• Alcohol use disorder and the sibling relationship: A phenomenological enquiry

      Rhodes, Christine; Walden University (Walden University, 2015-06-15)
      Previous researchers have indicated that alcohol use disorder affects relationships between family members. Exposure to parental alcohol use disorder disrupts important relationship skill-building development between the children of the family, and may impact conflict resolution in later life relationships. The sibling relationship provides a learning opportunity on how to manage conflict, yet little is known about the effects of parental alcohol use disorder on the sibling-to-sibling relationship from the perspective of adult siblings. The purpose of this descriptive phenomenological enquiry was to explore the lived experiences of adult siblings who experienced parental alcohol use disorder in their family of origin. In-depth, face-to-face interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of 8 sibling pairs who grew up in the same isolated, remote, and densely populated community, each of whom experienced parental alcohol use disorder. Initial participants were recruited during open 12 Step meetings with subsequent siblings recruited using a snowballing technique. Sixteen audio taped interviews were manually transcribed and then coded for themes using a typology classification system based on key terms, word repetitions, and metaphors. The alcoholic family system was found to be traumatic and abusive, resulting in maladaptive coping behaviors, especially in the area of conflict. Findings also highlighted the strength of the sibling bond in the face of adversity and the opportunity for resilience under challenging circumstances. This study contributes to social change by informing the design of targeted interventions for siblings, specifically, by suggesting a change from the current focus on the identified client to a more holistic approach to treatment.
    • The applications of neuro-linguistic programming in organizational settings: A systematic review of psychological outcomes.

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Sheffield, David; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby; Centre for Psychological Research; University of Derby; Derby UK; Centre for Psychological Research; University of Derby; Derby UK; Centre for Psychological Research; University of Derby; Derby UK (Wiley, 2018-11-15)
      Neuro‐linguistic programming (NLP) is an approach to communication and personal development focusing on how individuals organize their thinking, feelings, and language. While a growing number of academic articles highlight the application of NLP in organizational settings, a systematic review synthesizing and evaluating the quality of this evidence has not been conducted to date. The aim of this article was to follow the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta‐analysis (PRISMA) guidelines and conduct a systematic review of empirical studies evaluating the application of NLP in organizational settings. Targeted outcomes included self‐esteem, trustworthiness, organizational commitment, and occupational stress. Academic research databases used to identify articles included ProQuest, PsycINFO, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and a specific NLP database. The literature search yielded 952 titles from which seven studies met all of the inclusion criteria. Findings indicate that NLP can be effective for improving a wide range of work‐related psychological outcomes including self‐esteem and occupational stress. However, there were concerns regarding methodological rigor. In general, the benefits of NLP were both overpromised and undersupported. Implications for future NLP application and research, with a focus on the relevance to current issues in the field of human resource (HR) development, are discussed.
    • Are there adverse effects associated with mindfulness?

      Van Gordon, William; Shonin, Edo; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; University of Derby; Awake to Wisdom Centre for Meditation and Mindfulness Research; University of Zaragoza (Sage, 2017-07-01)
    • Assessment of strengths on youths court-referred to residential treatment

      Pagano, Maria; Krentzman, Amy R.; Rhodes, Christine; Case Western Reserve University; University of Minnesota; University of Derby (2017-06-24)
    • Attributes of effective interprofessional placement facilitation

      Nicol, Paul; Forman, Dawn; Universty of Derby (Canadian Institute for Studies in Publishing Press, 2014-10)
      Background: The quality of facilitation is an important influence on the efficacy of interprofessional education (IPE) delivery. The research objective was to increase understanding of the attributes of effective facilitation of students during external IPE placements in primary care situations. Methods and Findings: A thematic analysis of the experiences of academics, students, and placement-site staff at three placement sites was employed to explore participants’ perceptions of the attributes of effective IPE facilitators. These attributes included experience in an interprofessional context, together with an understanding of the specific clinical and assessment requirements of different disciplines. Facilitators also needed empathy with respect to the requirements of the external IPE placement sites and the ability to liaise between student and site needs. Conclusions: Models of IPE placement facilitation were most effective when, while following general principles, facilitators tailored them specifically for the individual situations of the placement sites and the learning requirements of particular groups of students. The most rewarding IPE learning experiences occurred when IPE facilitators provided sufficient clinical opportunities for students to work collaboratively with individual clients, provided the students perceived that their participation was relevant to their own discipline.
    • Attributes of effective interprofessional placement facilitation

