• Learners’ perceptions and experiences of studying psychology online

      Garip, Gulcan; Seneviratne, Sanju Rusara; Iacovou, Susan; University of Derby; University of Roehampton (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-06-13)
      This study aimed to explore the lived experiences of six international and mature online learners studying on an undergraduate psychology course to identify barriers and facilitators to studying online. A secondary aim was to deductively explore the applicability of the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation, and Behaviour model to participants' narratives related to self-regulated online learning. Online interviews with six demographically diverse participants were conducted and analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The overarching theme was 'the balancing act of online learners', which consisted of three major themes (and respective subthemes): (1) 'identity as an online learner' ('in today's world, we're all very busy'), (2) 'access to resources' ('importance of location' and 'comparing online to on-campus teaching and learning'), and (3) 'changing nature of social interactions' ('tutors as a crutch' and 'peer-to-peer interactions'). A number of facilitators and barriers related to these themes were identified, which are applicable to the COM-B model. The COM-B model offers a novel approach in designing and delivering learning materials and activities that may instil or help maintain self-regulated learning in online psychology students.
    • Don't slap the fish: The relationship between dietary Omega-3 intake and physical aggression is mediated by motor inhibition in response to distressed faces

      Fido, Dean; Heym, Nadja; Bloxsom, Claire A. J.; Hunter, Kirsty A.; Gregson, Michael; Sumich, Alexander L.; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University; Auckland University of Technology (Elsevier, 2020-05-25)
      The innate violence inhibition mechanism (VIM) purportedly regulates maladaptive aggressive behavior through motor inhibition, in response to expressions of distress, and is implicated in psychopathy-related aggression. Deficiency in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; an omega-3 fatty acid) is implicated in aggression and callous-unemotional (CU) traits, however, its relationship to the VIM remains unknown. Two studies tested relationships between EPA intake, personality (aggression, CU traits), and electrophysiological indices of the VIM. In study one (N=98), participants completed omega-3 intake (FFQ), CU traits (ICU), and aggression (BPAQ) measures. Physical aggression correlated positively with callousness and negatively with EPA intake. CU traits were unrelated to EPA. In study two (N=47), participants completed the same measures and an electroencephalography assessment of VIM. Stop-P300 amplitude (motor inhibition success) in response to facial expressions of distress mediated the relationship between EPA intake and physical aggression. This is the first demonstration of an association between EPA intake and electroencephalographic indices of the VIM. Findings support a role of EPA in regulating aggression through networks involved in distress-cued executive control over behaviour; and provide supporting data to direct future trial designs for nutritional supplementation in non-clinical, clinical and forensic arenas.
    • Revisiting the self-compassion scale-short form: Stronger associations with self-inadequacy and resilience

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Springer, 2020-05-24)
      The Self-Compassion Scale-Short Form (SCS-SF) was developed as an economical alternative for the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), one of the few scales to assess self-compassion. Despite the active use of the SCS-SF, a psychometric evaluation of this scale remains limited. This study analysed the factor structure, reliability, and construct validity of the SCS-SF in UK university student populations. Methods Of 365 students approached, 333 completed the SCS-SF, and other measures including negative psychological constructs (mental health problems, self-criticism, and mental health shame) and positive psychological constructs (self-reassurance, resilience, and wellbeing). Data were analysed through confirmatory factor analyses and correlations. Results CFA revealed that the six-factor structure, reported in the validation paper, was not replicated. The positive factor, consisting of the three positive subscales, was not strongly related to any variable, but moderately related to reassured-self, resilience, wellbeing, and inadequate-self. The negative factor, consisting of the three negative subscales, was strongly related to inadequate-self, and moderately related to resilience, reassured-self, stress, wellbeing, depression, and internal shame. Coefficients in the negative factor were in general larger than those in the positive factor. The total SCS-SF score was most strongly related to inadequate-self, followed by resilience. Inter-correlations of the six subscales did not follow Neff (2003b)'s theoretical model of self-compassion nor the full-scale factor solution. Conclusions Findings do not accord with the common use of the global SCS-SF score as an assessment of six factors of self-compassion, and suggest a two factor solution assessing self-criticism and self-compassion.
    • Laughter and humour for personal development: A systematic scoping review of the evidence

