• Energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth: Fresh evidence from 57 countries and panel quantile regressions

      Apergis, Nicholas; Altinoz, Buket; Aslan, Alper; University of Derby; Nisantasi University; Erciyes University (Asian Pacific Economic Association, 2020-09-11)
      This paper analyzes the association across energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth. According to the results of panel quantile regression model for 57 countries from three different regions, deviations from sustainable growth after the middle growth level in the full sample and the European and Asian countries sample are prominent. Similar results are obtained from Middle East and African countries, but the deviations begin earlier. In the case of the Latin American findings, the estimates clearly document that carbon emissions (at all levels) and energy consumption (at the medium and high levels) exert a negative impact on economic growth, indicating the inability of Latin American countries to achieve sustainable economic growth targets.
    • The role of Covid-19 for Chinese stock returns: evidence from a GARCHX model

      Apergis, Nicholas; Apergis, Emmanuel; University of Derby; University of Huddersfield (Taylor & Francis, 2020-09-03)
      This paper examines the effect of Covid-19 pandemic on the Chinese stock market returns and their volatility using the generalized autoregressive conditionally heteroskedastic GARCHX model. The GARCHX model allows us to include Covid-19 information within the GARCH framework. The findings document that daily increases in total confirmed Covid-19 cases in China, measured as total daily deaths and cases, have a significant negative impact on stock returns, with the negative impact of the Covid-19 on stock returns being more pronounced when total deaths proxy the effect of this infectious disease. The results also document that Covid-19 has a positive and statistically significant effect on the volatility of these market returns. Overall, new evidence is offered that infectious diseases, such as Covid-19, can seriously impact market returns, as well as their volatility. The findings could be essential in understanding the implications of Covid-19 for the stock market in China.
    • Inflation expectations, volatility and Covid-19: Evidence from the US inflation swap rates

      Apergis, Nicholas; Apergis, Emmanuel; University of Derby; University of Huddersfield (Taylor & Francis, 2020-08-28)
      The goal of this work is to explore the role of the Covid-19 pandemic event in the course of inflation expectations and their volatility through US inflation swap rates. The findings document that inflation expectations and their volatility are positively affected by the Covid-19 pandemic. These results have real activity implications, while close monitoring of inflation expectations could signal inflation expectations un-anchoring risks.
    • U.S. monetary policy and herding: Evidence from commodity markets

      Apergis, Nicholas; Christou, Christina; Hayat, Tasawar; Saeed, Tareq; University of Derby; Open University of Cyprus; King Abdulaziz University (Springer, 2020-08-28)
      This paper investigates the presence of herding behavior across a spectrum of commodities (i.e., agricultural, energy, precious metals, and metals) futures prices obtained from Datastream. The main novelty of this study is, for the first time in the literature, the explicit investigation of the role of deviations of U.S. monetary policy decisions from a standard Taylor-type monetary rule, in driving herding behavior with respect to commodity futures prices, spanning the period 1990-2017. The results document that the commodity markets are characterized by herding, while such herding behavior is not only driven by U.S. monetary policy decisions, but also such decisions exert asymmetric effects this behavior. An additional novelty of the results is that they document that herding is stronger in discretionary monetary policy regimes.
    • Threshold effects of housing affordability and financial development on the house price-consumption nexus

      Apergis, Nicholas; Coskun, Esra; Coskun, Yener; University of Derby; University of Huddersfield; University of Sheffield (Wiley, 2020-08-28)
      The study explores the asymmetric effect of housing and financial wealth on household consumption behavior using panel data from 24 OECD countries, spanning the period 2000 to 2016 by employing a financial development (FD) index (proxy for financial deepening) and the house price-to-income (HPI) ratio (proxy for housing affordability) through a threshold empirical framework. The analysis tests certain hypotheses, such as: (i) the housing wealth effect on consumption is stronger than its financial counterpart, (ii) overall wealth effects increase (decrease) during bubble (post bubble) periods, (iii) the higher level of financial development and the lower level of housing affordability ratio both result in stronger wealth effects, (iv) increasing wealth effects show a bubble formation. The results suggest that housing wealth has generally a greater positive effect on consumption. The effect of housing and financial wealth on consumption increases, depending on higher financial development and declining housing affordability. The evidence also suggests that the impact of housing and stock market wealth has increased during the dot.com and housing bubble periods.
    • Developing more inclusive schools for pupils with special educational needs: key messages for school leaders and communities

