• De-stigmatising self-care: Impact of self-care webinar during COVID-19

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2021-03-02)
      To protect wellbeing of healthcare and caregiving workers during COVID-19, the University of Derby has initiated to offer a webinar focusing on self-care. This one-hour webinar has been well-taken by many healthcare and caregiving workers, and has been requested to be offered at various organisations such as the National Health Service trusts, the British Association of Social Workers, and the Derbyshire Voluntary Action. This commentary reports the outline of the webinar including how the participated healthcare and caregiving workers perceived self-care, and suggests that the current situation may help de-stigmatise self-care among these crucial workforces.
    • Dealing with isolation using online morning huddles for university lecturers during physical distancing by COVID-19 field notes

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Green, Pauline; Rhodes, Christine; Williams, Alan; Chircop, James; Spink, Rachel; Rawson, Rebecca; Okere, Uche; University of Derby (Athabasca University, 2020)
      Isolation can affect our well-being negatively. To prevent the spread of the infection COVID-19, many workers, including university lecturers, are required to work from home. In order to maintain high levels of well-being and team cohesion, academics at the University of Derby Online Learning initiated a virtual huddle to briefly socialise and check on their colleagues’ well-being every morning. This piece of field notes reports the context (COVID-19 in the United Kingdom), the details of this morning socialization, the first-hand experience of attending this huddle, and possible applications. Perceived positive impacts of our huddles include better well-being, cultivating compassion in team culture, and enhanced team cohesion. These advantages can be also useful in student supervision, wider socialization with colleagues to counter the silo mentality, and other occupational sectors. Our field notes will be helpful for lecturers and other types of employees who work collaboratively yet in isolation during this uncertain and challenging time of crisis.
    • Decisional and emotional forgiveness scales: Psychometric validity and correlates with personality and vengeance.

      Cavalcanti, Thiago Medeiros; de Holanda Coelho, Gabriel Lins; Rezende, Alessandro Teixeira; Vione, Katia Correa; Gouveia, Valdiney Veloso; Federal University of Paraiba; Cardiff University; University of Derby (Springer, 2018-07-22)
      Forgiveness is an internal process to overcome negative aspects (e.g., anger, bitterness, resentment) towards an offender, being associated to a range of variables (e.g., well-being, quality of loving relationships, resilience). Forgiveness can happen through two different types: (1) decisional, which is a behavioural modification to reduce direct hostility; and (2) emotional, which is a transformation of negative emotions into positive. The current research aimed to gather psychometric evidences for the Decisional Forgiveness Scale (DFS) and the Emotional Forgiveness Scale (EFS), using a Brazilian sample. Two studies were conducted. In Study 1 (n = 181), the bifactorial structures were replicated, also providing satisfactory reliability levels. Through Item Response Theory, results indicated good discrimination, difficulty levels, and considerable information to all the items from both measures. In Study 2 (n = 220), confirmatory factor analyses confirmed their structure, presenting good model fit. The measures were also invariant regarding participants’ gender. Finally, the measures presented significant results when correlated to personality and vengeance. In sum, the instruments demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties, evidencing the possibility of their use in the respective context.
    • Decomposing supply shocks in the US electricity industry: evidence from a time-varying Bayesian panel vector autoregression model

      Apergis, Nicholas; Polemis, Michael; University of Derby; University of Piraeus (Incisive Media, 2020-10-09)
      This paper investigates spillovers between electricity supply shocks and US growth, using monthly data from 48 US States, spanning the period January 2001-September 2016, while it employs a novel strategy for electricity supply shocks based on a time-varying Bayesian panel VAR model. It accounts for the decomposition of electricity supply per fuel mixture and links its possible interactions with the US macroeconomic conditions. In that sense, the methodology models the coefficients as a stochastic function of multiple structural characteristics. The findings document that GDP growth increases after a positive electricity supply shock, irrelevant to the source of energy that generates it. The absence of a sluggish adjustment mechanism, may reflect weak competition and significant market power by the incumbents in the electricity industry. Lastly, we argue that the rate of response of GDP growth per capita to electricity supply shocks, provides an indication that a market power effect prevails in the US electricity industry.
    • Delineating non-consensual sexual image offending: Towards an empirical approach

