• Dealing with isolation using online morning huddles for university lecturers during physical distancing by COVID-19 field notes

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Green, Pauline; Rhodes, Christine; Williams, Alan; Chircop, James; Spink, Rachel; Rawson, Rebecca; Okere, Uche; University of Derby (Athabasca University, 2020)
      Isolation can affect our well-being negatively. To prevent the spread of the infection COVID-19, many workers, including university lecturers, are required to work from home. In order to maintain high levels of well-being and team cohesion, academics at the University of Derby Online Learning initiated a virtual huddle to briefly socialise and check on their colleagues’ well-being every morning. This piece of field notes reports the context (COVID-19 in the United Kingdom), the details of this morning socialization, the first-hand experience of attending this huddle, and possible applications. Perceived positive impacts of our huddles include better well-being, cultivating compassion in team culture, and enhanced team cohesion. These advantages can be also useful in student supervision, wider socialization with colleagues to counter the silo mentality, and other occupational sectors. Our field notes will be helpful for lecturers and other types of employees who work collaboratively yet in isolation during this uncertain and challenging time of crisis.
    • Decisional and emotional forgiveness scales: Psychometric validity and correlates with personality and vengeance.

      Cavalcanti, Thiago Medeiros; de Holanda Coelho, Gabriel Lins; Rezende, Alessandro Teixeira; Vione, Katia Correa; Gouveia, Valdiney Veloso; Federal University of Paraiba; Cardiff University; University of Derby (Springer, 2018-07-22)
      Forgiveness is an internal process to overcome negative aspects (e.g., anger, bitterness, resentment) towards an offender, being associated to a range of variables (e.g., well-being, quality of loving relationships, resilience). Forgiveness can happen through two different types: (1) decisional, which is a behavioural modification to reduce direct hostility; and (2) emotional, which is a transformation of negative emotions into positive. The current research aimed to gather psychometric evidences for the Decisional Forgiveness Scale (DFS) and the Emotional Forgiveness Scale (EFS), using a Brazilian sample. Two studies were conducted. In Study 1 (n = 181), the bifactorial structures were replicated, also providing satisfactory reliability levels. Through Item Response Theory, results indicated good discrimination, difficulty levels, and considerable information to all the items from both measures. In Study 2 (n = 220), confirmatory factor analyses confirmed their structure, presenting good model fit. The measures were also invariant regarding participants’ gender. Finally, the measures presented significant results when correlated to personality and vengeance. In sum, the instruments demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties, evidencing the possibility of their use in the respective context.
    • Determinants of asymmetric return comovements of gold and other financial assets

      Poshakwale, Sunil S.; Mandal, Anandadeep; Cranfield University; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2016-10)
      Using conditional time-varying copula models, we characterize the dependence structure of return comovements of gold and other financial assets (stocks, bonds, real estate and oil) during economic expansion and contraction regimes. We also investigate which key macroeconomic and non-macroeconomic variables significantly impact the asset return comovements using a two stage Markov Switching Stochastic Volatility (MSSV) framework. Our results show that the non-macro variables have significant influence on the return comovements. We find that gold is an inappropriate hedge against interest rate changes for real-estate and oil-based portfolios, while for bond portfolios, gold offers a good hedge against inflation uncertainty. We also provide evidence that the “flight to safety” phenomenon is due to the implied volatility of the stock market, rather than the observed stock market uncertainty. Finally, we forecast the asset return comovements and examine their economic significance. We show that a dynamic MSSV model which includes the macroeconomic and non-macroeconomic variables yields superior forecast of future asset return comovements when compared with a multivariate conditional covariance model.
    • Development and evaluation of an online, interaction information and advice tool for pre-registration nursing students