      Gonot-Schoupinsky, Freda N.; Garip, Gulcan; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2020-05-23)
      The accessibility of laughter and humour make them attractive choices for self-care, and integrative medicine. There is a growing body of literature, but both fields are fragmented and the overall evidence has not been systematically reviewed. The relationship between health and personal development is increasingly recognized. This review scopes the evidence for laughter and humour interventions from the perspective of their potential benefits on personal development. A systematic scoping review used Joanna Briggs guidelines and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews Scoping Review extension (PRISMA-ScR). All-population laughter and humour interventions described in primary and secondary research from 1970, and in English, were searched in Web of Science and PubMed/Medline. Analysis of 240 primary research articles (k), and 11 systematic reviews (K), identified k = 564 discrete articles with studies involving 574,611 participants (n). Twelve large studies (n >15,000) contributed 77% of participants. Classification analysis found more research relating to humour (k = 445, n = 334,996) than laughter (k = 119, n = 239,615) and identified diverse personal development outcomes associated with Biological, Psychological, Social, Environmental, and Behavioural (BPSE-B) factors. This review presents growing evidence for the diverse applications and benefits of laughter and humour. Multiple opportunities for self-care and interventional applications are described. The consideration of personal development outcomes may support tailored applications according to specific needs and objectives. An umbrella Personal Development Theory of laughter and humour, inclusive humour and laughter definitions, and a humour-laughter-affect model are proposed to unify the fields.
    • Exploring the consistency and value of humour style profiles

      Evans, Thomas Rhys; Johannes, Niklas; Winska, Joanna; Glinksa-Newes, Aldona; van Stekelenburg, Aart; Nilsonne, Gustav; Dean, Laura; Fido, Dean; Galloway, Graeme; Jones, Sian; et al. (Taylor and Francis, 2020-05-12)
      Establishing generalisable humour style profiles promises to have significant value for educational, clinical, and occupational application. However, previous research investigating such profiles has thus far presented inconsistent results. To determine the generalisability and value of humour style profiles, a large and geographically diverse examination of humour styles was conducted through a cross-sectional questionnaire methodology involving 863 participants from across three world regions. Findings identify inconsistencies in the humour style profiles across countries tested and the extant literature, possibly indicative of cultural differences in the behavioural expression of trait humour. Furthermore, when directly compared, humour types, rather than humour styles, consistently provide the greatest predictive value for friendship and well-being outcomes. As such, with respect to both consistency and value, capturing humour style profiles appears to represent a relatively reductionist approach to appreciating the nuances in the use and consequences of humour.
    • Mental health of Malaysian university students: UK comparison, and relationship between negative mental health attitudes, self-compassion, and resilience

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Ting, Su-Hie; Neary, Siobhan; University of Derby (Springer, 2020-05-05)
      Poor mental health of university students is becoming a serious issue in many countries. Malaysia - a leading country for Asia-Pacific education - is one of them. Despite the government’s effort to raise awareness, Malaysian students’ mental health remains challenging, exacerbated by the students’ negative attitudes towards mental health (mental health attitudes). Relatedly, self-compassion and resilience have been reported to improve mental health and mental health attitudes. Malaysian students (n=153) responded to paper- based measures about mental health problems, negative mental health attitudes, self- compassion and resilience. Scores were compared with 105 UK students, who also suffered from poor mental health and negative mental health attitudes, to make a cross-cultural comparison, to contextualise Malaysian students’ mental health status, using t-tests (Aim 1). Correlation, path, and moderation analyses were conducted, to evaluate the relationships among these mental health constructs (Aim 2). Malaysian students scored higher on mental health problems and negative mental health attitudes, and lower on self-compassion and resilience than UK students. Mental health problems were positively associated with negative mental health attitudes, and negatively associated with self-compassion and resilience. While self-compassion mediated the relationship between negative mental health attitudes and mental health problems (high self-compassion weakened the impacts of negative mental health attitudes on mental health problems), resilience did not moderate the same relationship (the level of resilience did not influence the impact of negative mental health attitudes on mental health problems). Self-compassion training was suggested to counter the challenging mental health in Malaysian university students.
    • Functional fear predicts public health compliance in the COVID-19 pandemic