      Robinson, Deborah; Hanson, Jill; Codina, Geraldene; Dimitrellou, Eleni; Qureshi, Sarwat; University of Derby (2020-08-26)
      This paper will provide an outline of a unique local area project of school improvement for inclusion and special educational needs called the ‘SEND Peer Challenger programme’ so that its principles might be understood and/or emulated by school leaders who are looking for new ways to improve provision for pupils with special educational needs and disabilities (SENDs) in general classrooms. Its aims are to: Provide an example of how researchers in universities, front line educationalists and local governors can collaborate to deepen the reach of school improvement initiatives for SEND and inclusion in mainstream schools. Share the findings of a research study that cast light on the character of effective leadership and management for high quality SEND provision in mainstream education. Explore the implications of these findings for researchers, local governors, and school leaders through understanding the elements of high-quality SEND provision in general classrooms. Operationalising leadership and management approaches to improve SEND provision in general classrooms.
    • Airbnb and hotel revenues in Greek popular destinations

      Apergis, Nicholas; Hayat, Tasawar; Saeed, Tareq; University of Derby; King Abdulaziz University (Emerald, 2020-08-19)
      This paper explores the role of Airbnb listings on hotel revenues in certain popular Greek tourist destinations. The analysis makes use of the panel GMM method, while the findings document that the Airbnb listings exert a negative impact on hotel revenues. Moreover, the results indicate that it is primarily non-business and low-price hotels that are being influenced, while the hotel industry responds to the competition through lower room prices and not through occupancy rates. The paper documents that although the Airbnb is a new factor in the Greek tourism industry, it has turned into a significant competitor against hotels. The findings of this paper are expected to provide further insights into the workings of the sector and the potential regulated policies needed to be adopted by tourism authorities.
    • The role of fiscal policy in the link between income inequality and banking crises

      Apergis, Nicholas; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2020-08-16)
      This paper explores the link between income inequality and banking crises, when inequality is affected by fiscal policy. Using a two-stage probit least squares method and a panel of 21 countries, spanning the period 1971-2017, the findings indicate that inequality impacts the probability of banking crises through budget deficits, followed by government expenses.
    • Effects of shinrin-yoku (forest bathing) and nature therapy on mental health: A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Richardson, Miles; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Springer, 2020-07-28)
      Shinrin-yoku (forest-bathing), immersing oneself in nature using one's senses, has been receiving increased attention internationally. While most of the existing studies have focused on physical health, this systematic review and meta-analysis examined the mental health benefits of shinrin-yoku (i.e., depression, anxiety, anger), using the PRISMA guidelines (PROSPERO registery: BLINDED). Articles in English were retrieved on research databases including PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. Of 481 articles retrieved, twenty met the inclusion criteria (eight non-randomised and twelve randomised controlled trials). All studies were conducted in Asia and Europe and used a variety of different bathing approaches (e.g., breathing, walking, yoga). While noting a need for more rigorous research and more extensive follow-up assessments, the findings indicate that shinrin-yoku can be effective in reducing negative mental health symptoms in the short-term (large effects, g> .80); particularly, the effects on anxiety were largest. Overall, forest bathing improved depression, anxiety and anger in the short-term but there were a number of moderators of the effects. More careful examination of shinrin-yoku practices are needed; longer follow-up with participants from a range of countries along with greater examination of potential mechanisms of action are needed for shinrin-yoku to be accepted into mainstream interventions.
    • Effect of element wall thickness on the homogeneity and isotropy of hardness in SLM IN718 using nanoindentation

