich, Alexander L.; Nottingham Trent University; University of Oxford; University of Nottingham (Elsevier, 2017-08-04)
      The violence inhibition mechanism (VIM) proposes that observing another’s distress inhibits responses that can lead to violent behaviour. Dysfunction of this system is associated with disorders characterised by aggressive and callous-unemotional traits, such as psychopathy. This study examines electrophysiological indices of face processing and motor extinction, in the context of aggressive and callous-unemotional traits. Fifty-four participants completed the inventory of callous and unemotional traits, the aggression questionnaire, and a Facial Affect Stop-Go task whereby facial distress was used as stop signals. Uncaring traits inversely associated with N170 amplitude across all facial expressions and aggressive traits inversely associated with Stop-P300 amplitude to facial distress. The N170 and Stop-P300 might provide useful electrophysiological markers for deficits across face processing and motor extinction stages of the VIM, respectively.
    • Emirati women’s experiences of consanguineous marriage: A qualitative exploration of attitudes, health challenges, and coping styles

      Van Buren, Fiona; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby (Springer, 2019-08-26)
      Consanguineous marriage is associated with increased risk of congenital physical disabilities, as well as behavioural and mental health problems among consanguineous offspring. Furthermore, mental health problems have been highlighted as being prevalent among women involved in consanguineous marriages. Despite this, there has been limited research exploring the lived experiences of consanguineous marriage among women living in the United Arab Emirates, where up to 39% of all marriages are consanguineous. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of Emirati women involved in a consanguineous marriage in order to improve understanding of the experiential challenges faced by such individuals. Six Emirati women involved in a consanguineous marriage attended a focus group, and a thematic analysis of the interview transcript was subsequently undertaken. Five master themes emerged from the dataset: (i) Reasons for Marrying Consanguineously, (ii) Awareness and Fear of Hereditary Diseases, (iii) Emotional and Psychological Challenges, (iv) Coping Mechanisms, and (v) Confidence in Consanguineous Marriages. The master themes indicated a high level of family and parental influence as well as a cultural/traditional paradigm as being key causes for entering into a consanguineous marriage. Emotional and mental health challenges arouse due to the fear of genetic problems among offspring as well as difficulties coming to terms with consanguineous marriage dynamics. Self-help coping strategies were identified such as participants turning to religion in times of need, while shunning professional psychological help. Despite these challenges, participants generally retained confidence in the consanguineous marriage process. Findings shed light on the personal and health challenges experienced by Emirati women involved in consanguineous marriages, and highlight the need for further research to better understand the support needs of this population group.
    • Empathy mediates the relationship between nature connectedness and both callous and uncaring traits

      Fido, Dean; Richardson, Miles; University of Derby (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., 2019-03-07)
      Across the world and time, humans share an innate affinity with nature. In addition to its benefits for mental well-being, the psychological construct of nature connectedness has been associated with several psychopathy-relevant traits including agreeableness, perspective-taking, and empathic concern. This study is the first of its kind to investigate whether nature connectedness is associated with indices of psychopathy, specifically, and whether these associations are further mediated by individual variation in cognitive and affective empathy—traits long considered to be deficient in psychopathy. One hundred and ninety-five participants completed an online survey whereby they were asked to self-report nature connectedness, empathy, and callous, uncaring, and unemotional traits—proxy measures for the affective component of psychopathy in community samples. Nature connectedness was positively associated with cognitive and affective empathy and inversely associated with callous and uncaring, but not unemotional, facets of personality. Furthermore, whereas cognitive empathy mediated the relationship between nature connectedness and both callous and uncaring traits, affective empathy only mediated the relationship between nature connectedness and callous traits. These findings provide evidence that broadens our understanding of the potential benefits of nature connectedness in general, and how subsequently increasing one's nature connectedness and associated ability to take the perspective of another might impact psychopathy, more specifically. As such, this study establishes the groundwork for future investigation and intervention in forensic populations.
    • Engaging Leaders: The challenge of inspiring collective commitment in universities

      Gentle, Paul; Forman, Dawn; University of Derby (Routledge, 2014)
      Addressing the question of how leadership can work most successfully in universities, Engaging Leaders strengthens the sense of shared professional knowledge and capability amongst leaders in higher education. Presenting a narrative of change which not only spells out why universities need to work differently, this book also takes the reader through clear practical steps which any practising leader can take in order to build a collaborative professional culture which supports and challenges all members of an academic community.
    • English translation and validation of the Ikigai-9 in a UK Sample