      Harper, Craig A.; Satchell, Liam; Fido, Dean; Latzman, Robert; Nottingham Trent University; University of Winchester; Georgia State University; University of Derby (Springer, 2020-04-27)
      In the current context of the global pandemic of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), health professionals are working with social scientists to inform government policy on how to slow the spread of the virus. An increasing amount of social scientific research has looked at the role of public message framing, for instance, but few studies have thus far examined the role of individual differences in emotional and personality-based variables in predicting virus-mitigating behaviors. In this study we recruited a large international community sample (N = 324) to complete measures of self-perceived risk of contracting COVID-19, fear of the virus, moral foundations, political orientation, and behavior change in response to the pandemic. Consistently, the only predictor of positive behavior change (e.g., social distancing, improved hand hygiene) was fear of COVID-19, with no effect of politically-relevant variables. We discuss these data in relation to the potentially functional nature of fear in global health crises.
    • Exploring the problem of establishing horizon emergent technologies within a higher education institution’s operational framework

      Shaw, Paula; Sheffield, David; Rawlinson, Sarah; University of Derby (Sciendo, 2020-04-24)
      Since the early 2000s, a plethora of web-based learning technologies has been developed, each proposing to improve the student experience. Yet, a study conducted by Martin et al. (2018) demonstrate sporadic new technology adoption in Higher Education (HE), despite wide-scale social interest and a wealth of academic publications. This paper aims to provide a framework to explore this problem from an institutional perspective, involving both educational planners and pedagogues. This framework, the Pedagogic Realignment with Organisational Priorities and Horizon Emergent Technologies Framework or PROPHET Framework, is a new three phase framework that combines two distinct research methodologies used by policy makers and pedagogues with a new dynamic multi-level diffusion of innovation (DMDI) model specifically designed to support dialogue between these stakeholders. Application of the PROPHET Framework will enable stakeholders to arrive at a common understanding about the efficacy of such new technologies and collaborative exploration of technology through these different lenses will lead to increased confidence in its value and relevance. It is hypothesised that undertaking this process will increase the adoption rate of Horizon Emergent Technologies, resulting in operational policy amendments and evidence of impact in the learning environment.
    • “Thumb Exercise”: an interpretative phenomenological analysis of psychosocial factors encouraging inactive adults to engage with their smartphones rather than physical activity

      Hedges, Tallulah; Garip, Gulcan; University of Derby (Ubiquity Press, 2020-04-09)
      Physical inactivity accounts for up to 1.6 million deaths each year. With UK adults spending approximately eleven times longer using their smartphones than exercising, research suggests that frequent smartphone use is linked to poor physical fitness. Previous research on the psychosocial influences of both problem smartphone use, and physical activity barriers and facilitators exist, however insight into the psychosocial underpinnings of why inactive individuals choose to engage with their smartphones rather than physical activity is understudied This study provides a qualitative exploration of the psychosocial factors that encourage inactive adults to engage with their smartphones rather than physical activity. Thirteen (female = 10) participants aged between 18 and 39 completed an online qualitative survey. The subjective experiences and perceptions from participants’ survey responses were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis, with a phenomenological epistemological approach. Three themes were identified: the first theme identified that the psychosocial influence of smartphone engagement was to escape unpleasant realities; the second theme depicts that the psychosocial barrier of physical activity engagement was perceptions in relation to the financial and task-oriented costs that physical activity incurs; the third theme captured that social support necessities are being fulfilled through smartphone communication, therefore as a counterpart, physical activity is deemed to be a desolate operation. The findings from this study provide recommendations that harness social support and smartphone capabilities for motivating inactive adults to maintain physically active lifestyles.
    • A case report of cognitive behavioural therapy for a Japanese female patient suffering from migraine

