• Acceptance and identity change: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of carers’ experiences in myalgic encephalopathy/chronic fatigue syndrome

      Catchpole, Sarah; Garip, Gulcan; University of Derby (Sage, 2019-03-21)
      Myalgic encephalopathy/chronic fatigue syndrome is a debilitating condition and many people rely heavily on family carers. This study explored the caring experiences of seven family carers. Four themes were established: relations with others, role and identity changes, coping with change and uncertainty, and information and support seeking. Caring disrupted multiple areas of carers’ lives, including their identities and relationships. Scepticism from others about myalgic encephalopathy/chronic fatigue syndrome was particularly distressing. Acceptance was important for coping and helped some carers achieve positive growth within spousal relationships. Improving support and advice for carers and acknowledging their caring burden could improve their well-being.
    • Adolescent problem gambling requires community-level health promotion approaches

      Sapthiang, S.; Shonin, E.; Griffiths, M.D.; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2019-04-04)
    • Agility in the Events Sector A Case Study of a Business Event in Finland

      Gorchakova, Valentina; Berdysheva, Ekaterina; University of Derby (Goodfellow Publishers, 2021-04)
      The events industry was estimated at $1,100 billion in 2018 and was expected to grow to reach $2,330 billion by 2026 (Allied Market Research, n.d.). Year 2020, however, turned out to be perhaps the most transformative year in the industry in the last decades. Numerous events, from smaller family occasions, like weddings, to major events of the likes of the Wimbledon tennis tournament, the UEFA EURO 2020, Glastonbury Festival and the Cannes Film festival, had to be cancelled due to the Covid-19 pandemic. The combined economic impact is not yet known but will be a loss in the hundreds of billions of US dollars (Gössling, Scott, & Hall, 2021). This shows the vulnerability of the events industry to major crises. Despite the negative impacts of crises on events, there is a paucity of research that explores organizational responses under unusual, unprecedented or critical circumstances in the events sector. This chapter applies the concept of agility in event organization within volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous, so-called VUCA, environment (Bennett & Lemoine, 2014) that dominated year 2020 due to the unfolding pandemic. The agile approach is often seen as a stream of new ideas leading to elegantly simple solutions. It requires a high energy level of the team involved due to the tight constraints and deadlines. The authors introduce a case study of a business festival organized in Turku (Finland) and discuss the decision-making process, stakeholder involvement, introduction of a new modus operandi, and the new event format that was chosen.
    • Airbnb and hotel revenues in popular Greek destinations

      Apergis, Nicholas; Hayat, Tasawar; Saeed, Tareq; University of Derby; King Abdulaziz University (Emerald, 2020-08-19)
      This paper explores the role of Airbnb listings on hotel revenues in certain popular Greek tourist destinations. The analysis makes use of the panel GMM method, while the findings document that the Airbnb listings exert a negative impact on hotel revenues. Moreover, the results indicate that it is primarily non-business and low-price hotels that are being influenced, while the hotel industry responds to the competition through lower room prices and not through occupancy rates. The paper documents that although the Airbnb is a new factor in the Greek tourism industry, it has turned into a significant competitor against hotels. The findings of this paper are expected to provide further insights into the workings of the sector and the potential regulated policies needed to be adopted by tourism authorities.
    • Alcohol use disorder and the sibling relationship: A phenomenological enquiry

      Rhodes, Christine; Walden University (Walden University, 2015-06-15)
      Previous researchers have indicated that alcohol use disorder affects relationships between family members. Exposure to parental alcohol use disorder disrupts important relationship skill-building development between the children of the family, and may impact conflict resolution in later life relationships. The sibling relationship provides a learning opportunity on how to manage conflict, yet little is known about the effects of parental alcohol use disorder on the sibling-to-sibling relationship from the perspective of adult siblings. The purpose of this descriptive phenomenological enquiry was to explore the lived experiences of adult siblings who experienced parental alcohol use disorder in their family of origin. In-depth, face-to-face interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of 8 sibling pairs who grew up in the same isolated, remote, and densely populated community, each of whom experienced parental alcohol use disorder. Initial participants were recruited during open 12 Step meetings with subsequent siblings recruited using a snowballing technique. Sixteen audio taped interviews were manually transcribed and then coded for themes using a typology classification system based on key terms, word repetitions, and metaphors. The alcoholic family system was found to be traumatic and abusive, resulting in maladaptive coping behaviors, especially in the area of conflict. Findings also highlighted the strength of the sibling bond in the face of adversity and the opportunity for resilience under challenging circumstances. This study contributes to social change by informing the design of targeted interventions for siblings, specifically, by suggesting a change from the current focus on the identified client to a more holistic approach to treatment.
    • Allowing the mind to breathe