      Fido, Dean; Kotera, Yasu; Asano, Kenichi; University of Derby; Mejiro University, Japan (Springer, 2019-10-25)
      The psychological construct of ‘ikigai’ reflects the sense of having a ‘reason for living’ and has been associated with various positive health-related outcomes. This study presents an English translation of the Ikigai-9, empirically explores the manifestation of ikigai in the United Kingdom, and outlines its associations with facets of well-being. Three hundred and forty-nine participants self-reported levels of ikigai as well as state measures of mental well-being, depression, anxiety, and stress. Confirmatory factor analysis did not support the original three-factor model, favouring instead a single-factor solution. Results indicated that above sex and age, ikigai predicted greater scores of mental well-being and lower scores of depression. The Ikigai-9 has high internal reliability and presents a logistically-convenient measure of ikigai for English-speaking populations. However, further validation (e.g., test-retest reliability) is required to develop a better understanding of the potential protective role of ikigai in mental health. Transparency files are available here: [https://osf.io/m4yjw/?view_only=26d526416a1e4746944ebaff64502152].
    • English translation and validation of the Ikigai-9 in a UK Sample [Protocol]

      Fido, Dean; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Asano, Kenichi; University of Derby (Concurrent Disorders Society, 2020-02)
      The psychological construct of ‘ikigai’ reflects the sense of having a ‘reason for living’ and has been associated with various positive health-related outcomes. This proposal presents an English translation of the Ikigai-9, empirically explores the manifestation of ikigai in the United Kingdom, and outlines its associations with facets of well-being.
    • Ethical and professional issues: Reflections on course evolution, innovation and student engagement.

      Blundell, Barry G.; Lu, Louise Weiwei; Auckland University of Technology (British Computer Society (BCS), 2015-03-31)
      At INSPIRE 2013 we outlined our efforts to develop a core first year undergraduate course entitled ‘Computing Technology in Society’. A primary course objective is to demonstrate the potential impact that ever more complex, interconnected digital systems may have on the both the individual and on society in general. This provides the backdrop against which we endeavour to foster an ethos in which students are encouraged to establish a personal ethical position in relation to the application and deployment of digital systems. Here we reflect on further progress in developing this course with particular reference to ongoing curriculum development, student evaluation and, most crucially, student engagement. Additionally, we outline developments relating to our integration of technologies into the educational experience. We draw on our experience with the CTIS course to consider broader ramifications of technology infusion, particularly in relation to increased VLE integration and the streaming/recording of lectures.
    • Ethical judgement in UK business students: relationship with motivation, self-compassion and mental health.

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Conway, Elaine; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby (Springer, 2018-11-30)
      There is growing awareness of mental health problems among UK business students, which appears to be exacerbated by students’ attitudes of shame toward mental health. This study recruited 138 UK business students and examined the relationship between mental health and shame, and mental health and potential protective factors such as self-compassion and motivation. A significant correlation between each of the constructs was observed and self-compassion was identified as an explanatory variable for mental health. Shame moderated the relationship between self-compassion and mental health. Integrating self-compassion training into business study programs may help to improve the mental health of this student group.
    • Ethics in computing, science, and engineering: A student's guide to doing things right

      Blundell, Barry G.; University of Derby (Springer-Nature, 2020-02)
      This comprehensive textbook introduces students to the wide-ranging responsibilities of computing, science and engineering professionals by laying strong transdisciplinary foundations and by highlighting ethical issues that may arise during their careers. The work is well illustrated, and makes extensive use of activities, ethical dilemmas and case studies designed to stimulate discussion and engagement. A broad range of technologies are introduced and examined within an ethical framework. These include biometrics, surveillance systems (including facial recognition), radio frequency identification devices, drone technologies, the Internet of Things, and robotic systems. The application and potential societal ramifications of such systems are examined in detail, not only in their current context but also in terms of their ongoing evolution. The reader is asked to consider whether we can afford to allow ongoing developments to be primarily driven by market forces, or whether a more cautious approach is needed. Further chapters examine the benefits of ethical leadership, environmental issues relating to the technology product lifecycle (from inception to e-waste), ethical considerations in research (including medical experimentation), and the need to develop educational programs which will better prepare students for a more fluid employment landscape. The final chapter introduces a structured approach to ethical issue resolution, providing a valuable, long-term reference. In addition, it emphasises the ethical responsibilities of the professional, and considers issues that can arise when we endeavour to effect ethically sound change within organisations. Examples are provided which highlight the possible ramifications of exercising ethical valour. The author has created an extensively referenced textbook that catalyses student interest, is internationally relevant, and which is multicultural in both its scope and outlook.