      Harper, Craig, A; Fido, Dean; Petronzi, Dominic; Nottingham Trent University; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2021-01-07)
      The topic of non-consensual sexual images has become an increasingly important issue within the social policy landscape. Social and legal scholars have advocated for these behaviours to be designated sexual offences due to the mode of perpetration of these behaviours, but are explicit in their rejection of a sexual element being important in the motivations underpinning such behaviours. However, this rejection is inconsistent with the core theoretical models related to sexual offending. In this article, we outline some of the potential psychological concepts that may help us to understand how and why people engage in a range of non-consensual sexual image offences, such as revenge pornography, upskirting, deepfake media production, and cyber-flashing. In doing so, we aim to begin to bridge the gap between legal scholars and psychological scientists, and develop a more comprehensive and theoretically coherent approach to studying this important social topic.
    • Determinants of asymmetric return comovements of gold and other financial assets

      Poshakwale, Sunil S.; Mandal, Anandadeep; Cranfield University; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2016-10)
      Using conditional time-varying copula models, we characterize the dependence structure of return comovements of gold and other financial assets (stocks, bonds, real estate and oil) during economic expansion and contraction regimes. We also investigate which key macroeconomic and non-macroeconomic variables significantly impact the asset return comovements using a two stage Markov Switching Stochastic Volatility (MSSV) framework. Our results show that the non-macro variables have significant influence on the return comovements. We find that gold is an inappropriate hedge against interest rate changes for real-estate and oil-based portfolios, while for bond portfolios, gold offers a good hedge against inflation uncertainty. We also provide evidence that the “flight to safety” phenomenon is due to the implied volatility of the stock market, rather than the observed stock market uncertainty. Finally, we forecast the asset return comovements and examine their economic significance. We show that a dynamic MSSV model which includes the macroeconomic and non-macroeconomic variables yields superior forecast of future asset return comovements when compared with a multivariate conditional covariance model.
    • Developing more inclusive schools for pupils with special educational needs: key messages for school leaders and communities

      Robinson, Deborah; Hanson, Jill; Codina, Geraldene; Dimitrellou, Eleni; Qureshi, Sarwat; University of Derby (2020-08-26)
      This paper will provide an outline of a unique local area project of school improvement for inclusion and special educational needs called the ‘SEND Peer Challenger programme’ so that its principles might be understood and/or emulated by school leaders who are looking for new ways to improve provision for pupils with special educational needs and disabilities (SENDs) in general classrooms. Its aims are to: Provide an example of how researchers in universities, front line educationalists and local governors can collaborate to deepen the reach of school improvement initiatives for SEND and inclusion in mainstream schools. Share the findings of a research study that cast light on the character of effective leadership and management for high quality SEND provision in mainstream education. Explore the implications of these findings for researchers, local governors, and school leaders through understanding the elements of high-quality SEND provision in general classrooms. Operationalising leadership and management approaches to improve SEND provision in general classrooms.
    • Development and evaluation of an online, interaction information and advice tool for pre-registration nursing students

      Ryan, Gemma Sinead; Davies, Fiona; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2016-01)
      Attrition rates for student nurses on academic programmes is a challenge for UK Higher Education Institutions. Reasons for leaving a programme of study include personal, financial issues or practice placement experiences. Research has shown systematic and integrated support mechanisms may improve attrition rates and student experience. This project explored the sources of, and support needs of nursing and allied health students, develop and evaluate and interactive online tool: ‘SignpOSt’. Enabling students to access ‘the right support, at the right time, from the right place’. Focus groups were carried out with 14, 3rd year students and 8 academic staff including personal tutors, programme/module leaders. Thematic analysis of transcribed data under four key themes for support and advice: 1. Financial 2. Programme 3. Personal 4. Study/academic, found poor student knowledge and little clarity of responsibilities of academic staff and services leads to students sourcing support from the wrong place at the wrong time. Students valued the speed and accessibility of information from informal, programme specific Facebook groups. Conversely, there were also concerns about the accuracy of these. Further research into the use of informal Facebook groups may be useful along with additional evaluation of the SOS tool.
    • Development and implementation of evaluation resources for a green outdoor educational program