      Van Gordon, William; Shonin, Edo; University of Derby (Rowman and Littlefield, 2020-12)
      Mindfulness is a 2,500-year-old Buddhist meditation practice that involves focusing awareness on the present moment, the only place where an individual can truly embrace and experience life. In recent decades, mindfulness has gained popularity amongst scientists, healthcare practitioners, and the public more generally. An abundance of popular books has subsequently emerged providing different interpretations of how to practice mindfulness and apply it in daily-living contexts. However, most current approaches to mindfulness have removed it from its traditional spiritual context or overlook important scientific insights from research into this ancient contemplative technique. The Way of Mindful Warrior addresses this oversight and integrates the traditional Buddhist teachings on mindfulness with emerging insights from the scientific study of mindfulness, wellbeing and the human mind. This book is timely and presents a fresh, easily digestible, and structured path to using mindfulness not only as a tool for coping with the stresses and strains of contemporary living, but also as a means to cultivating unconditional wellbeing and for flourishing as a human being.
    • The applications of neuro-linguistic programming in organizational settings: A systematic review of psychological outcomes.

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Sheffield, David; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby; Centre for Psychological Research; University of Derby; Derby UK; Centre for Psychological Research; University of Derby; Derby UK; Centre for Psychological Research; University of Derby; Derby UK (Wiley, 2018-11-15)
      Neuro‐linguistic programming (NLP) is an approach to communication and personal development focusing on how individuals organize their thinking, feelings, and language. While a growing number of academic articles highlight the application of NLP in organizational settings, a systematic review synthesizing and evaluating the quality of this evidence has not been conducted to date. The aim of this article was to follow the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta‐analysis (PRISMA) guidelines and conduct a systematic review of empirical studies evaluating the application of NLP in organizational settings. Targeted outcomes included self‐esteem, trustworthiness, organizational commitment, and occupational stress. Academic research databases used to identify articles included ProQuest, PsycINFO, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and a specific NLP database. The literature search yielded 952 titles from which seven studies met all of the inclusion criteria. Findings indicate that NLP can be effective for improving a wide range of work‐related psychological outcomes including self‐esteem and occupational stress. However, there were concerns regarding methodological rigor. In general, the benefits of NLP were both overpromised and undersupported. Implications for future NLP application and research, with a focus on the relevance to current issues in the field of human resource (HR) development, are discussed.
    • Are there adverse effects associated with mindfulness?

      Van Gordon, William; Shonin, Edo; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; University of Derby; Awake to Wisdom Centre for Meditation and Mindfulness Research; University of Zaragoza (Sage, 2017-07-01)
    • Artificial intelligence and disability: too much promise, yet too little substance?

      Smith, Laura; Smith, Peter; University of Sunderland (Springer, 2020-10-06)
      Much has been written about the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) to support, and even transform, the lives of disabled people. It is true that many advances have been made, ranging from robotic arms and other prosthetic limbs supported by AI, decision support tools to aid clinicians and the disabled themselves, and route planning software for those with visual impairment. Many individuals are benefiting from the use of such tools, improving our accessibility and changing lives. But what are the true limits of such tools? What are the ethics of allowing AI tools to suggest different courses of action, or aid in decision-making? And does AI offer too much promise for individuals? I have recently undergone a life changing accident which has left me severely disabled, and together with my daughter who is blind, we shall explore the day-to-day realities of how AI can support, and frustrate, disabled people. From this, we will draw some conclusions as to how AI software and technology might best be developed in the future.
    • Assessing self-reported mood in aphasia following stroke: challenges, innovations and future directions