      Nicol, Paul; Forman, Dawn; University of Derby (Canadian Institute for Studies in Publishing Press, 2014-10)
      Background: The quality of facilitation is an important influence on the efficacy of interprofessional education (IPE) delivery. The research objective was to increase understanding of the attributes of effective facilitation of students during external IPE placements in primary care situations. Methods and Findings: A thematic analysis of the experiences of academics, students, and placement-site staff at three placement sites was employed to explore participants’ perceptions of the attributes of effective IPE facilitators. These attributes included experience in an interprofessional context, together with an understanding of the specific clinical and assessment requirements of different disciplines. Facilitators also needed empathy with respect to the requirements of the external IPE placement sites and the ability to liaise between student and site needs. Conclusions: Models of IPE placement facilitation were most effective when, while following general principles, facilitators tailored them specifically for the individual situations of the placement sites and the learning requirements of particular groups of students. The most rewarding IPE learning experiences occurred when IPE facilitators provided sufficient clinical opportunities for students to work collaboratively with individual clients, provided the students perceived that their participation was relevant to their own discipline.
    • A brain-based pain facilitation mechanism contributes to painful diabetic polyneuropathy.

      Segerdahl, Andrew R.; Themistocleous, Andreas C.; Fido, Dean; Bennett, David L.; Tracey, Irene; University of Oxford; Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging, FMRIB, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging, FMRIB, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging, FMRIB, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK (Oxford Academic, 2018-01-15)
      The descending pain modulatory system represents one of the oldest and most fundamentally important neurophysiological mechanisms relevant to pain. Extensive work in animals and humans has shown how a functional imbalance between the facilitatory and inhibitory components is linked to exacerbation and maintenance of persistent pain states. Forward translation of these findings into clinical populations is needed to verify the relevance of this imbalance. Diabetic polyneuropathy is one of the most common causes of chronic neuropathic pain; however, the reason why ∼25–30% of patients with diabetes develop pain is not known. The current study used a multimodal clinical neuroimaging approach to interrogate whether the sensory phenotype of painful diabetic polyneuropathy involves altered function of the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey—a key node of the descending pain modulatory system. We found that ventrolateral periaqueductal grey functional connectivity is altered in patients suffering from painful diabetic polyneuropathy; the magnitude of which is correlated to their spontaneous and allodynic pain as well as the magnitude of the cortical response elicited by an experimental tonic heat paradigm. We posit that ventrolateral periaqueductal grey-mediated descending pain modulatory system dysfunction may reflect a brain-based pain facilitation mechanism contributing to painful diabetic polyneuropathy.
    • Brief report: self-compassion, physical health and the mediating role of health-promoting behaviours

      Dunne, Sara; Sheffield, David; Chilcot, Joseph; University of Derby (2016-04-26)
      To test the hypothesis that self-compassion predicts better physical health and that this is partially mediated through health-promoting behaviours, 147 adults completed self-report measures of self-compassion, health-promoting behaviours and physical health. Self-compassion and health-promoting behaviours were negatively associated with physical symptom scores. Self-compassion was positively associated with health-promoting behaviours. A bootstrapped mediation model confirmed a significant direct effect of self-compassion on physical health through health-promoting behaviours (R(2) = 0.13, b = -8.98, p = 0.015), which was partially mediated through health-promoting behaviours (R(2) = 0.06, b = -3.16, 95 per cent confidence interval [-6.78, -0.86]). Findings underscore the potential health-promoting benefits of self-compassion.
    • Care of the person with dementia : interprofessional practice and education

      Forman, Dawn; Pond, Dimity; University of Derby; Newcastle University Australia (Cambridge University Press, 2015-11)
      Care of the Person with Dementia responds to the urgent need for health practitioners to take an innovative approach to the challenge of dementia. The first Australian text of its kind, it combines evidence-based resources with interprofessional education and practice, exploring the ethical, social and environmental repercussions of dementia to provide a comprehensive overview of dementia care in an Australian context. The text is structured around a model of interprofessional education and practice (IPE) tailored to dementia care. This model incorporates the context of care, an important element missing from other recognised models of IPE. Throughout the book, principles of IPE are explained within the context of dementia, drawing on exemplars from a body of current, well-researched and evaluated dementia practice. Written by experienced academics, and providing national and international perspectives, this is a unique and crucial resource to develop collaborative skills and professional knowledge in the management of dementia.
    • Caregiving in multiple sclerosis and quality of life: A meta-synthesis of qualitative research.