      Ryan, Gemma Sinead; Davies, Fiona; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2016-01)
      Attrition rates for student nurses on academic programmes is a challenge for UK Higher Education Institutions. Reasons for leaving a programme of study include personal, financial issues or practice placement experiences. Research has shown systematic and integrated support mechanisms may improve attrition rates and student experience. This project explored the sources of, and support needs of nursing and allied health students, develop and evaluate and interactive online tool: ‘SignpOSt’. Enabling students to access ‘the right support, at the right time, from the right place’. Focus groups were carried out with 14, 3rd year students and 8 academic staff including personal tutors, programme/module leaders. Thematic analysis of transcribed data under four key themes for support and advice: 1. Financial 2. Programme 3. Personal 4. Study/academic, found poor student knowledge and little clarity of responsibilities of academic staff and services leads to students sourcing support from the wrong place at the wrong time. Students valued the speed and accessibility of information from informal, programme specific Facebook groups. Conversely, there were also concerns about the accuracy of these. Further research into the use of informal Facebook groups may be useful along with additional evaluation of the SOS tool.
    • The development and part validation of a U.K. scale for mathematics anxiety

      Hunt, Thomas E.; Clark-Carter, David; Sheffield, David; University of Derby; Staffordshire University (Sage, 2011)
      There is a paucity of information surrounding maths anxiety levels in the British undergraduate student population, and, due to terminological issues, existing measures of maths anxiety may not be appropriate measures to use with this population. The current study, therefore, reports on the development and validation of a new maths anxiety scale. Using a large sample of British undergraduates, the 23-item Mathematics Anxiety Scale–UK (MAS-UK) is shown to be a reliable and valid measure of maths anxiety. Exploratory factor analysis indicated the existence of three factors, highlighting maths anxiety as a multidimensional construct. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a good-fitting model. Normative data on maths anxiety in a British undergraduate student population are provided, along with comparisons between academic undergraduate subject areas and genders. The MAS-UK may represent an easily administrable, reliable, and valid tool for assessing maths anxiety in British and potentially European undergraduate student populations.
    • Development and validation of the inspirational leaders survey.

      Pates, John; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Clancy, David; University of Derby; Hartpury College; University of Huddersfield (Inderscience Publishers, 2018-04-20)
      Purpose The Inspirational Leaders Survey (ILS) was developed to identify the behaviours and characteristics of inspirational leaders. The main aim of the ILS is to help businesses identify and recruit inspirational leaders into their workforce. Design/methodology/approach After a literature review 75 inspiring behaviours were identified. The items were examined through the exploratory factor analysis of responses from a sample of 212 adults; and a confirmatory factor analysis from a sample of 248 adults employed in various organisations with management systems. Findings Two factors with nine items emerged as the best approximation of the population covariance matrix of the three models tested from the results. The factors were called 'Individual Behaviours (five items: desire to achieve success, determined to achieve goals, passionate about work, committed to achieve success, and hardworking)' and 'Relationship Behaviours (four items: ability to instil confidence in people, inspire others, offer hope to others, and offer stability and direction to others)'. Originality/value The characteristics of inspirational leaders have received only limited empirical assessment, and an instrument to measure these characteristics has not been widely available. Such an instrument could provide a useful tool to identify inspirational leaders in our social and work- related groups. The present study describes the development of the ILS, which would help human resources in organisations identify and recruit inspirational leaders into their workforce.
    • The development of fears of compassion scale Japanese version.

      Asano, Kenichi; Tsuchiya, Masao; Ishimura, Ikuo; Lin, Shuzhen; Matsumoto, Yuki; Miyata, Haruko; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Eiji; Gilbert, Paul; Chiba University; et al. (Public Library of Science (PLOS), 2017-10-12)
      Objectives Cultivation of compassion is a useful way to treat mental problems, but some individuals show resistance. Fears of compassion can be an obstacle for clinicians when providing psychotherapy, and for clients when engaging in interpersonal relationships. Despite its importance, a Japanese version of fears of compassion scales (for others, from others, and for self) has not yet been developed. This study developed a Japanese version of the Fears of Compassion Scales and tested its reliability and validity. Design This study used a cross-sectional design, and a self-report procedure for collecting data. Methods A total of 485 students (121 males and 364 females) answered self-report questionnaires, including the draft Fears of Compassion Scales—Japanese version. Results There were distinctive factor structures for fear of compassion from others, and for self. The fear of compassion from others scale consisted of concern about compassion from others and avoidance of compassion from others. All scales had good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, face validity, and construct validity. Discrimination and difficulty were also calculated. Conclusions These results indicate that the Fears of Compassion Scales—Japanese version is a well-constructed and useful measure to assess fears of compassion and the existence of cultural differences in fears of compassion.
    • Differential qualitative analysis: a pragmatic qualitative methodology to support personalised healthcare research in heterogenous samples