      Barrows, Paul; Thomas, Shirley A.; Van Gordon, William; University of Nottingham; University of Derby (Elsevier BV, 2020-11-05)
      Assessment of mood is critical in determining rehabilitation outcomes for stroke and other acquired brain injury, yet a common consequence of such injuries is aphasia, where language is impaired. Consequently, the use of language-based measures in this population is often not possible. Following a critical review of the neuropsychological aspects of self-reported mood, this paper evaluates the problems in reporting mood after stroke due to aphasia, and discusses implications for the design of adapted instruments. The paper then appraises the construction and psychometric properties of existing, adapted self-report measures developed to try and address these problems, and evaluates their utility and limitations. This includes a focus on the recently validated tablet-based Dynamic Visual Analog Mood Scales (D-VAMS), which uses innovative non-verbal assessment methods based on facial expression modulated via a slider control on a touchscreen interface. Currently, most studies evaluating recovery interventions simply omit individuals with aphasia because of the difficulty of assessing mood and quality of life in this population. However, adapted scales such as the D-VAMS appear to represent an important step forward in assessing mood in people with language impairments, with the use of interactive modulated imagery having wider applications for nonverbal communication as well as the quantification of subjective phenomena.
    • Assessment of strengths on youths court-referred to residential treatment

      Pagano, Maria; Krentzman, Amy R.; Rhodes, Christine; Case Western Reserve University; University of Minnesota; University of Derby (2017-06-24)
    • Attachment relationships and psychological distress in young adults: The mediating role of self-esteem

      Imran, Somia; Jackson, Sophie; Newcastle University; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2022-02-16)
      The relationship between attachment security and psychological distress (such as depressive and anxiety symptoms) is well established. However, the role of attachment security beyond primary attachment, referred to as secondary attachment, and the mechanism underlying this relationship is under-explored among young adults. This study sought to investigate the effects of primary attachment and secondary attachment on psychological distress with self-esteem as a mediator in young adults. Four hundred and fifty two UK participants aged 18–25 (55.76% females; Mean age = 20.72; SD = 2.29) completed measures of attachment, self-esteem and psychological distress. Using two mediation models, we tested the effects of primary attachment and secondary attachment separately on psychological distress mediated by self-esteem, while controlling for the other type of attachment (i.e. primary or secondary). The findings supported the mediation effects of both primary attachment and secondary attachment through self-esteem on psychological distress. This study provides the first empirical evidence for the individual role of primary and secondary attachment relationships through self-esteem, which has important implications for preventive and intervention strategies to lessen psychological distress among young adults.
    • Attachment-based compassion therapy for ameliorating fibromyalgia: mediating role of mindfulness and self-compassion

      Montero-Marin, Jesus; Van Gordon, William; Shonin, Edo; Navarro-Gil, Mayte; Gasión, Virginia; López-Del-Hoyo, Yolanda; Luciano, Juan V.; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; University of Oxford; University of Derby; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-01-10)
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Attachment-Based Compassion Therapy (ABCT)—a standardised programme that includes practices to improve compassionate awareness with the aim of addressing maladaptive attachment—for improving mindfulness and self-compassion in fibromyalgia (FM) patients, and to determine whether gains in mindfulness and self-compassion mediate improvements in FM functional status together with comorbid anxiety and depression. The study comprised a randomised controlled trial of individuals undergoing ABCT, with a Relaxation condition as an active control group. Baseline, post-test, and 3-month follow-up assessments were included. Participants (n = 42) were FM patients randomly assigned to ABCT or relaxation. Outcomes were functional status (FIQ), anxiety (HADS-A), depression (HADS-D), mindfulness (FFMQ), and self-compassion (SCS). Differences between groups were estimated using mixed-effects regression models, and mediation analyses were conducted using path analyses. Compared with the Relaxation condition, the ABCT group was more effective for improving mindfulness and self-compassion, as it observed through changes in the FFMQ and SCS subscales. Effect sizes were in the moderately large to large range (Cohen’s d between 0.60–2.20). Reductions in FM functional status were not mediated by either mindfulness or self-compassion. However, the self-compassion facet of common humanity was a mediator for reductions in both anxiety (B = − 2.04; bootstrapped 95% CI = − 4.44, − 0.04) and depression (B = − 2.12; bootstrapped 95% CI = − 4.40, − 0.45). The improvement of common humanity via ABCT might be an active component for the reduction of comorbid anxiety and depression in FM patients.
    • Attributes of effective interprofessional placement facilitation