      Topcu, Gogem; Buchanan, Heather; Aubeeluck, Aimee; Garip, Gulcan; University of Nottingham; Eastern Mediterranean University (Taylor and Francis, 2016-02-09)
      OBJECTIVE: The lack of adequate conceptualisation and operationalisation of quality of life (QoL) limits the ability to have a consistent body of evidence to improve QoL research and practice in informal caregiving for people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Thus, we conducted a meta-synthesis of qualitative research to improve the conceptual understanding of the experiences of MS carers and to identify factors that affect carers' QoL. DESIGN: Systematic searches of five electronic databases yielded 17 qualitative studies which were synthesised using the principles of meta-ethnography. RESULTS: The synthesis resulted in nine inter-linking themes: Changes and losses; challenges revolving around MS; caregiving demands; burden of care; future concerns; external stressors; experiences of support; strategies used in managing the caregiving role; and motivating factors. Our findings suggest that MS carers can have both positive and negative experiences which may bring challenges and rewards to the carers. CONCLUSION: We present a proposed QoL model for MS caregiving which can be used to inform the development of interventions for MS carers to improve their QoL. However, further empirical research is needed to examine the utility of this model and to explore the concept of QoL in MS carers in more detail.
    • Children’s well-being and nature connectedness: Exploring the impact of a ‘3-good-things’ writing task on nature connectedness and well-being.

      Harvey, Caroline; Sheffield, David; Richardson, Miles; University of Derby (2016-09-10)
      The health benefits of being connected to nature are well documented amongst both adults and children therefore simple interventions that lead to greater connectedness are valuable. The ‘3-good-things’ writing task is a positive psychology intervention which has been shown to increase happiness and decrease depression. Focusing the 3-good-things writing tasks on nature related good things has been found to increase nature connection in a sample of adults and the present research extends this to explore the impact of the intervention on nature connectedness in children. Children (n= 167) aged 9-11 completed measures of nature connection, mindfulness and life satisfaction at three time points, before and after the intervention, and again approximately eight weeks later. The intervention consisted of writing 3 good things about nature that they noticed every day for 5 days, whilst the control group wrote about 3 things they had noticed. Data will be analysed using factorial mixed design analysis. Relationships between the dependent variables will be explored using multiple regression.
    • Co-constructed dyadic illness experience in the discourse of couples living with severe uncontrolled asthma

      Varkonyi-Sep, Judit; Cross, Ainslea; Howarth, Peter; University of Southampton; University of Derby (European Psychology Society, 2016-08-23)
      Abstract Background: The research aims to explore dyadic constructed illness experiences and identities in couples living with severe uncontrolled asthma (SUA) Methods: Following NHS ethical approval, three couples, where one partner was being treated for SUA, were recruited from an asthma clinic. Each couple took part in a dyadic semi-structured, face-to-face interview. Mean duration since disease onset was 34 years (range 24-49). Patients' mean age was 66 years (range 59-73). Data were analysed using discourse analysis. Expected results: Preliminary results show that couples' dyadically constructed identities are fluid identities that adapt to variable illness severity over the disease course. Couples' dyadically constructed 'coping scripts' emerged from the non-asthmatic partner's expectations for coping strategies. Couples articulated unresolved emotional burden from old illness-related memories around acceptance of condition or traumatic encounters with health services. They highlighted lack of professional psychological support in coping with the illness. Participants perceived unique relationship and rapport with specific physicians. Despite physical suffering and life constrains, couples reported a good quality of life that they actively constructed. Current stage of work: A further 7-10 couples are being recruited to explore the preliminary findings further. Discussion: Exploring co-constructed illness experiences of SUA with dyadic approach provides valuable data on the significant other's influences and the impact of illness on the couple as a unit. Joint dyadic interviewing is useful in exploring the co-construction of illness experience in discourse, potentially applicable to areas of chronic disease management and health behaviour change. Refbacks There are currently no refbacks. Copyright (c) 2016 J. Varkonyi-Sepp, A. Cross, P. Howarth Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
    • Cognitive and affective components of challenge and threat states

      Meijen, Carla; Jones, Marc V.; McCarthy, Paul J.; Sheffield, David; Allen, Mark S.; Staffordshire University; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2013-04)
      This study examined the relationship among cardiovascular responses indicative of challenge and threat states, self-efficacy, perceived control and emotions before an upcoming competition. Using a repeated-measures design, 48 collegiate athletes talked about an upcoming competition (sport-specific speech task) and the topic of friendship (control speech task), whilst cardiovascular responses (heart rate, preejection period, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance) were collected and self-report measures of self-efficacy, perceived control, and emotions completed. Findings showed that participants with a physiological threat response reported higher levels of self-efficacy and excitement. Further, none of the other emotions or the cognitive appraisals of challenge and threat predicted cardiovascular patterns indicative of either a challenge or threat state. Thus, cardiovascular responses and self-report measures of self-efficacy, perceived control, and emotions did not correlate in the manner predicted by the theory of challenge and threat states in athletes. This finding may reflect methodological aspects, or that perhaps highly efficacious individuals believe they can perform well and so the task itself is more threatening because failure would indicate under-performance.
    • Competencies and frameworks in interprofessional education: A comparative analysis