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Asano, Kenichi; University of Derby (Concurrent Disorders, 2020-04)
      Despite its prevalence, migraine was not regarded as a problematic disease until 2000. This third most common disease in the world is also common in Japan. While effective treatment and interventions are introduced in manuals and guidelines in the West, helpful information to treat migraine targeting Japanese patients is still scarce. Accordingly, this clinical note reports a Japanese female who suffered from long-term migraine. Similar to many Western cases, approaches based on cognitive behavioural therapy were deemed effective in this client’s case as well. Empirical evaluation was recommended.
    • Study protocol: a pilot study investigating mental health in the UK police force

      Edwards, Ann-Marie; Kotera, Yasuhiro; University of Derby (Concurrent Disorders Society, 2020-04)
      Police workers in the United Kingdom suffer from poor mental health, which is exacerbated by stigma associated with mental health problems. Accordingly, this study protocol paper presents a pilot study aiming to appraise direct experiences of mental illness among police officers, and the culture in the police workforce towards officers suffering with a mental health problem, while evaluating the feasibility of a large study. Thematic analysis on semi-structured interviews was designed to capture their first-hand experience. Ethical considerations and dissemination plans were discussed.
    • Cost-utility of attachment-based compassion therapy (ABCT) for fibromyalgia compared to relaxation: a pilot randomized controlled trial

      D’Amico, Francesco; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Montero-Marín, Jesús; Peñarrubía-María, María T.; Navarro-Gil, Mayte; Van Gordon, William; García-Campayo, Javier; Luciano, Juan V.; London School of Economics and Political Science; Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu, 08950 Esplugues de Llobregat, Spain; et al. (MDPI AG, 2020-03-07)
      A recent study has supported the efficacy of Attachment-Based Compassion Therapy (ABCT) compared to relaxation (REL) for the management of fibromyalgia (FM). The main objective of this paper is to examine the cost-utility of ABCT compared to REL in terms of effects on quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) as well as healthcare costs. Forty-two Spanish patients with FM received 8 weekly group sessions of ABCT or REL. Data collection took place at pre- and 3-month follow-up. Cost-utility of the two treatment groups (ABCT vs. REL) was compared by examining treatment outcomes in terms of QALYs (obtained with the EQ-5D-3L) and healthcare costs (data about service use obtained with the Client Service Receipt Inventory). Data analyses were computed from a completers, ITT, and per protocol approach. Data analysis from the healthcare perspective revealed that those patients receiving ABCT exhibited larger improvements in quality of life than those doing relaxation, while being less costly 3 months after their 8-week treatment program had ended (completers: incremental cost M, 95% CI = €−194.1 (−450.3 to 356.1); incremental effect M, 95% CI = 0.023 QALYs (0.010 to 0.141)). Results were similar using an ITT approach (incremental cost M, 95% CI = €−256.3 (−447.4 to −65.3); incremental effect M, 95% CI = 0.021 QALYs (0.009 to 0.033)). A similar pattern of results were obtained from the per protocol approach. This RCT has contributed to the evidence base of compassion-based interventions and provided useful information about the cost-utility of ABCT for FM patients when compared to relaxation. However, the small sample size and short follow-up period limited the generalizability of the findings
    • Call for papers: case studies of applied health psychology practice, implementation and knowledge translation experiences

      Cross, Ainslea; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2020-03-01)
      Since our Spring 2019 call for papers (Cross & Sheffield, 2019) for the new Health Psychology Practice, Consultancy and Training section of Health Psychology Update (HPU) we have been fortunate to receive articles highlighting the value and impact of health psychology in practice within varied settings and contexts. We have featured practice articles on working as a health psychologist in community settings for adults with learning disabilities (Bains & Turnbull, 2019), public health (Lawes-Wickwar & Begum, 2020), the NHS (Anderson 2019) and the development of a student-delivered University health coaching service (Cooper, Allan, Dunsmore, Johnston & Leighton-Beck, 2020). To build on our progress in raising the profile of applied health psychology practice, we would like to invite articles on the following themes: (1) knowledge translation, featuring experiences of translating research into practice; (2) implementation, experiences of designing and delivering applied health psychology practice or interventions. We invite a range of flexible formats for presenting your work such as reflective accounts, case study reports or protocols of works in progress and lessons learned to date. HPU aims to provide an opportunity for anyone working in applied health psychology to share their work and projects in order to raise the profile of health psychology. If you would like to share your work with the health psychology community, please email your expression of interest to: hpu.professional@outlook.com and hpu.editor@outlook.com.
    • Mental health of UK hospitality Workers: Shame, self-criticism and self-reassurance