      Nicol, Paul; Forman, Dawn; University of Derby (Canadian Institute for Studies in Publishing Press, 2014-10)
      Background: The quality of facilitation is an important influence on the efficacy of interprofessional education (IPE) delivery. The research objective was to increase understanding of the attributes of effective facilitation of students during external IPE placements in primary care situations. Methods and Findings: A thematic analysis of the experiences of academics, students, and placement-site staff at three placement sites was employed to explore participants’ perceptions of the attributes of effective IPE facilitators. These attributes included experience in an interprofessional context, together with an understanding of the specific clinical and assessment requirements of different disciplines. Facilitators also needed empathy with respect to the requirements of the external IPE placement sites and the ability to liaise between student and site needs. Conclusions: Models of IPE placement facilitation were most effective when, while following general principles, facilitators tailored them specifically for the individual situations of the placement sites and the learning requirements of particular groups of students. The most rewarding IPE learning experiences occurred when IPE facilitators provided sufficient clinical opportunities for students to work collaboratively with individual clients, provided the students perceived that their participation was relevant to their own discipline.
    • A behavioral modeling approach to bicycle level of service

      Griswold, Julia B.; Grembek, Offer; Yu, Mengqiao; Filingeri, Victoria; Walker, Joan L.; Safe Transportation Research and Education Center, University of California, Berkeley, 2614 Dwight Way, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, 116 McLaughlin Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States; University of Derby Online Learning, Enterprise Centre, Bridge Street, Derby DE1 3LD, United Kingdom; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, 111 McLaughlin Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States (Elsevier, 2018-06-22)
      Bicycle level of service (LOS) measures are essential tools for transportation agencies to monitor and prioritize improvements to infrastructure for cyclists. While it is apparent that different types of cyclists have varying preferences for the facilities on which they ride, in current research and practice, measures are used that are either insufficiently quantitative and empirical or lack cyclist segmentation. In this study, we conducted a detailed survey on cyclist habits, preferences, and user experience, capturing responses to videos of a bicycle traveling on road segments in the San Francisco Bay Area. The survey provided rich behavioral data, which invited both quantitative and qualitative exploration. We compared facility preferences from the survey to scores from two common measures, NCHRP bicycle level of service (NCHRP BLOS), and level of traffic stress (LTS); and we examined the responses to open-ended questions to gain insights about heterogeneity of preferences among cyclists. Finally, we applied behavioral analysis tools as a proof of concept for a new bicycle level of service measure that accounts for the segmentation of cyclist types via a latent class choice model. Combining statistics and behavioral analysis, we can improve the quality of bicycle level of service measures to make decisions driven by empirically measured cyclist preferences.
    • Beyond disciplinarity: Historical evolutions of research epistemology

      Hayes, Catherine; Fulton, John; Livingstone, Andrew; Todd, Claire; Capper, Stephen; Smith, Peter; University of Sunderland (Routledge, 2020-12-23)
      This book provides a means of comprehensively grounding and considering the epistemological and philosophical underpinnings of practice-based research epistemologies. By introducing readers to the diverse array of methodological tools and concepts that are necessary to underpin postgraduate research, this book develops an understanding of the distinctions between practice-led research, practice-based research and question-led research, and the contextual significance of each, as well as enabling students to comprehend the historical relationships between academic disciplines and the value of reconnecting them at an epistemological and philosophical level. Through illustrated examples from applied practice across disciplines such as art, social sciences and medical and allied healthcare sciences, readers are encouraged to develop the capacity to not only think conceptually about their own research, but to systematically evaluate that of others. With this focus on descriptive studies from practice, the book fosters higher-order critical thinking in relation to implications for methodological implementation, encouraging deep learning processes and the confidence to transcend the limits of one’s own discipline in order to work collaboratively with researchers in different fields.
    • Borderline personality disorder: from understanding ontological addiction to psychotherapeutic revolution