      Thistlethwaite, Jill; Forman, Dawn; Matthews, Lynda; Rogers, Gary; Steketee, Carole; Yassine, Tagrid; University of Derby (Wolters Kluwer, 2014-06)
      Health professionals need preparation and support to work in collaborative practice teams, a requirement brought about by an aging population and increases in chronic and complex diseases. Therefore, health professions education has seen the introduction of interprofessional education (IPE) competency frameworks to provide a common lens through which disciplines can understand, describe, and implement team-based practices. Whilst an admirable aim, often this has resulted in more confusion with the introduction of varying definitions about similar constructs, particularly in relation to what IPE actually means.The authors explore the nature of the terms competency and framework, while critically appraising the concept of competency frameworks and competency-based education. They distinguish between competencies for health professions that are profession specific, those that are generic, and those that may be achieved only through IPE. Four IPE frameworks are compared to consider their similarities and differences, which ultimately influence how IPE is implemented. They are the Interprofessional Capability Framework (United Kingdom), the National Interprofessional Competency Framework (Canada), the Core Competencies for Interprofessional Collaborative Practice (United States), and the Curtin University Interprofessional Capability Framework (Australia).The authors highlight the need for further discussion about establishing a common language, strengthening ways in which academic environments work with practice environments, and improving the assessment of interprofessional competencies and teamwork, including the development of assessment tools for collaborative practice. They also argue that for IPE frameworks to be genuinely useful, they need to augment existing curricula by emphasizing outcomes that might be attained only through interprofessional activity
    • Coping strategies, vision-related quality of life, and emotional health in managing retinitis pigmentosa: a survey study.

      Anil, Krithika; Garip, Gulcan; University of Derby (Springer Nature, 2018-01-30)
      Background Retinitis pigmentosa is a group of genetic progressive retinal dystrophies that may adversely affect daily life. Those with RP should develop adaptive coping strategies to manage their condition. This study investigates the relationship between engaging (ECS) and disengaging coping strategies (DCS), vision-related quality of life (VRQoL), and emotional health, in adults living at home with retinitis pigmentosa. Method One hundred and five participants (70 female; meanage of 46.98, SD age  = 13.77) completed a cross-sectional survey. The questionnaire booklet consisted of the Coping Strategies Inventory – Short Form (32 items), the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire 25 (25 items), Marylands Trait Depression Scale (18 items), the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (14 items), and the Subjective Happiness Scale (4 items). Results Data was analysed with a two-block hierarchical multiple regression, with the first block controlling for the demographic data (age, sex, years since retinitis pigmentosa diagnosis, number of comorbidities, participant-perceived retinitis pigmentosa severity, and knowing RP type) and the second block consisting of primary measures (type of coping strategy, VRQoL, and Emotional Health). Type of coping strategy was found to impact psychosocial variables of VRQoL, not overall VRQoL. These psychosocial VRQoL variables had a positive association with ECS and a negative association with DCS. Emotional Health increased with ECS and decreased with DCS. There was a larger impact of DCS on VRQoL and Emotional Health compared to ECS, that is, VRQoL and Emotional Health decreased more with increasing DCS than VRQoL, and Emotional Health increased with increasing ECS. Conclusion In concordance with previous research, ECS increased with increasing VRQoL and DCS decreased with increasing VRQoL. However, the findings also indicated that DCS had a greater impact than ECS on VRQoL and Emotional Health. This suggests that diminishing DCS should be prioritised over developing ECS to positively influence VRQoL and Emotional Health. Further research should investigate the impact of reducing DCS compared to increasing ECS, and how this may influence VRQoL and Emotional Health.
    • Creating a coaching culture for managers in your organisation

      Forman, Dawn; Joyce, Mary; McMahon, Gladeana; Univeristy of Derby (Routledge, 2013)
      Creating a Coaching Culture for Managers in your Organisation is for managers leaders and coaches interested in extending the practice of coaching to achieve broader organisational outcomes. The book offers a practical approach on how to use coaching strategically to create a culture that supports change, builds leadership capacity, and achieves a high degree of alignment between the goals and aspirations of organisations, and their staff.
    • Cross-cultural differences and similarities in human value instantiation.

