• Teach Public Health With a Sense of Humor: Why (and How to) Be a Funnier and More Effective Public Health Professor and Laugh All the Way to Your Classroom

      Gonot-Schoupinsky, Freda; Garip, Gulcan; University of Derby (The Curious Academic Publishing, 2021-11-25)
      Whether you’re a new Public Health teacher/faculty just starting out or a professor looking to use humor for your next “serious” lecture, this book is for you. This book is NOT about boring academic theories. Reading it, not only will you learn how to discover practical humor techniques and teaching strategies to dramatically improve your sense of humor, you’ll also have plenty of healthy laughs along the way. This book will help you develop techniques for leveraging humor and take action to improve your teaching immediately today. Top contributing professors in this book will answer your hundreds of questions such as: Why is humor effective in teaching healthcare topics? How to teach on-line with humor? How to address isolation brought about by on-line teaching? (Chapter 1); Why (and how to) teach improv to healthcare practitioners over Zoom? What is the ‘golden rule’ about improv? (Chapter 2); How to use humor as a pedagogical tool in public health? How make use of situations and simulation games, and twist them into humor? (Chapter 3); Is humor in health education a laughing matter? How to think from big to small to entertain and educate your students? (Chapter 4); Why (and how to) teach more effectively through the application of humor and laughter to healthcare students? How to promote creativity and enhance short-term memory? How to reduce stress? (Chapter 5); What are the types of humor and what are the strategies for using humor? How to avoid bad humor? (Chapter 6); What is the (natural) link between humor and healthcare? What are the technical tips to use humor more effectively? (Chapter 7); How to teach students the use of humor with traumatized individuals? (Chapter 8); What are the little-known tips about writing jokes for your class? (Chapter 9); Exactly how to teach with a sense of humor? What humor techniques to use in the class and how? (Chapter 10); Why and laughter helps learning? How to use comedy in the classroom? How to use online humor? (Chapter 11); What is your own sense of humor? Can you translate this sense of humor to engage your audience? How to “keep it simply simple”? (Chapter 12); Exactly how to use humor techniques such as funny quotes, definitions, and abbreviations to infuse humor into your writing and presentation or lecture. (Chapter 13). If you want to minimize the teacher burnout and improve your teaching effectiveness, you could hire a bunch of professional development consultants – or you could just read this book.
    • Facilitating the planning and evaluation of narrative intervention reviews: Systematic Transparency in All Intervention Reviews (STAIR)

      Gonot-Schoupinsky, Freda; Garip, Gulcan; Sheffield, David; Independent Researcher; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2021-11-17)
      Narrative reviews offer a flexible way to report intervention results and comprise the majority of reviews published in top medical journals. However variations in their transparency pose evaluation challenges, compromising their value and potentially resulting in research wastage. Calls have been made to reduce the number of narrative reviews published. Others argue narrative reviews provide an important platform and should even be placed on an equal footing to systematic reviews. We believe narrative intervention reviews can provide a vital perspective when transparent, and thus support Systematic Transparency Assessment in Intervention Reviews (STAIR). This research evaluates the transparency of 172 health-related narrative and literature reviews (K = 172), by assessing how they communicate information about the interventions they review. Eight points supporting transparency, relating to sample sizes, traceability, article numbers, and references, were assessed. Half of the reviews reported on at least four of the eight points, but 24% reported on none. Only 56% of the reviews clearly communicated full references. The STAIR* (Sample sizes, Traceability, Article numbers, Intervention numbers, References*) checklist comprises five sections, and nine points. It is proposed as a convenient tool to address STAIR and complement existing review guidelines to assist authors in planning, reviewers in evaluating, and scholars in utilising narrative reviews. The objectives of STAIR* are to: 1) encourage narrative review transparency and readability, 2) facilitate the incorporation of narrative reviews results into other research; and 3) enrich narrative review methodology with a checklist to guide, and evaluate, intervention reviews.
    • A spotlight on acceptance and commitment therapy

      Ducasse, Déborah; Van Gordon, William; Courtet, Philippe; University of Derby (Edizioni Minerva Medica, 2021-09-28)
      There is increasing scientific interest into third-wave cognitive behavioral therapies, which include a range of interventions advocating awareness of both oneself and the present moment. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is one such third-wave therapeutic modality, which employs a “self as context” framework. ACT aims at changing the relationship to one’s sensorial and automatic psychological events, leading to decreased experiential avoidance. However, there is a lack of awareness as to the range of health conditions for which empirical findings appear to support the therapeutic delivery of ACT. There also exists some confusion in terms of the key Eastern contemplative principles that underlie the conceptual and therapeutic framework of ACT. Consequently, the present paper briefly outlines the key conceptual and therapeutic principles that ACT embodies, provides a high-level map of current directions in ACT treatment research, and discusses challenges and future directions. ACT appears to be an effective treatment for a range of psychological and somatic disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and chronic pain. However, further studies using randomized controlled trial designs are required to better understand the other health conditions for which ACT is likely to be an effective treatment. Furthermore, there is a need for greater understanding as to the most appropriate means by which ancient contemplative principles should be integrated into ACT approaches, as well as other therapeutic modalities likely to be compatible with the ACT approach.
    • Motivation of UK graduate students in education: Self-compassion moderates pathway from extrinsic motivation to intrinsic motivation