      Ducasse, Déborah; Van Gordon, William; Brand-Arpon, Véronique; Courtet, Philippe; Olié, Emilie; University of Derby; CHU Montpellier, Lapeyronie Hospital, France; INSERM U1061, Neuropsychiatry: Epidemiological and Clinical Research Montpellier France (Springer, 2019-06-04)
      Bypassing a reductionist view of existing diagnostic categories, ontological addiction theory (OAT) is a new psychological model of human functioning. Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), defined as “a pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image and affects, and marked impulsivity”, is not only common (up to 20% of psychiatric inpatients), but also strongly associated with suicide attempts and death by suicide. Therefore, BPD constitutes a major public health concern. As a consequence of an underlying condition of ontological addiction, self-harming behaviors can be conceptualized as addictions, suicidal acts reflecting an experiential avoidance strategy against unbearable psychological pain. The present paper aims at: (1) understanding BPD daily life experiences from the perspective of OAT; (2) offering psychotherapeutic perspectives for this mental disorder. The diagnostic category of BDP may be understood as a simple label reflecting several extreme types of manifestations resulting from the Self-grasping ignorance that underpins ontological addiction. Therefore, development of psychotherapeutic interventions targeting ontological addiction appears to be a promising future direction.
    • A brain-based pain facilitation mechanism contributes to painful diabetic polyneuropathy.

      Segerdahl, Andrew R.; Themistocleous, Andreas C.; Fido, Dean; Bennett, David L.; Tracey, Irene; University of Oxford; Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging, FMRIB, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging, FMRIB, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; et al. (Oxford Academic, 2018-01-15)
      The descending pain modulatory system represents one of the oldest and most fundamentally important neurophysiological mechanisms relevant to pain. Extensive work in animals and humans has shown how a functional imbalance between the facilitatory and inhibitory components is linked to exacerbation and maintenance of persistent pain states. Forward translation of these findings into clinical populations is needed to verify the relevance of this imbalance. Diabetic polyneuropathy is one of the most common causes of chronic neuropathic pain; however, the reason why ∼25–30% of patients with diabetes develop pain is not known. The current study used a multimodal clinical neuroimaging approach to interrogate whether the sensory phenotype of painful diabetic polyneuropathy involves altered function of the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey—a key node of the descending pain modulatory system. We found that ventrolateral periaqueductal grey functional connectivity is altered in patients suffering from painful diabetic polyneuropathy; the magnitude of which is correlated to their spontaneous and allodynic pain as well as the magnitude of the cortical response elicited by an experimental tonic heat paradigm. We posit that ventrolateral periaqueductal grey-mediated descending pain modulatory system dysfunction may reflect a brain-based pain facilitation mechanism contributing to painful diabetic polyneuropathy.
    • Brief report: self-compassion, physical health and the mediating role of health-promoting behaviours

      Dunne, Sara; Sheffield, David; Chilcot, Joseph; University of Derby (2016-04-26)
      To test the hypothesis that self-compassion predicts better physical health and that this is partially mediated through health-promoting behaviours, 147 adults completed self-report measures of self-compassion, health-promoting behaviours and physical health. Self-compassion and health-promoting behaviours were negatively associated with physical symptom scores. Self-compassion was positively associated with health-promoting behaviours. A bootstrapped mediation model confirmed a significant direct effect of self-compassion on physical health through health-promoting behaviours (R(2) = 0.13, b = -8.98, p = 0.015), which was partially mediated through health-promoting behaviours (R(2) = 0.06, b = -3.16, 95 per cent confidence interval [-6.78, -0.86]). Findings underscore the potential health-promoting benefits of self-compassion.
    • Burnout in Professional Psychotherapists: Relationships with Self-Compassion, Work–Life Balance, and Telepressure

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Maxwell-Jones, Robert; Edwards, Ann-Marie; Knutton, Natalie; University of Derby (MDPI AG, 2021-05-17)
      Though negative impacts of COVID-19 on occupational mental health have been reported, the mental health of psychotherapists has not been evaluated in depth. As this occupational group treats ever-increasing mental health problems, it is essential to appraise key factors for their mental health. Accordingly, this study aimed to explore burnout of professional psychotherapists. A total of 110 participants completed self-report measures regarding burnout, self-compassion, work-life balance and telepressure. Correlation, regression and moderation analyses were conducted. Both of the burnout components-emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation-were positively associated with weekly working hours and telepressure, and negatively associated with age, self-compassion and work-life balance. Weekly working hours and work-life balance were significant predictors of emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Lastly, self-compassion partially mediated the relationship between work-life balance and emotional exhaustion but did not mediate the relationship between work-life balance and depersonalisation. The findings suggest that maintaining high work-life balance is particularly important for the mental health of psychotherapists, protecting them from burnout. Moreover, self-compassion needs to be cultivated to mitigate emotional exhaustion. Mental health care for this occupational group needs to be implemented to achieve sustainable mental health care for workers and the public.