      Abo Znemah, Reem; Wood, Paul; Gunputh, Urvashi Fowdar; Zhang, Cheng; Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA; University of Derby; Medtronic Inc., Tempe, Arizona, US (Elsevier, 2020-07-28)
      In this paper the homogeneity and isotropy of the mechanical hardness of thin-walled Inconel 718 (IN718) alloy samples manufactured by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) were examined using nanoindentation testing. SLM-produced honeycombed samples with wall thicknesses of 0.8, 0.6 and 0.4 mm respectively were studied by measuring the hardness across the wall thickness, and on the planes parallel and perpendicular to the build direction over the range of depths of 10-2000 nm. The average hardness values close to the edges were 4.0-6.5% lower than the areas away from the them. Interestingly the average hardness dropped by 15.2% with reduction in the cell wall thickness from 0.8 mm to 0.4 mm. Average hardness values were reported to be higher on the plane perpendicular to the build direction compared to the parallel plane. A variable material length scale was proposed in this work to describe the size effects of the microstructure. It was evaluated using the nanoindentation hardness test results and a computational model developed in previous studies by the first author and his co-workers.
    • Changes in the spatial distribution of COVID-19 incidence in Italy using GIS-based maps

      Martellucci, Cecilia Acuti; Sah, Ranjit; Rabaan, Ali A.; Dhama, Kuldeep; Casalone, Cristina; Arteaga-Livias, Kovy; Sawano, Toyoaki; Ozaki, Akihiko; Bhandari, Divya; Higuchi, Asaka; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-07-18)
      Massive spreading of the pandemic Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in different continents [1, 2], have been observed. Analyses mostly focused on the number of cases per country and administrative levels, multiple times without considering the relevance of the incidence rates. These help to see the concentration of disease among the population in terms of cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Even more using geographical information systems (GIS)-based maps stakeholder may rapidly analyze changes in the epidemiological situation [3, 4]. Although the epidemic of COVID-19 caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) started in Italy on January 31, 2020, no reports on the use of GIS-based maps have been published to analyze the distinct differences in incidence rates across its regions and provinces during the last months. For these reasons, we have developed epidemiological maps of incidence rates using official populations, by regions and provinces, for COVID-19 in Italy using GIS.
    • Commentary: Suggesting shinrin-yoku (forest bathing) for treating addiction

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Rhodes, Christine; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2020-07-15)
    • Psychological Impacts of the New Ways of Working (NWW): A Systematic Review

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Correa Vione, Katia; University of Derby (MDPI AG, 2020-07-14)
      Digitalization of knowledge work is essential for today’s organizations, responding todiversified employee needs. Many organizations are already implementing some form of flexibility tohelp workers perform work and non-work duties, while maintaining high productivity. While thesechanges in workplaces, “New Ways of Working (NWW)”, have been discussed in the literature,a systematic appraisal of evidence of NWW has not been conducted. Relating to poor work-relatedmental health worldwide, this systematic review analyzed the psychological impacts of NWW, andthe quality and quantity of NWW research. Following the preferred reporting items for systematicreviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, NWW studies targeting psychological outcomeswere evaluated. Initial literature search on ProQuest, PsycINFO, Science Direct, and Google Scholarretrieved 308 titles, from which seven articles fulfilled all inclusion criteria. Our appraisal revealedthat NWW research evaluated diverse psychological outcomes. While NWW can help workers’engagement, work-related flow, and connectivity among staff, NWW can also increase blurredwork-home boundary, fatigue, and mental demands. The quality of NWW research was overallmedium, needing more rigorous studies. Our findings can inform decision-makers in the workplaceto effectively implement NWW, and researchers to improve the quality and the usefulness of futureNWW studies.
    • Cross-cultural comparison of mental health between Japanese and Dutch workers: Relationships with mental health shame, self-compassion, work engagement and motivation

