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Borderline personality disorder: from understanding ontological addiction to psychotherapeutic revolutionBypassing a reductionist view of existing diagnostic categories, ontological addiction theory (OAT) is a new psychological model of human functioning. Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), defined as “a pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image and affects, and marked impulsivity”, is not only common (up to 20% of psychiatric inpatients), but also strongly associated with suicide attempts and death by suicide. Therefore, BPD constitutes a major public health concern. As a consequence of an underlying condition of ontological addiction, self-harming behaviors can be conceptualized as addictions, suicidal acts reflecting an experiential avoidance strategy against unbearable psychological pain. The present paper aims at: (1) understanding BPD daily life experiences from the perspective of OAT; (2) offering psychotherapeutic perspectives for this mental disorder. The diagnostic category of BDP may be understood as a simple label reflecting several extreme types of manifestations resulting from the Self-grasping ignorance that underpins ontological addiction. Therefore, development of psychotherapeutic interventions targeting ontological addiction appears to be a promising future direction.
Changes in the spatial distribution of COVID-19 incidence in Italy using GIS-based mapsMassive spreading of the pandemic Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in different continents [1, 2], have been observed. Analyses mostly focused on the number of cases per country and administrative levels, multiple times without considering the relevance of the incidence rates. These help to see the concentration of disease among the population in terms of cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Even more using geographical information systems (GIS)-based maps stakeholder may rapidly analyze changes in the epidemiological situation [3, 4]. Although the epidemic of COVID-19 caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) started in Italy on January 31, 2020, no reports on the use of GIS-based maps have been published to analyze the distinct differences in incidence rates across its regions and provinces during the last months. For these reasons, we have developed epidemiological maps of incidence rates using official populations, by regions and provinces, for COVID-19 in Italy using GIS.