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Adhikari, Prateek; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2020-02-05)
      This study aimed to evaluate shame for mental health problems, and explore relationships between shame, self-criticism, self-reassurance, and mental health among UK hospitality workers, because this group of workers suffer from poor mental health yet report strong shame. An opportunity sample of 114 UK hospitality workers completed measures examining shame for mental health problems, self-criticism, self-reassurance, and mental health problems. A high proportion of workers scored over the midpoint in almost all the shame subscales. Shame, self-criticism, self-reassurance, and mental health were related to one another. External shame and self-criticism were positive predictors, and self-reassurance was a negative predictor for mental health problems. While self-criticism moderated the relationship between shame and mental health problems, self-reassurance did not. Online compassion training was recommended as it can reduce self-criticism and shame, can be undertaken without colleagues knowing and tailored to specific work patterns.
    • Can mindfulness help address the global obesity epidemic in children and adolescents?

      Sapthaing, Supakyada; Van Gordon, William; Shonin, Edo; Zangeneh, Masood; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2020-02-05)
    • Ethics in computing, science, and engineering: A student's guide to doing things right

      Blundell, Barry G.; University of Derby (Springer-Nature, 2020-02)
      This comprehensive textbook introduces students to the wide-ranging responsibilities of computing, science and engineering professionals by laying strong transdisciplinary foundations and by highlighting ethical issues that may arise during their careers. The work is well illustrated, and makes extensive use of activities, ethical dilemmas and case studies designed to stimulate discussion and engagement. A broad range of technologies are introduced and examined within an ethical framework. These include biometrics, surveillance systems (including facial recognition), radio frequency identification devices, drone technologies, the Internet of Things, and robotic systems. The application and potential societal ramifications of such systems are examined in detail, not only in their current context but also in terms of their ongoing evolution. The reader is asked to consider whether we can afford to allow ongoing developments to be primarily driven by market forces, or whether a more cautious approach is needed. Further chapters examine the benefits of ethical leadership, environmental issues relating to the technology product lifecycle (from inception to e-waste), ethical considerations in research (including medical experimentation), and the need to develop educational programs which will better prepare students for a more fluid employment landscape. The final chapter introduces a structured approach to ethical issue resolution, providing a valuable, long-term reference. In addition, it emphasises the ethical responsibilities of the professional, and considers issues that can arise when we endeavour to effect ethically sound change within organisations. Examples are provided which highlight the possible ramifications of exercising ethical valour. The author has created an extensively referenced textbook that catalyses student interest, is internationally relevant, and which is multicultural in both its scope and outlook.
    • Mental health of Irish students: Self-criticism as a complete mediator in mental health attitudes and caregiver identity