      Garip, Gulcan; Richardson, Miles; Tinkler, Abigail; Glover, Susannah; Rees, Alice; University of Derby; City, University of London; University of Edinburgh (Taylor and Francis, 2020-12-08)
      The Green Spaces, Learning Places (GSLP) environmental education initiative runs schools-based and community-based sessions to create opportunities for children and young people to engage with green outdoor environments in London, England (including parks, heaths, and forests). Bespoke evaluation resources were developed by researchers in collaboration with the GSLP delivery teams. The evaluation was based on before and after survey responses from 504 school-aged children (5–10years) and 54 young people (13–19years), observation of 62 children, and interviews with 18 children and 8 young people. The mixed methods findings suggest the programs had a positive influence on increasing participants’ understanding, confidence, nature connection, wellbeing, and involvement in green outdoor environments.
    • The development and part validation of a U.K. scale for mathematics anxiety

      Hunt, Thomas E.; Clark-Carter, David; Sheffield, David; University of Derby; Staffordshire University (Sage, 2011)
      There is a paucity of information surrounding maths anxiety levels in the British undergraduate student population, and, due to terminological issues, existing measures of maths anxiety may not be appropriate measures to use with this population. The current study, therefore, reports on the development and validation of a new maths anxiety scale. Using a large sample of British undergraduates, the 23-item Mathematics Anxiety Scale–UK (MAS-UK) is shown to be a reliable and valid measure of maths anxiety. Exploratory factor analysis indicated the existence of three factors, highlighting maths anxiety as a multidimensional construct. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a good-fitting model. Normative data on maths anxiety in a British undergraduate student population are provided, along with comparisons between academic undergraduate subject areas and genders. The MAS-UK may represent an easily administrable, reliable, and valid tool for assessing maths anxiety in British and potentially European undergraduate student populations.
    • Development and validation of the inspirational leaders survey.

      Pates, John; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Clancy, David; University of Derby; Hartpury College; University of Huddersfield (Inderscience Publishers, 2018-04-20)
      Purpose The Inspirational Leaders Survey (ILS) was developed to identify the behaviours and characteristics of inspirational leaders. The main aim of the ILS is to help businesses identify and recruit inspirational leaders into their workforce. Design/methodology/approach After a literature review 75 inspiring behaviours were identified. The items were examined through the exploratory factor analysis of responses from a sample of 212 adults; and a confirmatory factor analysis from a sample of 248 adults employed in various organisations with management systems. Findings Two factors with nine items emerged as the best approximation of the population covariance matrix of the three models tested from the results. The factors were called 'Individual Behaviours (five items: desire to achieve success, determined to achieve goals, passionate about work, committed to achieve success, and hardworking)' and 'Relationship Behaviours (four items: ability to instil confidence in people, inspire others, offer hope to others, and offer stability and direction to others)'. Originality/value The characteristics of inspirational leaders have received only limited empirical assessment, and an instrument to measure these characteristics has not been widely available. Such an instrument could provide a useful tool to identify inspirational leaders in our social and work- related groups. The present study describes the development of the ILS, which would help human resources in organisations identify and recruit inspirational leaders into their workforce.
    • Development of an offline-friend addiction questionnaire (O-FAQ): Are most people really social addicts?

      Satchell, Liam P.; Fido, Dean; Harper, Craig A.; Shaw, Heather; Davidson, Brittany; Ellis, David A.; Hart, Claire M.; Jalil, Rahul; Bartoli, Alice Jones; Kaye, Linda K.; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-09-24)
      A growing number of self-report measures aim to define interactions with social media in a pathological behavior framework, often using terminology focused on identifying those who are ‘addicted’ to engaging with others online. Specifically, measures of ‘social media addiction’ focus on motivations for online social information seeking, which could relate to motivations for offline social information seeking. However, it could be the case that these same measures could reveal a pattern of friend addiction in general. This study develops the Offline-Friend Addiction Questionnaire (O-FAQ) by re-wording items from highly cited pathological social media use scales to reflect “spending time with friends”. Our methodology for validation follows the current literature precedent in the development of social media ‘addiction’ scales. The O-FAQ had a three-factor solution in an exploratory sample of N = 807 and these factors were stable in a 4-week retest (r = .72 to .86) and was validated against personality traits, and risk-taking behavior, in conceptually plausible directions. Using the same polythetic classification techniques as pathological social media use studies, we were able to classify 69% of our sample as addicted to spending time with their friends. The discussion of our satirical research is a critical reflection on the role of measurement and human sociality in social media research. We question the extent to which connecting with others can be considered an ‘addiction’ and discuss issues concerning the validation of new ‘addiction’ measures without relevant medical constructs. Readers should approach our measure with a level of skepticism that should be afforded to current social media addiction measures.
    • The development of fears of compassion scale Japanese version.