      Hanel, Paul H. P.; Maio, Gregory R.; Soares, Ana K. S.; Vione, Katia C.; de Holanda Coelho, Gabriel L.; Gouveia, Valdiney V.; Patil, Appasaheb C.; Kamble, Shanmukh V.; Manstead, Antony S. R.; Cardiff University; University of Bath; Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul; University of Derby; Universidade Federal da Paraíba; Karnatak University (Frontiers, 2018-05-29)
      Previous research found that the within-country variability of human values (e.g., equality and helpfulness) clearly outweighs between-country variability. Across three countries (Brazil, India, and the United Kingdom), the present research tested in student samples whether between-nation differences reside more in the behaviors used to concretely instantiate (i.e., exemplify or understand) values than in their importance as abstract ideals. In Study 1 (N = 630), we found several meaningful between-country differences in the behaviors that were used to concretely instantiate values, alongside high within-country variability. In Study 2 (N = 677), we found that participants were able to match instantiations back to the values from which they were derived, even if the behavior instantiations were spontaneously produced only by participants from another country or were created by us. Together, these results support the hypothesis that people in different nations can differ in the behaviors that are seen as typical as instantiations of values, while holding similar ideas about the abstract meaning of the values and their importance.
    • Curriculum renewal for interprofessional education in health

      Dunston, Roger; Forman, Dawn; Rogers, Gary; Thistlethwaite, Jill; Yassine, Tagrid; Hager, Jane; Manidis, Maria; Rossiter, Chris; Curtin University (Office for Learning and Teaching Australia, 2014-01)
      In this preface we comment on four matters that we think bode well for the future of interprofessional education in Australia. First, there is a growing articulation, nationally and globally, as to the importance of interprofessional education and its contribution to the development of interprofessional and collaborative health practices. These practices are increasingly recognised as central to delivering effective, efficient, safe and sustainable health services. Second, there is a rapidly growing interest and institutional engagement with interprofessional education as part of pre-registration health professional education. This has changed substantially in recent years. Whilst beyond the scope of our current studies, the need for similar developments in continuing professional development (CPD) for health professionals was a consistent topic in our stakeholder consultations. Third, we observe what might be termed a threshold effect occurring in the area of interprofessional education. Projects that address matters relating to IPE are now far more numerous, visible and discussed in terms of their aggregate outcomes. The impact of this momentum is visible across the higher education sector. Finally, we believe that effective collaboration is a critical mediating process through which the rich resources of disciplinary knowledge and capability are joined to add value to existing health service provision. We trust the conceptual and practical contributions and resources presented and discussed in this report contribute to these developments.
    • Curriculum renewal in interprofessional education in health: establishing leadership and capacity

      Forman, Dawn; Dunston, Roger; Thistlethwaite, Jill; Moran, Monica Catherine; Steketee, Carole; University of Derby (Office for Learning and Teaching Australia, 2016)
      The Curriculum Renewal for Interprofessional Education in Health: ‘Establishing Leadership and Capacity’ (ELC) project builds from a number of Australian and global studies and reports that address a range of critical issues associated with the development of interprofessional education (IPE) and interprofessional practice (IPP) within Australia and globally2.
    • Decisional and emotional forgiveness scales: Psychometric validity and correlates with personality and vengeance.

      Cavalcanti, Thiago Medeiros; de Holanda Coelho, Gabriel Lins; Rezende, Alessandro Teixeira; Vione, Katia Correa; Gouveia, Valdiney Veloso; Federal University of Paraiba; Cardiff University; University of Derby (Springer, 2018-07-22)
      Forgiveness is an internal process to overcome negative aspects (e.g., anger, bitterness, resentment) towards an offender, being associated to a range of variables (e.g., well-being, quality of loving relationships, resilience). Forgiveness can happen through two different types: (1) decisional, which is a behavioural modification to reduce direct hostility; and (2) emotional, which is a transformation of negative emotions into positive. The current research aimed to gather psychometric evidences for the Decisional Forgiveness Scale (DFS) and the Emotional Forgiveness Scale (EFS), using a Brazilian sample. Two studies were conducted. In Study 1 (n = 181), the bifactorial structures were replicated, also providing satisfactory reliability levels. Through Item Response Theory, results indicated good discrimination, difficulty levels, and considerable information to all the items from both measures. In Study 2 (n = 220), confirmatory factor analyses confirmed their structure, presenting good model fit. The measures were also invariant regarding participants’ gender. Finally, the measures presented significant results when correlated to personality and vengeance. In sum, the instruments demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties, evidencing the possibility of their use in the respective context.