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Taylor, Elaina; Fido, Dean; Williams, Dan; Tsuda-McCaie, Freya; University of Derby (Springer, 2021-09-22)
      Academic motivation is recognised as a key factor for academic success and wellbeing. Highly motivated students actively engage with academic activities and maintain higher levels of wellbeing. Despite the importance of motivation in education, its relationship with engagement and wellbeing remains to be evaluated. Accordingly, this study explored the relationships between motivation, engagement, self-criticism and selfcompassion among UK education postgraduate students. Of 120 postgraduate students approached, 109 completed three self-report scales regarding those constructs. Correlation, regression and moderation analyses were performed. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation were positively associated with engagement, whereas amotivation was negatively associated with it. Engagement positively predicted intrinsic motivation. Self-criticism and self-compassion moderated the pathway from extrinsic motivation to intrinsic motivation: higher self-criticism weakened the pathway, while higher selfcompassion strengthened it. Findings suggest the importance of engagement in relation to cultivating intrinsic motivation of education students. Moreover, enhancing selfcompassion and reducing self-criticism can help transfer extrinsic to intrinsic motivation.
    • The Covid-19 Pandemic as an Opportunity for Positive Psychology to Promote a Wider-Ranging Definition of Humour and Laughter

      Gonot-Schoupinsky, Freda; Garip, Gülcan; Independent Researcher, Monte Carlo, Monaco; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan/ Springer, 2021-09-17)
      Traditionally, positive psychology (PP) considers humour as one of 24 character strengths and associates it with the core virtue of transcendence, a view perpetuated in Second Wave PP. We debate the need for a wider conceptualisation of humour and a more pragmatic recognition of its benefits and applications within the framework of Third Wave PP. Anecdotal and observational findings relating to the use of humour during the Covid-19 pandemic are considered. We draw on empirical research revealing the diverse benefits of humour and laughter in different cultural settings, including during lockdown. Using examples, including Covid-19 humour, we contend that the depiction of beneficial humour in PP is incomplete, for example, it relates not only to transcendence but to all six core virtues, and misleading as it may not necessarily relate to any. A more practical and broader depiction of humour within Third Wave PP would be helpful, including emphasising the potential of multiple character strengths to support humour development. In particular, we highlight the need for laughter, currently viewed as a by-product of humour within PP, to play a more prominent role. Widening the portrayal of humour and laughter in PP will be helpful to value and harness their individual, and joint, benefits and applications. In this chapter, we call for Third Wave PP to encourage new research directions by embracing the complexity of humour as 1) an interlinked character strength; 2) associated to all core virtues; 3) benefitting overall personal development; and 4) differentiated from but co-equal to laughter.
    • A Novel Mindful Nature Connectedness Intervention Improves Paranoia but Not Anxiety in a Nonclinical Population

      Muneghina, Orso; Van Gordon, William; Barrows, Paul; Richardson, Miles; University of Derby (Mary Ann Liebert Inc, 2021-09-03)
      Paranoia and anxiety are both recognized as experiences that are widespread in the general population. Studies have investigated the use of brief mindfulness-based interventions on both conditions, with encouraging results among nonclinical populations in particular. However, there is also promising evidence for the effectiveness of brief nature connectedness interventions on anxiety and mental health more generally. Since mindfulness has been shown to allow individuals to feel more connected to nature, and given that connection to natural environments can foster mindfulness and mental health, this study aimed to investigate the combined effects of a brief online mindful nature connectedness intervention (B-MNCI) on paranoia and anxiety. A total of 72 participants of nonclinical status were randomly allocated to either an online B-MNCI (10 min of daily guided meditation practice over 5 consecutive days) or a waitlist control group. Measures of paranoia, anxiety, mindfulness, and nature connectedness were taken at baseline, immediately after the intervention, and at 2 weeks follow-up. Findings indicated that compared with the control group, the B-MNCI showed significant improvements in nature connectedness and paranoia, with changes maintained at follow-up assessment. However, no significant differences were observed for anxiety and mindfulness scores. The results provide a new approach to bringing about sustained increases in nature connectedness and confirm the relevance of such approaches for improving mental health outcomes. The study also demonstrates the potential utility of an online B-MNCI for people of nonclinical status experiencing paranoia symptoms, including for those who find it difficult to physically venture into nature.
    • Videoconferencing for Home Care Delivery in Japan: Observational Study