      Asano, Kenichi; Tsuchiya, Masao; Ishimura, Ikuo; Lin, Shuzhen; Matsumoto, Yuki; Miyata, Haruko; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Eiji; Gilbert, Paul; Chiba University; et al. (Public Library of Science (PLOS), 2017-10-12)
      Objectives Cultivation of compassion is a useful way to treat mental problems, but some individuals show resistance. Fears of compassion can be an obstacle for clinicians when providing psychotherapy, and for clients when engaging in interpersonal relationships. Despite its importance, a Japanese version of fears of compassion scales (for others, from others, and for self) has not yet been developed. This study developed a Japanese version of the Fears of Compassion Scales and tested its reliability and validity. Design This study used a cross-sectional design, and a self-report procedure for collecting data. Methods A total of 485 students (121 males and 364 females) answered self-report questionnaires, including the draft Fears of Compassion Scales—Japanese version. Results There were distinctive factor structures for fear of compassion from others, and for self. The fear of compassion from others scale consisted of concern about compassion from others and avoidance of compassion from others. All scales had good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, face validity, and construct validity. Discrimination and difficulty were also calculated. Conclusions These results indicate that the Fears of Compassion Scales—Japanese version is a well-constructed and useful measure to assess fears of compassion and the existence of cultural differences in fears of compassion.
    • Differential qualitative analysis: a pragmatic qualitative methodology to support personalised healthcare research in heterogenous samples

      Gonot-Schoupinsky, Freda; Garip, Gulcan; University of Derby (Nova Southeastern University, 2019-12-02)
      Differential qualitative analysis (DQA) was developed as a pragmatic qualitative health methodology for the exploration of individual differences, behaviours, and needs within heterogeneous samples. Existing qualitative methodologies tend to emphasise the identification of general principles, an approach that can lead to standardised treatment, care, and medicine. DQA emphasises the identification of individual variation, in order to inform personalised healthcare. DQA comprises an accessible three-stage approach: first individual profiles are explored and differentiated into research-relevant subgroups; then each subgroup is analysed, and findings identified; finally, the data is analysed in its entirety and overall and subgroup findings are presented. DQA was developed as a new qualitative approach to: (1) emphasise the identification of person and patient-centered findings; (2) facilitate the analysis of sample heterogeneity, including variation in responses and intervention outcomes; (3) provide a convenient, pragmatic, systematic, and transparent methodology; (4) bridge the qualitative-quantitative divide with a mutually accessible approach. DQA may be particularly relevant for mixed methods research, early-stage interventions, and research exploring personalised and patient-centred care, and integrative medicine.
    • Digitally enhanced learning: Facing up to the camera.

      Blundell, Barry G.; Auckland University of Technology (Oxford Academic, 2015-05-15)
      At last the lecture room doors swing open and tenaciously guarding my cup of coffee I try to move against the great tsunami of emerging students. Immediately behind me follow two technical support staff weighed down with equipment and cables. We are well aware that the incumbent lecturer has (as usual) overrun his allotted time and so we are running late. The clock is ticking - my lecture is due to begin in seven minutes, and in terms of technology, there’s a lot of setting up to do.
    • Disney strategy for Japanese university students' career guidance: a mixed methods pilot study

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (2017-04-01)
      The Disney strategy, a neuro-linguistic programming skill, has been reported to be useful for career guidance by qualified career consultants in Japan. This mixed methods pilot study aimed to examine the effects and the experience of using this strategy for career guidance in Japanese students. Six students responded to four job-search-related scales at pre-training and post-training, and were interviewed. Students' self-esteem and job-search self-efficacy increased significantly in the short-term. Thematic analysis of the interviews revealed three key experiential features: body movement; clear vision; and positive emotions. These promising findings suggest the Disney strategy should be examined in larger, longitudinal studies.
    • Do cardiovascular responses to active and passive coping tasks predict future blood pressure 10 months later?