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Maughan, Geraldine; Limerick Institute of Technology; University of Derby (Concurrent Disorders Society, 2020-02)
      Mental health is a concern in the Republic of Ireland, and in particular mental health of higher education students is challenging. Further, their poor mental health may be negatively impacted by their negative mental health attitudes and caregiver identity, which can yield high self-criticism and low self-reassurance. Accordingly, this study aimed to (i) elucidate the relationships among these five constructs, and (ii) assess the impact of self-criticism and self-reassurance in the relationship (a) between mental health attitudes and mental health, and (b) between caregiver identity and mental health. One-hundred twenty-nine Irish undergraduate students completed self-report measures regarding these constructs. Correlation and path analyses were conducted. Overall all variables were related to each other, in particular family-related shame subscales were strongly related to mental health problems. In path analysis, self-criticism completely mediated the relationship between mental health attitudes and mental health, while self-reassurance did not. Likewise, self-criticism also completely mediated the relationship between caregiver identity and mental health, while self-reassurance did not. The findings suggest the importance of self-criticism to their mental health. While current literature highlights the importance of mental health attitudes such as stigma and caregiver identity such as low self-awareness, our results indicated that it was their self-criticism that predicted poor mental health. Their mental health may be more effectively improved by targeting self-criticism. Compassion training, peer-support groups, and reframing were recommended to counter self-criticism. Our findings will help educators and researchers to identify an alternative and effective means to improve mental health in Irish students.
    • English translation and validation of the Ikigai-9 in a UK Sample [Protocol]

      Fido, Dean; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Asano, Kenichi; University of Derby (Concurrent Disorders Society, 2020-02)
      The psychological construct of ‘ikigai’ reflects the sense of having a ‘reason for living’ and has been associated with various positive health-related outcomes. This proposal presents an English translation of the Ikigai-9, empirically explores the manifestation of ikigai in the United Kingdom, and outlines its associations with facets of well-being.
    • Mindfulness for pain, depression, anxiety, and quality of life in people with spinal cord injury: a systematic review

      Hearne, Jasmine; Cross, Ainslea; Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Derby (Springer Nature, 2020-01-21)
      Populations with reduced sensory and motor function, such as spinal cord injury (SCI) are at increased risk of depression, anxiety, pain, and poorer quality of life (QoL). Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBIs) have been developed with the aim of improving outcomes for people with SCI. To understand the value of MBIs, a systematic review was conducted pertaining to the use of MBIs, and interventions including elements of mindfulness, with people with SCI. Databases were reviewed from 1996 to October 2018 (updated January 2020). Eligibility criteria included the assessment of at least one of the common secondary consequences of SCI (i.e. risk of depression, anxiety, pain, and QoL), describe the use of mindfulness training as a component part of an intervention, or as the whole intervention. The Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias and The Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tools were utilised for quality appraisals. Two assessors appraised the studies and demonstrated good agreement (Cohen’s k=.848,p<.001). Five papers met the inclusion criteria, and demonstrated a range of results of interventions delivered individually, in a group format, in person, and online. Only one study reported significant reductions in pain-related outcomes (with moderate effect sizes), with the remaining studies (n=4 ) demonstrating no change. Four studies described reductions in depressive symptoms and three reported reductions in anxiety. Despite the importance of good QoL as a goal for people with SCI, few studies (n=2) assessed this as an outcome with no improvements reported. Study quality ranged from high to low/weak. The findings in this review provide mixed support for the use of mindfulness to improve outcomes after SCI. In particular, findings indicate that mindfulness may be particularly effective for improving symptoms of depression and anxiety. This review highlights the requirement for more rigorous, high-quality research, particularly larger randomised-controlled trials with long-term follow-up, in this area. The small number of studies included in the present review mean that conclusions drawn are preliminary and thus reflects the paucity of the research in the area to date. Keywords: Meditation, Mind-body, Yoga, Paraplegia, Acceptance
    • Mental health in the UK police force: A qualitative investigation into the stigma with mental illness

      Edwards, Ann-Marie; Kotera, Yasuhiro; University of Derby (Springer, 2020-01-15)
      Police work is a high-risk profession that can cause mental health conditions. With increasing sickness levels and falling police numbers, it is essential prompt mental health treatment be implemented. The study aims to explore institutional negativity and stigma in the police force toward mental ill health. Semi-structured interviews attended by five police officers with thematic analysis captured i) police culture, ii) the stigma of mental illness, iii) disclosure of mental illness and iv) breaking down barriers. Findings indicate police culture and attitudes to mental health may contribute to the causes of psychological illness, rather than the nature of the job itself. Increased education and awareness surrounding mental health have been shown to be fundamental in how an officer reacts to stress, but change is needed at a managerial level. Future research needs to explore the effects of mental health stigma on ethnicity and gender in the police force.