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Van Laethem, Michelle; Ohshima, Remi; University of Derby; University of Amsterdam; Mejiro Daigaku, Shinjuku-ku, Japan (Emerald, 2020-07-09)
      The primary purpose of this descriptive study was to compare the levels of, and relationships among mental health problems, mental health shame, self-compassion, work engagement, and work motivation between workers in Japan (collectivistic and success-driven culture) and the Netherlands (individualistic and quality-oriented culture). A cross-sectional design, where convenience samples of 165 Japanese and 160 Dutch workers completed self-report measures about mental health problems, shame, self-compassion, engagement and motivation, was used. Welch t-tests, correlation and regression analyses were conducted to compare i) the levels of these variables, ii) relationships among these variables, and iii) predictors of mental health problems, between the two groups. Dutch workers had higher levels of mental health problems, work engagement and intrinsic motivation, and lower levels of shame and amotivation than Japanese workers. Mental health problems were associated with shame in both samples. Mental health problems were negatively predicted by self-compassion in Japanese, and by work engagement in Dutch employees. The novelty of this study relates to exploring differences in work mental health between those two culturally contrasting countries. Our findings highlight potential cultural differences such as survey responding (Japanese acquiescent responding vs Dutch self-enhancement) and cultural emphases (Japanese shame vs Dutch quality of life). Job crafting, mindfulness and enhancing ikigai (meaningfulness in life) may be helpful to protect mental health in these workers, relating to self-compassion and work engagement. Findings from this study would be particularly useful to employers, managers, and staff in human resources who work with cross-cultural workforce.
    • Impact of COVID-19 on tourism in Nepal

      Sah, Ranjit; Sigdel, Shailendra; Ozaki, Akihiko; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Bhandari, Divya; Regmi, Priyanka; Mehta, Rachana; Adhikari, Mahesh; Roy, Namrta; Dhama, Kuldeep; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2020-07-07)
    • World index of moral freedom: WIMF 2020

      Álvarez, Gloria; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Pina, Juan; University of Derby; Foundation for the Advancement of Liberty (Foundation for the Advancement of Liberty, 2020-07)
    • Effect of powder bed fusion laser melting process parameters, build orientation and strut thickness on porosity, accuracy and tensile properties of an auxetic structure in IN718 alloy

      Bahi, S.; Gunputh, U.; Rusinek, A.; Wood, P.; Miguelez, M.H.; Laboratory of Microstructure Studies and Mechanics of Materials, UMR-CNRS; Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Carlos III of Madrid; Institute for Innovation in Sustainable Engineering, University of Derby (Elsevier, 2020-06-26)
      In this paper the geometry of an auxetic, re-entrant honeycomb structure made from Inconel 718 (IN718), was optimised with respect to the process parameters of laser melting process using a Renishaw AM250 after which the quasi static behaviour was analysed under tensile loading. Two different PBF process parameters were used with 2 different laser energy densities to manufacture the auxetic structures with 3 different strut thicknesses (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 mm) in 2 building orientations (XY and ZX plane). A strut thickness of 0.6 mm was found to have the least porosity and the best dimensional accuracy. The latter geometry was then manufactured as part of a tensile test sample which were then tested at a strain rate of 0.001 s−1 after which the stress strain curve, yield stress, structural stiffness, plastic work and Poisson's Ratio were compared. The building directions XY, ZX and XZ of the auxetic structure were investigated, as well as the orientation of the individual cells with respect to the loading direction. XY was found to provide the best mechanical properties and the kinematics of deformation was found to be dependent on the loading direction with respect to the cells direction which resulted in a significant change in Poisson's ratio. Finite Element Analysis was also done in order to compare the stress strain curves and the deformation mode obtained from numerical modelling and experiment, and a good agreement was observed.
    • Underestimation of COVID-19 cases in Japan: an analysis of RT-PCR testing for COVID-19 among 47 prefectures in Japan