      Yuenyongchaiwat, Kornanong; Baker, Ian S.; Maratos, Frances A.; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (2016-03-14)
      The study examined whether cardiovascular responses to active or passive coping tasks and single or multiple tasks predicted changes in resting blood pressure (BP) over a ten-month period. Heart rate (HR), BP, cardiac output (CO), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were measured at rest, and during mental stress tests (mental arithmetic, speech, and cold pressor tasks). A total of 104 eligible participants participated in the initial study, and 77 (74.04%) normotensive adult participants’ resting BP were re-evaluated at ten-month follow-up. Regression analyses indicated that after adjustment for baseline BP, initial age, gender, body mass index, family history of cardiovascular disease, and current cigarette smoking, heightened systolic blood pressure (SBP) and HR responses to an active coping task (mental arithmetic) were associated with increased future SBP (R2 = .060, R2 =.045, respectively). Further, when aggregated, SBP responsivity (over the three tasks) resulted in a significant, but smaller increase in R2 accounting for .040 of the variance of follow-up SBP. These findings suggest that cardiovascular responses to active coping tasks predict future SBP. Furtherthe findings revealed that SBP responses to the tasks when aggregated were less predictive compared to an individual task (i.e., mental arithmetic). Of importance, hemodynamic reactivity (namely CO and TPR) did not predict future BP; suggesting that more general psychophysiological processes (e.g., inflammation, platelet aggregation) may be implicated, or that BP, but not hemodynamic reactivity may be a marker of hypertension.
    • Do student samples provide an accurate estimate of the general public?

      Hanel, Paul H. P.; Vione, Katia C.; Cardiff University (Public Library of Science (PLOS), 2016-12-21)
      Most psychological studies rely on student samples. Students are usually considered as more homogenous than representative samples both within and across countries. However, little is known about the nature of the differences between student and representative samples. This is an important gap, also because knowledge about the degree of difference between student and representative samples may allow to infer from the former to the latter group. Across 59 countries and 12 personality (Big-5) and attitudinal variables we found that differences between students and general public were partly substantial, incoherent, and contradicted previous findings. Two often used cultural variables, embeddedness and intellectual autonomy, failed to explain the differences between both groups across countries. We further found that students vary as much as the general population both between and within countries. In summary, our results indicate that generalizing from students to the general public can be problematic when personal and attitudinal variables are used, as students vary mostly randomly from the general public. Findings are also discussed in terms of the replication crisis within psychology.
    • Don't slap the fish: The relationship between dietary Omega-3 intake and physical aggression is mediated by motor inhibition in response to distressed faces

      Fido, Dean; Heym, Nadja; Bloxsom, Claire A. J.; Hunter, Kirsty A.; Gregson, Michael; Sumich, Alexander L.; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University; Auckland University of Technology (Elsevier, 2020-05-25)
      The innate violence inhibition mechanism (VIM) purportedly regulates maladaptive aggressive behavior through motor inhibition, in response to expressions of distress, and is implicated in psychopathy-related aggression. Deficiency in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; an omega-3 fatty acid) is implicated in aggression and callous-unemotional (CU) traits, however, its relationship to the VIM remains unknown. Two studies tested relationships between EPA intake, personality (aggression, CU traits), and electrophysiological indices of the VIM. In study one (N=98), participants completed omega-3 intake (FFQ), CU traits (ICU), and aggression (BPAQ) measures. Physical aggression correlated positively with callousness and negatively with EPA intake. CU traits were unrelated to EPA. In study two (N=47), participants completed the same measures and an electroencephalography assessment of VIM. Stop-P300 amplitude (motor inhibition success) in response to facial expressions of distress mediated the relationship between EPA intake and physical aggression. This is the first demonstration of an association between EPA intake and electroencephalographic indices of the VIM. Findings support a role of EPA in regulating aggression through networks involved in distress-cued executive control over behaviour; and provide supporting data to direct future trial designs for nutritional supplementation in non-clinical, clinical and forensic arenas.
    • Education: When investment in technology is not enough.

      Blundell, Barry G.; University of Derby (Oxford Academic, 2016-05-16)
      Another day, another airport and following a delayed arrival, I queue for more than an hour to hire a car. Unthinkingly I stare at a large behind the counter display as it scrolls through seemingly endless ads for car rental options. Suddenly I’m aroused from catatonic lethargy by the slogan: ‘Who needs I Spy – When you have WiFi’. This is accompanied by enticing images of in-car tranquillity with youngsters in the rear seat engrossed in working their mobile media. Surely even the most tedious of traffic jams would pass unnoticed?