• Emirati women’s experiences of consanguineous marriage: A qualitative exploration of attitudes, health challenges, and coping styles

      Van Buren, Fiona; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby (Springer, 2019-08-26)
      Consanguineous marriage is associated with increased risk of congenital physical disabilities, as well as behavioural and mental health problems among consanguineous offspring. Furthermore, mental health problems have been highlighted as being prevalent among women involved in consanguineous marriages. Despite this, there has been limited research exploring the lived experiences of consanguineous marriage among women living in the United Arab Emirates, where up to 39% of all marriages are consanguineous. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of Emirati women involved in a consanguineous marriage in order to improve understanding of the experiential challenges faced by such individuals. Six Emirati women involved in a consanguineous marriage attended a focus group, and a thematic analysis of the interview transcript was subsequently undertaken. Five master themes emerged from the dataset: (i) Reasons for Marrying Consanguineously, (ii) Awareness and Fear of Hereditary Diseases, (iii) Emotional and Psychological Challenges, (iv) Coping Mechanisms, and (v) Confidence in Consanguineous Marriages. The master themes indicated a high level of family and parental influence as well as a cultural/traditional paradigm as being key causes for entering into a consanguineous marriage. Emotional and mental health challenges arouse due to the fear of genetic problems among offspring as well as difficulties coming to terms with consanguineous marriage dynamics. Self-help coping strategies were identified such as participants turning to religion in times of need, while shunning professional psychological help. Despite these challenges, participants generally retained confidence in the consanguineous marriage process. Findings shed light on the personal and health challenges experienced by Emirati women involved in consanguineous marriages, and highlight the need for further research to better understand the support needs of this population group.
    • NLP for Japanese workers' mental well-being: pilot study.

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Emerald, 2019-08-15)
      Although numerous national and organisational level approaches have taken to improve their mental health, Japanese workers still suffer from high rates of mental health problems. Despite its worldwide application, neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) has not been evaluated for these problems in-depth. The purpose of this pilot study is to examine the effects of NLP training for mental health among Japanese workers. A pre-post test design with repeated measurements was used with 30 Japanese workers, who were undertaking NLP Practitioner Certification training. The effects on mental health were assessed with the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) and the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) at pre-training, post-training, and a three-month follow-up. The mean scores of depression and stress decreased significantly, and mental well-being increased significantly between pre-training and post-training and between pre-training and follow-up. There was no significant difference between post-training and the follow-up for any of the measures. The results suggest this training was effective for mental health of Japanese workers, and the positive effects on mental well-being were sustained. This is the first ever study to empirically evaluate the effects of the regulated NLP training on the mental health of Japanese workers, conducted by researchers well-versed in NLP. This training might be conducive to improving the mental health of the Japanese workforce. Larger scale and/or controlled studies are needed.
    • Systematic review and meta-synthesis of coping with retinitis pigmentosa: implications for improving quality of life

      Garip, Gulcan; Kamal, Atiya; University of Derby (BMC/ Springer Nature, 2019-08-13)
      Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are a group of incurable and inherited eye conditions, and the leading cause of inherited blindness in people under the age of 60. The aim of this systematic review and meta-synthesis was to present a comprehensive overview of qualitative papers on experiences and coping strategies of adults living with RP, and how these influence quality of life. A pre-registered search strategy was applied in nine databases and 12 articles met eligibility criteria. Studies included were from Australia, Brazil, Ireland, Netherlands, Republic of Korea, United Kingdom, and USA. The overall sample was based on 126 people with RP (ages ranging from 18 to 85; at least 65 female). Principles of meta-ethnography were used to synthesise the articles revealing five higher-level meta-themes. The five higher-level meta-themes were, 1) managing identity: making sense of RP, managing autonomy and independence; 2) living with RP: practical and emotional issues; 3) experiences with healthcare professionals and other social support; 4) adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies; and 5) impact of RP on work and career. A conceptual model was developed by grouping higher-level meta-themes as intra- and inter-individual factors and how they may be implicated with coping strategies and quality of life. This review established factors that can be explored as potential psychosocial influences in the relationship between coping strategies and quality of life in people with RP. Further understanding of these factors and mechanisms can help inform intervention development to support adaptive coping in living with RP and positively impact quality of life.
    • The mediating role of shared flow and perceived emotional synchrony on compassion for others in a mindful-dancing program