      Gonot-Schoupinsky, Freda; Garip, Gulcan; University of Derby (Nova Southeastern University, 2019-12-02)
      Differential qualitative analysis (DQA) was developed as a pragmatic qualitative health methodology for the exploration of individual differences, behaviours, and needs within heterogeneous samples. Existing qualitative methodologies tend to emphasise the identification of general principles, an approach that can lead to standardised treatment, care, and medicine. DQA emphasises the identification of individual variation, in order to inform personalised healthcare. DQA comprises an accessible three-stage approach: first individual profiles are explored and differentiated into research-relevant subgroups; then each subgroup is analysed, and findings identified; finally, the data is analysed in its entirety and overall and subgroup findings are presented. DQA was developed as a new qualitative approach to: (1) emphasise the identification of person and patient-centered findings; (2) facilitate the analysis of sample heterogeneity, including variation in responses and intervention outcomes; (3) provide a convenient, pragmatic, systematic, and transparent methodology; (4) bridge the qualitative-quantitative divide with a mutually accessible approach. DQA may be particularly relevant for mixed methods research, early-stage interventions, and research exploring personalised and patient-centred care, and integrative medicine.
    • Digitally enhanced learning: Facing up to the camera.

      Blundell, Barry G.; Auckland University of Technology (Oxford Academic, 2015-05-15)
      At last the lecture room doors swing open and tenaciously guarding my cup of coffee I try to move against the great tsunami of emerging students. Immediately behind me follow two technical support staff weighed down with equipment and cables. We are well aware that the incumbent lecturer has (as usual) overrun his allotted time and so we are running late. The clock is ticking - my lecture is due to begin in seven minutes, and in terms of technology, there’s a lot of setting up to do.
    • Disney strategy for Japanese university students' career guidance: a mixed methods pilot study

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (2017-04-01)
      The Disney strategy, a neuro-linguistic programming skill, has been reported to be useful for career guidance by qualified career consultants in Japan. This mixed methods pilot study aimed to examine the effects and the experience of using this strategy for career guidance in Japanese students. Six students responded to four job-search-related scales at pre-training and post-training, and were interviewed. Students' self-esteem and job-search self-efficacy increased significantly in the short-term. Thematic analysis of the interviews revealed three key experiential features: body movement; clear vision; and positive emotions. These promising findings suggest the Disney strategy should be examined in larger, longitudinal studies.
    • Do cardiovascular responses to active and passive coping tasks predict future blood pressure 10 months later?

      Yuenyongchaiwat, Kornanong; Baker, Ian S.; Maratos, Frances A.; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (2016-03-14)
      The study examined whether cardiovascular responses to active or passive coping tasks and single or multiple tasks predicted changes in resting blood pressure (BP) over a ten-month period. Heart rate (HR), BP, cardiac output (CO), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were measured at rest, and during mental stress tests (mental arithmetic, speech, and cold pressor tasks). A total of 104 eligible participants participated in the initial study, and 77 (74.04%) normotensive adult participants’ resting BP were re-evaluated at ten-month follow-up. Regression analyses indicated that after adjustment for baseline BP, initial age, gender, body mass index, family history of cardiovascular disease, and current cigarette smoking, heightened systolic blood pressure (SBP) and HR responses to an active coping task (mental arithmetic) were associated with increased future SBP (R2 = .060, R2 =.045, respectively). Further, when aggregated, SBP responsivity (over the three tasks) resulted in a significant, but smaller increase in R2 accounting for .040 of the variance of follow-up SBP. These findings suggest that cardiovascular responses to active coping tasks predict future SBP. Furtherthe findings revealed that SBP responses to the tasks when aggregated were less predictive compared to an individual task (i.e., mental arithmetic). Of importance, hemodynamic reactivity (namely CO and TPR) did not predict future BP; suggesting that more general psychophysiological processes (e.g., inflammation, platelet aggregation) may be implicated, or that BP, but not hemodynamic reactivity may be a marker of hypertension.
    • Do student samples provide an accurate estimate of the general public?