      Sawano, Toyoaki; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Ozaki, Akihiko; Murayama, Anju; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Sah, Ranjit; Wang, Jiwei; Fukushima Medical University, Japan; University of Derby; Tohoku University, Japan; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2020-06-19)
      Under the unique Japanese policy to restrict reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, a nationwide number of its confirmed cases and mortality remains to be low. Yet the information is lacking on geographical differences of these measures and their associated factors. Evaluation of prefecture-based geographical differences and associated predictors for the incidence and number of RT-PCR tests for COVID-19. Cross-sectional study using regression and correlation analysis. We retrieved domestic laboratory-confirmed cases, deaths, and the number of RT-PCR testing for COVID-19 from January 15 to April 6, 2020 in 47 prefectures in Japan, using publicly-available data by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. We did descriptive analyses of these three measures and identified significant predictors for the incidence and RT-PCR testing through multiple regression analyses and correlates with the number of deaths through correlation analysis. The median prefectural-level incidence and number of RT-PCR testing per 100,000 population were 1.14 and 38.6, respectively. Multiple regression analyses revealed that significant predictors for the incidence were prefectural-level population (p < 0.001) and the number of RT-PCR testing (p = 0.03); and those for RT-PCR testing were the incidence (p = 0.025), available beds (p = 0.045) and cluster infections (p = 0.034). Considering bidirectional association between the incidence and RT-PCR testing, there may have been an underdiagnosed population for the infection. The restraint policy for RT-PCR testing should be revisited to meet the increasing demand under the COVID-19 epidemic.
    • Learners’ perceptions and experiences of studying psychology online

      Garip, Gulcan; Seneviratne, Sanju Rusara; Iacovou, Susan; University of Derby; University of Roehampton (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-06-13)
      This study aimed to explore the lived experiences of six international and mature online learners studying on an undergraduate psychology course to identify barriers and facilitators to studying online. A secondary aim was to deductively explore the applicability of the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation, and Behaviour model to participants' narratives related to self-regulated online learning. Online interviews with six demographically diverse participants were conducted and analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The overarching theme was 'the balancing act of online learners', which consisted of three major themes (and respective subthemes): (1) 'identity as an online learner' ('in today's world, we're all very busy'), (2) 'access to resources' ('importance of location' and 'comparing online to on-campus teaching and learning'), and (3) 'changing nature of social interactions' ('tutors as a crutch' and 'peer-to-peer interactions'). A number of facilitators and barriers related to these themes were identified, which are applicable to the COM-B model. The COM-B model offers a novel approach in designing and delivering learning materials and activities that may instil or help maintain self-regulated learning in online psychology students.
    • Social ecological interventions to increase physical activity in children and young people living with and beyond cancer: a systematic review

      Cross, Ainslea; Howlett, Neil; Sheffield, David; University of Derby; University of Hertfordshire (Taylor & Francis, 2020-05-29)
      To identify the behaviour change techniques and intervention components associated with the promotion of physical activity (PA) for children and young people living with and beyond cancer. A systematic review and narrative synthesis was conducted on the evidence on PA interventions for children and young people (up to 30 years of age) living with and beyond cancer using a social ecological framework. Out of 12 studies, 8 were shown to change PA. Intervention components included (1) behavioural (Instruction on how to perform the behaviour, credible source, behavioural demonstration and rehearsal), (2) cognitive-emotional (targeting attitude, perceived behavioural control, intentions, resilience and achievement) (3) socio-cultural (family and peer support for PA), (4) environmental (providing access to resources, environmental restructuring, safety), (5) demographic (child, adolescent, young adult or mixed) and (6) medical (tailored exercise depending on age and cancer stage). Conclusions: Interventions designed to increase physical activity participation and adherence during and beyond cancer treatment for young people should integrate psychosocial (behavioural, cognitive-emotional, social), environmental and medical intervention components. Our conceptual model can be used to inform the development of interventions and guides future research objectives and priorities.