      Pizarro, José J.; Basabe, Nekane; Amutio, Alberto; Telletxea, Saioa; Harizmendi, Miren; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby; University of the Basque Country, Spain (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-08-02)
      While there is a growing understanding of the relationship between mindfulness and compassion, this largely relates to the form of mindfulness employed in first-generation mindfulness-based interventions such as Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction. Consequently, there is limited knowledge of the relationship between mindfulness and compassion in respect of the type of mindfulness employed in second-generation mindfulness-based interventions (SG-MBIs), including those that employ the principle of working harmoniously as a “secular sangha.” Understanding this relationship is important because research indicates that perceived emotional synchrony (PES) and shared flow—that often arise during participation in harmonized group contemplative activities—can enhance outcomes relating to compassion, subjective well-being, and group identity fusion. This pilot study analyzed the effects of participation in a mindful-dancing SG-MBI on compassion and investigated the mediating role of shared flow and PES. A total of 130 participants were enrolled into the study that followed a quasi-experimental design with an intervention and control group. Results confirmed the salutary effect of participating in a collective mindful-dancing program, and demonstrated that shared flow and PES fully meditated the effects of collective mindfulness on the kindness and common humanity dimensions of compassion. Further research is warranted to explore whether collective mindfulness approaches, such as mindful dancing, may be a means of enhancing compassion and subjective well-being outcomes due to the mediating role of PES and shared flow.
    • Self-injury and self-concept

      Ducasse, D.; Van Gordon, William; Courtet, P; Ollie, E; University of Derby; Neuropsychiatry Epidemiological and Clinical Research, Montpellier, Franc; Lapeyronie Hospital, Department of Emergency Psychiatry and Post Acute Care, CHRU Montpellier, France (Elsevier, 2019-07-30)
    • A flexible framework for planning and evaluating early-stage health interventions: FRAME-IT

      Gonot-Schoupinsky, Freda N.; Garip, Gulcan; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-07-27)
      Health interventions exhibit three stages of maturity: early-, mid-, and late-stages. Early-stage interventions have innovative content necessitating evaluation; however existing evaluation frameworks omit constructs and guidelines relevant to this evaluation. Early-stage interventions require planning and evaluation that supports creating, testing, and exploring content to establish general feasibility and enable refinement for further testing, prior to randomised controlled trialling and wider dissemination. Feasibility, Reach-out, Acceptability, Maintenance, Efficacy, Implementation, Tailorability (FRAME-IT) was developed for a mixed methods feasibility study of a novel well-being intervention. FRAME-IT was conceived as a complementary framework to Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance (RE-AIM; Glasgow et al., 1999) which is better suited for mid- and late- stage interventions. FRAME-IT is proposed to support: (1) early-stage intervention planning and design, by guiding research focus and data sourcing strategy with relevant constructs; (2) comprehensive evaluation, by including constructs appropriate for early-stage interventions, i.e. feasibility, acceptability, and tailorability; (3) future intervention scalability, by including and adapting some of RE-AIM’s constructs to encourage a smoother translation of research into practice as interventions are scaled-up.
    • Mental health shame of UK construction workers: Relationship with masculinity, work motivation, and self-compassion.

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Green, Pauline; Sheffield, David; UDOL; University of Derby (Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos de Madrid, 2019-07-05)
      Despite their poor mental health, many UK construction workers do not seek out help, because of shame for mental health problems relating to masculinity. The purposes of this study were to investigate relationships among mental health shame, mental health problems, masculinity, self-compassion, and motivation, and examine whether self-compassion would mediate the relationship between mental health shame and mental health problems. Construction workers (n=155) completed measures for those five constructs. The five constructs were adequately correlated with each other, but masculinity and motivation were not related to shame. Self-compassion partially mediated the relationship between mental health shame and mental health problems. Findings may help construction workers understand the importance of mental health shame with mental health problems, and identify better solutions for poor mental health. Brief online self-compassion training was recommended to reduce shame and enhance self-compassion, and may be accessible for construction workers who work at diverse sites and hours.
    • How Japanese managers use NLP in their daily work