      Hanel, Paul H. P.; Vione, Katia C.; Cardiff University (Public Library of Science (PLOS), 2016-12-21)
      Most psychological studies rely on student samples. Students are usually considered as more homogenous than representative samples both within and across countries. However, little is known about the nature of the differences between student and representative samples. This is an important gap, also because knowledge about the degree of difference between student and representative samples may allow to infer from the former to the latter group. Across 59 countries and 12 personality (Big-5) and attitudinal variables we found that differences between students and general public were partly substantial, incoherent, and contradicted previous findings. Two often used cultural variables, embeddedness and intellectual autonomy, failed to explain the differences between both groups across countries. We further found that students vary as much as the general population both between and within countries. In summary, our results indicate that generalizing from students to the general public can be problematic when personal and attitudinal variables are used, as students vary mostly randomly from the general public. Findings are also discussed in terms of the replication crisis within psychology.
    • Don't slap the fish: The relationship between dietary Omega-3 intake and physical aggression is mediated by motor inhibition in response to distressed faces

      Fido, Dean; Heym, Nadja; Bloxsom, Claire A. J.; Hunter, Kirsty A.; Gregson, Michael; Sumich, Alexander L.; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University; Auckland University of Technology (Elsevier, 2020-05-25)
      The innate violence inhibition mechanism (VIM) purportedly regulates maladaptive aggressive behavior through motor inhibition, in response to expressions of distress, and is implicated in psychopathy-related aggression. Deficiency in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; an omega-3 fatty acid) is implicated in aggression and callous-unemotional (CU) traits, however, its relationship to the VIM remains unknown. Two studies tested relationships between EPA intake, personality (aggression, CU traits), and electrophysiological indices of the VIM. In study one (N=98), participants completed omega-3 intake (FFQ), CU traits (ICU), and aggression (BPAQ) measures. Physical aggression correlated positively with callousness and negatively with EPA intake. CU traits were unrelated to EPA. In study two (N=47), participants completed the same measures and an electroencephalography assessment of VIM. Stop-P300 amplitude (motor inhibition success) in response to facial expressions of distress mediated the relationship between EPA intake and physical aggression. This is the first demonstration of an association between EPA intake and electroencephalographic indices of the VIM. Findings support a role of EPA in regulating aggression through networks involved in distress-cued executive control over behaviour; and provide supporting data to direct future trial designs for nutritional supplementation in non-clinical, clinical and forensic arenas.
    • Education: When investment in technology is not enough.

      Blundell, Barry G.; University of Derby (Oxford Academic, 2016-05-16)
      Another day, another airport and following a delayed arrival, I queue for more than an hour to hire a car. Unthinkingly I stare at a large behind the counter display as it scrolls through seemingly endless ads for car rental options. Suddenly I’m aroused from catatonic lethargy by the slogan: ‘Who needs I Spy – When you have WiFi’. This is accompanied by enticing images of in-car tranquillity with youngsters in the rear seat engrossed in working their mobile media. Surely even the most tedious of traffic jams would pass unnoticed?
    • The effect of creative psychological interventions on psychological outcomes for adult cancer patients: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

      Archer, Stephanie; Buxton, Sarah; Sheffield, David; University of Derby; University of Derby; Derby UK; University of Derby; Derby UK; University of Derby; Derby UK (Wiley, 2014-06-21)
      Objective This systematic review examined the effectiveness of creative psychological interventions (CPIs) for adult cancer patients. In particular, the findings of randomised controlled trials of art, drama, dance/movement and music therapies on psychological outcomes were examined. Methods The review yielded 10 original studies analysing data from a total of 488 patients. Data extraction and quality assessment were conducted by two independent reviewers. Results Four of the papers focused on the use of art therapy, three studies used music therapy, one paper utilised dance therapy, one study used dance/movement therapy and the remaining paper used creative arts therapies, which was a combination of different art-based therapy approaches. Eight papers focused solely on breast cancer patients, and the remaining studies included mixed cancer sites/stages. The studies reported improvements in anxiety and depression, quality of life, coping, stress, anger and mood. However, few physical benefits of CPIs were reported; there was no significant impact of a CPI on physical aspects of quality of life, vigour-activity or fatigue-inertia or physical functioning. One study was assessed as high quality, seven studies were assessed as satisfactory and two studies were assessed to be of poorer quality. Conclusions There is initial evidence that CPIs benefit adult cancer patients with respect to anxiety and depression, quality of life, coping, stress, anger and mood; there was no evidence to suggest that any one type of CPI was especially beneficial. However, more and better quality research needs to be conducted, particularly in the areas of drama and dance/movement therapies.
    • Effect of element wall thickness on the homogeneity and isotropy of hardness in SLM IN718 using nanoindentation

      Abo Znemah, Reem; Wood, Paul; Gunputh, Urvashi Fowdar; Zhang, Cheng; Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA; University of Derby; Medtronic Inc., Tempe, Arizona, US (Elsevier, 2020-07-28)
      In this paper the homogeneity and isotropy of the mechanical hardness of thin-walled Inconel 718 (IN718) alloy samples manufactured by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) were examined using nanoindentation testing. SLM-produced honeycombed samples with wall thicknesses of 0.8, 0.6 and 0.4 mm respectively were studied by measuring the hardness across the wall thickness, and on the planes parallel and perpendicular to the build direction over the range of depths of 10-2000 nm. The average hardness values close to the edges were 4.0-6.5% lower than the areas away from the them. Interestingly the average hardness dropped by 15.2% with reduction in the cell wall thickness from 0.8 mm to 0.4 mm. Average hardness values were reported to be higher on the plane perpendicular to the build direction compared to the parallel plane. A variable material length scale was proposed in this work to describe the size effects of the microstructure. It was evaluated using the nanoindentation hardness test results and a computational model developed in previous studies by the first author and his co-workers.
    • Effect of powder bed fusion laser melting process parameters, build orientation and strut thickness on porosity, accuracy and tensile properties of an auxetic structure in IN718 alloy

      Bahi, S.; Gunputh, U.; Rusinek, A.; Wood, P.; Miguelez, M.H.; Laboratory of Microstructure Studies and Mechanics of Materials, UMR-CNRS; Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Carlos III of Madrid; Institute for Innovation in Sustainable Engineering, University of Derby (Elsevier, 2020-06-26)
      In this paper the geometry of an auxetic, re-entrant honeycomb structure made from Inconel 718 (IN718), was optimised with respect to the process parameters of laser melting process using a Renishaw AM250 after which the quasi static behaviour was analysed under tensile loading. Two different PBF process parameters were used with 2 different laser energy densities to manufacture the auxetic structures with 3 different strut thicknesses (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 mm) in 2 building orientations (XY and ZX plane). A strut thickness of 0.6 mm was found to have the least porosity and the best dimensional accuracy. The latter geometry was then manufactured as part of a tensile test sample which were then tested at a strain rate of 0.001 s−1 after which the stress strain curve, yield stress, structural stiffness, plastic work and Poisson's Ratio were compared. The building directions XY, ZX and XZ of the auxetic structure were investigated, as well as the orientation of the individual cells with respect to the loading direction. XY was found to provide the best mechanical properties and the kinematics of deformation was found to be dependent on the loading direction with respect to the cells direction which resulted in a significant change in Poisson's ratio. Finite Element Analysis was also done in order to compare the stress strain curves and the deformation mode obtained from numerical modelling and experiment, and a good agreement was observed.
    • Effects of a brief online mindfulness intervention on mindfulness, psychological distress and parenting stress in preschool parents.