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Van Gordon, William; UDOL; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2019-07-03)
      This chapter draws on the first author’s experience as an neurolinguistic programming (NLP) researcher and practitioner and outlines real and hypothetical examples in order to explicate how Japanese managers use NLP skills in their day-to-day work. The chapter also outlines recommendations for practitioners wishing to introduce and utilise NLP approaches in their own occupational and/or healthcare settings.
    • Work-life balance of UK construction workers: Relationship with mental health

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Green, Pauline; Sheffield, David; UDOL (Taylor & Francis, 2019-06-18)
      Although the importance of work-life balance (WLB) is related to occupational psychological outcomes in many countries and industries, these relationships have not been explored in UK construction industry, a major sector of the UK economy. This workforce suffers from high rates of mental health problems and low help-seeking. Accordingly, the purposes of this study were to explore relationships between WLB, mental health, attitudes towards mental health problems, along with work schedules. One hundred and forty-four UK workers in the construction industry completed measures of those three constructs. WLB was negatively associated with mental health problems, and mental health attitudes. Mental health attitudes did not mediate the relationship between WLB and mental health problems with a small effect size. WLB was the strongest predictor of mental health problems. Mental health problems scores differed by work pattern groups; day time workers had poorer mental health than mixed workers. Findings will help UK construction workers, employers, and organisational researchers deepen their understanding of WLB and identify better solutions to poor WLB and mental health.
    • Social network analysis of dementia wards in psychiatric hospitals to explore the advancement of personhood in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.

      Lazzari, Carlo; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Thomas, Hywel; University of Derby; Swansea University (Bentham Science Publishers, 2019-06-12)
      Little is known on investigating how healthcare teams in dementia wards act for promoting personhood in persons with Alzheimer's disease (PWA). The current research aimed to identify the social networks of dementia health carers promoting the personhood of PWA in acute or long-term dementia wards in public and private psychiatric hospitals. We used a mixed-method research approach. Ethnographic observations and two-mode Social Network Analysis (SNA) captured the role and social networks of healthcare professionals promoting PWA personhood, using SocNetv version 2.4. The social network graphs illustrated how professionals participated in PWA care by computing the degree of centrality (%DC) for each professional; higher values indicated more statistical significance of a professional role compared to others in the provision of personhood care. The categories of personhood were biological, individual, and sociologic. Nurses, doctors, ward managers, hospital managers, clinical psychologists, occupational therapists, care coordinators, physiotherapists, healthcare assistants, and family members were observed if they were promoting PWA personhood. The highest %DC in SNA in biological personhood was held by the ward nurses (36%), followed by the ward doctors (20%) and ward managers (20%). All professional roles were involved in 16% of cases in the promotion of individual personhood, while the hospital managers had the highest %DC (33%) followed by the ward managers and nurses (27%) in the sociologic personhood. All professional roles were deemed to promote PWA personhood in dementia wards, although some limitation exists according to the context of the assessment.
    • Pathways to sex addiction: Relationships with adverse childhood experience, attachment, narcissism, self-compassion and motivation in a gender-balanced sample

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Rhodes, Christine; UDOL; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2019-06-01)
      Research about sex addiction and its relationships with other constructs remains unexplored. We recruited a gender-balanced sample (53 men, 51 women) who responded to measures of sex addiction, adverse childhood experience, adult attachment, narcissism, self-compassion and motivation. Sex addiction was found to be statistically significantly associated with these constructs. Anxious attachment statistically significantly mediated the relationship between adverse childhood experience and sex addiction and the relationship between narcissism and sex addiction. Self-compassion did not statistically significantly moderate the relationship between anxious attachment and sex addiction. Therapeutic approaches targeting attachment and narcissism such as relation-based or mindfulness-based interventions are recommended.
    • Comparative evaluation of neuro-linguistic programming

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Sweet, Michael; UDOL; Environmental Sustainability Research Centre (Taylor & Francis, 2019-05-24)
      In this paper we aim to highlight the characteristics of neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) and suggest possible directions for future research and study. The majority of NLP studies argue for more rigorous empirical support and standardised regulatory governance, in order to overcome academic biases and general misunderstandings. However, its popular practice for just under half a century and its global usage, suggest there is grounding for NLP to be accepted into the 'mainstream' of psychology. We compare NLP with more ‘accepted’ approaches (cognitive behavioural therapy, mindfulness, and coaching), and explore its practice regulations. While its efficiency (thorough analysis and applicability) was identified as its strength, more rigorous research and universal regulations of practice are needed for NLP to move onto the next level of acceptance.
    • Mindfulness for addressing key public health concerns in young people: Preventative applications and safety concerns.