      Chapman, C; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2018-03)
      Parents of preschool children are regularly challenged by oppositionist childhood behaviour, resulting in sub-optimal parent-child interactions and increased levels of parental stress. While healthy stress responses to parent-child conflict may be cultivated through mindful-ness, traditional mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) can be time consuming and their accessibility geo-graphically limited, which may be impractical for time-constrained parents. The purpose of this study was to pilot a three-day, online, MBI for reducing psychological distress and parenting stress in preschool parents (n=49). An open uncontrolled trial, with pre-post assessments, was con-ducted. Findings demonstrated a significant increase in mindfulness levels from pre- to post-intervention. There was also a significant decrease in both psychological distress and parenting stress. These preliminary findings support the feasibility of using of a brief, online mindfulness intervention within family wellbeing programs. Further research using randomised controlled trials is needed to support the findings of this preliminary study.
    • Effects of attachment-based compassion therapy (ABCT) on self-compassion and attachment style in healthy people.

      Navarro-Gil, Mayte; Lopez-del-Hoyo, Yolanda; Modrego-Alarcón, Marta; Montero-Marin, Jesus; Van Gordon, William; Shonin, Edo; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; Primary Care Prevention and Health Promotion Research Network; Foundation Institute of Health Research of Aragon; University of Derby; et al. (Springer, 2018-02-02)
      Attachment-based compassion therapy (ABCT) is a new protocol of compassion based on attachment theory. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of this protocol for improving self-compassion in a healthy population and determine whether improvements in self-compassion mediate changes towards a more secure attachment style. The study consisted of a non-randomized controlled trial with an intervention group (ABCT) and a waiting list control group. In addition to pre- and post-intervention assessments, a 6-month follow-up assessment was included. Participants were healthy adults attending ABCT courses who self-rated as not having any psychological disorders and self-reported as not receiving any form of psychiatric treatment. Compared to the control condition, ABCT was significantly more effective for improving self-compassion as evidenced by changes on all subscales on the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), except isolation. Effect sizes were in the moderate to large range and correlated with the number of sessions received. ABCT also led to improvements across all subscales of the Five Facets of Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), except describing. ABCT decreased psychological disturbance assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and decreased experiential avoidance assessed using the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-II). Furthermore, ABCT led to significant reductions in levels of anxiety and avoidance. Secure attachment style significantly increased in the ABCT group and was mediated by changes in self-compassion. In summary, ABCT may be an effective intervention for improving self-compassion and attachment style in healthy adults in the general populations.
    • Effects of mindfulness training on sleep problems in patients with fibromyalgia.

      Amutio, Alberto; Franco, Clemente; Sánchez-Sánchez, Laura C.; Pérez-Fuentes, María del C.; Gázquez-Linares, José J.; Van Gordon, William; Molero-Jurado, María del M.; University of Derby; Universidad Autónoma de Chile; University of Almería; et al. (Frontiers, 2018-08-03)
      Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a complex psychosomatic pain condition. In addition to generalized pain and various cognitive difficulties, new FMS diagnostic criteria acknowledge fatigue and sleep problems as core aspects of this condition. Indeed, poor sleep quality has been found to be a significant predictor of pain, fatigue, and maladaptive social functioning in this patient group. While there is promising evidence supporting the role of mindfulness as a treatment for FMS, to date, mindfulness intervention studies have principally focused on dimensions of pain as the primary outcome with sleep problems either not being assessed or included as a secondary consideration. Given the role of sleep problems in the pathogenesis of FMS, and given that mindfulness has been shown to improve sleep problems in other clinical conditions, the present study explored the effects of a mindfulness-based intervention known as Flow Meditation (Meditación-Fluir) on a range of sleep-related outcomes (subjective insomnia, sleep quality, sleepiness, and sleep impairment) in individuals with FMS. Adult women with FMS (n = 39) were randomly assigned to the 7 weeks mindfulness treatment or a waiting list control group. Results showed that compared to the control group, individuals in the mindfulness group demonstrated significant improvements across all outcome measures and that the intervention effects were maintained at a 3 month follow-up assessment. The Meditación-Fluir program shows promise for alleviating sleep problems relating to FMS and may thus have a role in the treatment of FMS as well as other pain disorders in which sleep impairment is a central feature of the condition.