      Sapthiang, S.; Shonin, E.; Griffiths, M.D.; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby; University of Essex; Nottingham Trent University (Schools Health Education Unit, 2019-04-15)
    • Exploring the role of meditation and dispositional mindfulness on social cognition domains: a controlled study.

      Campos, Daniel; Modrego-Alarcón, Marta; López-Del-Hoyo, Yolanda; González-Panzano, Manuel; Van Gordon, William; Shonin, Edo; Navarro-Gil, Mayte; García-Campayo, Javier; University of Derby; Universitat Jaume I; et al. (Frontiers Media, 2019-04-11)
      Research suggests that mindfulness can induce changes in the social domain, such as enhancing emotional connection to others, prosocial behavior, and empathy. However, despite growing interest in mindfulness in social psychology, very little is known about the effects of mindfulness on social cognition. Consequently, the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between mindfulness and social cognition by comparing meditators with non-meditators on several social cognition measures. A total of 60 participants (meditators, n = 30; non-meditators, n = 30) were matched on sex, age, and ethnic group, and then asked to complete the following assessment measures: Mindful Awareness Attention Scale (MAAS), Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire Short Form (FFMQ-SF), Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), Revised Eyes Test, Hinting Task, Ambiguous Intentions and Hostility Questionnaire (AIHQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Screening for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry (SCIP). The results showed that meditators reported higher empathy (except for the personal distress subscale), higher emotional recognition, higher theory of mind (ToM), and lower hostile attributional style/bias. The findings also demonstrated that dispositional mindfulness (both total score assessed with MAAS and mindfulness facets using the FFMQ) was associated with social cognition, although it was not equally correlated with all social cognition outcomes, and correlation patterns differ when analyses were conducted separately for meditators and non-meditators. In addition, results showed potential predictors for each social cognition variable, highlighting non-reactivity to inner experience as a key component of mindfulness in order to explain social cognition performance. In summary, the findings indicated that the meditator sample performed better on certain qualities (i.e., empathy, emotional recognition, ToM, hostile attributional style/bias) in comparison to non-meditators and, furthermore, support the notion that mindfulness is related to social cognition, which may have implications for the design of mindfulness-based approaches for use in clinical and non-clinical settings.
    • Towards another kind of borderlessness: online students with disabilities

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Cockerill, Victoria; Green, Pauline; Hutchinson, Lucy; Shaw, Paula; Bowskill, Nicholas; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2019-04-09)
      Online learning is crucial to success for higher education institutions. Whilst the existing literature predominantly focused on its economic advantages, we focused on its inclusivity. At an online learning unit of a UK university, the number of students with disabilities (SWD) is three times higher than the national average. Having a degree makes significant financial and psychological differences in the lives of SWD. Though recent literature focused on inclusivity of online learning, an appraisal of first-hand experience of SWD studying online is a missing perspective. Accordingly, we aimed to explore their experience, using thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews involving ten SWD. Three themes emerged: (1) having control over studies as an advantage of online learning, (2) personal touch helps SWD’s online learning, and (3) challenges SWD experience with the social element of online learning. Our findings will help to develop the inclusivity of online learning to a new level.
    • Japanese managers’ experiences of neuro-linguistic programming: a qualitative investigation

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Van Gordon, William; UDOL (Emerald, 2019-04-08)
      Though several work-related mental health training initiatives have been implemented in Japan, the effectiveness of such approaches remains unclear. Consequently, some Japanese corporations prefer using interventions such as neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) to improve employee mental health and wellbeing. This language-based development methodology has been the subject of debate in terms of the quality of the underlying empirical evidence. However, a perspective missing from this debate is an evidence-based understanding of the first-hand experiences of employees that have undertaken NLP training. The purpose of this paper is to inform this debate by conducting a rigorous qualitative examination of the experiences of Japanese senior managers who had recently received training in NLP. Semi-structured interviews attended by 11 Japanese NLP master practitioners were analysed using thematic analysis. Four themes emerged from the data set: improving work-related mental health, NLP fosters a better understanding of the mind, NLP helps to reframe perspectives relating to work and mental health, and challenges of NLP training. While managers found NLP training skills such as reframing and neuro-logical levels useful to their managerial practice and mental health more generally, they raised concerns about NLP’s reputation as well as the utility of some of the techniques employed in NLP.
    • Adolescent problem gambling requires community-level health promotion approaches

      Sapthiang, S.; Shonin, E.; Griffiths, M.D.; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2019-04-04)
    • Validation of a scale for assessing social validity in mindfulness-based education programs

      López-González, L.; Herrero-Fernández, D.; Amutio, A.; Santamaría, T.; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby (Springer, 2019-03-30)
      Social validity (SV) is a concept used in intervention research and is concerned with the overall acceptability, relevance, and utility of an intervention to all intervention stakeholders. SV not only takes into account efficacy in respect of the pre-defined study outcomes, but also participants’ perceptions of the intervention as well as the wider social context in which it will be applied. There are a growing number of mindfulness-based educational programs (MBEPs) being empirically evaluated and implemented in educational settings. However, due to a lack of scientifically validated instruments that can assess SV in MBEPs, a systematic evaluation of SV in such programs has not been undertaken to date. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Social Validity Scale of Mindfulness-Based Programs for Adolescents (Escala de Validez Social de Programas de Mindfulness para Adolescentes—EVSPM-A), composed of 20 items. The sample comprised 512 compulsory secondary education and high school students (mean age = 14.5; SD = 1.57) from three Spanish educational centers that had completed an MBEP known as the TREVA Program. Results The final version of the scale showed good psychometric properties and factor analyses yielded five factors: global impact-satisfaction, acceptance and viability, individual perceived effectiveness, perceived classroom climate; training feasibility, and applicability of techniques. The EVSPM-A appears to be a suitable means of assessing SV in MBEPs delivered to adolescents. Using the EVSPM-A to evaluate SV can help improve the implementation and long-term efficacy of MBEPs.
    • Mental contrasting for health behaviour change: a systematic review and meta-analysis of effects and moderator variables

      Cross, Ainslea; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2019-03-29)
      Mental contrasting is a self-regulation imagery strategy that involves imagining a desired future and mentally contrasting it with the present reality, which is assumed to prompt the individual to realise that action is required to achieve the desired future. Research has combined mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII) (‘if-then’ plans), which is hypothesised to strengthen the effects. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of mental contrasting for improving health-related behaviours. A meta-analysis (N = 1528) using random effects modelling found a main effect of mental contrasting on health outcomes, adjusted Hedges’ g = 0.28 (SE = .07), 95% CI [0.13–0.43], p < .001 at up to four weeks, and an increased effect at up to three months (k = 5), g = 0.38 (SE = 0.6), CI [0.20–0.55], p < .001. The combination of mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII; k = 7) showed a similar effect, g = 0.28, CI [0.14–0.42], p < .001. Mental contrasting shows promise as a brief behaviour change strategy with a significant small to moderate-sized effect on changing health behaviour in the short-term. Analysis on a small subset of studies suggested that the addition of implementation intentions (MCII) did not further strengthen the effects of mental contrasting on health behaviours, although additional studies are needed.
    • Acceptance and identity change: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of carers’ experiences in myalgic encephalopathy/chronic fatigue syndrome

      Catchpole, Sarah; Garip, Gulcan; University of Derby (Sage, 2019-03-21)
      Myalgic encephalopathy/chronic fatigue syndrome is a debilitating condition and many people rely heavily on family carers. This study explored the caring experiences of seven family carers. Four themes were established: relations with others, role and identity changes, coping with change and uncertainty, and information and support seeking. Caring disrupted multiple areas of carers’ lives, including their identities and relationships. Scepticism from others about myalgic encephalopathy/chronic fatigue syndrome was particularly distressing. Acceptance was important for coping and helped some carers achieve positive growth within spousal relationships. Improving support and advice for carers and acknowledging their caring burden could improve their well-being.