      Miyatake, Hirotomo; Kosaka, Makoto; Arita, Satoshi; Tsunetoshi, Chie; Masunaga, Hidehisa; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Nishikawa, Yoshitaka; Ozaki, Akihiko; Beniya, Hiroyuki; Orange Home-Care Clinic , Fukui , JP; et al. (JMIR Publications Inc., 2021-09-01)
      Telemedicine has been increasingly used in many health care fields, including home care, where patients receive medical care at home. Owing to the current COVID-19 crisis, the value of telemedicine via videoconferencing is more recognized, particularly in allowing immobile patients to continue receiving care. However, the efficacy of telemedicine in home care settings in Japan remains to be fully appraised. This study aims to identify the use and impact of telemedicine in a singular home care delivery setting in Japan. A retrospective observational study was conducted using patient and other administrative records from a home care clinic. We considered patients who were involved in videoconferencing with home care physicians and telepresenters serving patients during 2018 and 2019. We extracted sociodemographic data of the patients and details of the videoconferencing and descriptively illustrated some specific cases. In a home care clinic in Japan, videoconferencing was conducted in 17 cases (involving 14 patients) over a 2-year period. Of all the cases, 12% (2/17) required emergency transfers and were hospitalized. A total of 88% (15/17) of cases remained; 71% (12/17) of cases were found to need extra medication or to go to a medical facility for consultation, whereas 18% (3/17) of cases were found not to be in need of urgent attention and were asked to rest. Problematic symptoms subsequently improved in 82% (14/17) of cases, and only 6% (1/17) of cases were later hospitalized. Telemedicine was deemed effective for assessing patients’ conditions in the home care setting in situations where home visits by a physician cannot be carried out. Our findings indicate that consultations via videoconferencing are safe and effective, suggesting more active use of videoconferencing in other clinical contexts.
    • The Engage-Disengage Model as an Inclusive Model for the Promotion of Healthy and Successful Aging in the Oldest-old

      Gonot-Schoupinsky, Freda; Garip, Gulcan; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Informa UK Limited, 2021-09-01)
      Theories relating to healthy and successful aging do not specifically cater for the oldest-old. This predominantly theoretical research considers the relevance of existing healthy and successful aging theories in the oldest-old. It explores a small sample of interviews of independently living oldest-old using Differential Qualitative Analysis. The Activity Theory and the Disengagement Theory were particularly relevant to investigate differences. The Engage-Disengage model was conceived as a pragmatic holistic model to address specific challenges facing the oldest-old. Engage-Disengage reflects attainable healthy and successful aging in the oldest-old according to individual abilities (intrinsic physical and mental capacities), values, and external resources (social, material, and environmental).
    • Mindful parenting: future directions and challenges

      Cowling, Carly; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby (Informa UK Limited, 2021-08-20)
      Mindful parenting teaches parents to focus awareness on their thoughts, feelings and behaviours, as well as pay attention to their children in an intentional, present-centered and non-judgmental manner. Mindfulness appears to improve the quality of parenting and the parent–child relationship, as well as enhance children’s and parents' levels of resilience and psychological functioning. However, an understanding of the processes and techniques underpinning effective mindful parenting remains constrained due to methodological limitations. These limitations include an over reliance on non-experimental designs, uncontrolled studies, self-report assessments, small sample sizes mostly comprising mothers, and uncertainty with regards to the definitions and meanings of certain concepts and protocols for mindful parenting interventions. In order to examine the effectiveness of mindful parenting interventions, standards need to be established which define the meaning of mindful parenting and identify the correlates, determinants and mechanisms of change in mindful parenting over time, in order to determine modifiable factors so that interventions can be appropriately targeted to vulnerable populations. This paper discusses some of the latest research developments in mindful parenting, provides recommendations for effective mindfulness practice from a parenting context and discusses key future challenges affecting this area of mindfulness research and practice.
    • The Effect of Self-Compassion on Job Burnout and Hours Worked in Employees’ Working from Home

      Cotterill, Matthew; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Garip, Gulcan; University of Derby (Concurrent Disorders Society, 2021-08-10)
      Working from home (WFH) has been associated with increased levels of job burnout; a psycho-physiological outcome of experiencing intense or extended periods of work-related stress. Individuals with higher levels of self-compassion have been shown to mitigate the effects of stress by reducing the negative affect associated with stressful situations. The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of self-compassion on job burnout and number of working hours in full time employees WFH. Fifty-eight full time WFH participants (37 females, 21 males; age M = 34, SD = 8 years) completed online self-report questionnaires. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that SC did not predict job burnout and number of working hours for this sample of WFH employees. The obtained evidence suggests that self-compassion was not enough to mitigate job burnout or number of working hours, therefore employers should not rely on employees to manage workloads and hours effectively but assist in developing schedules to reduce the negative impact of job burnout on their mental health.
    • Development of the external and internal shame scale: Japanese version

      Hiramatsu, Yoichi; Asano, Kenichi; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Endo, Ayumu; Shimizu, Eiji; Matos, Marcela; Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan; The Japanese Centre for Compassionate Mind Research and Training, Tokyo, Japan; Komachi Clinical Psychology Office, Japan; Mejiro University, Japan; et al. (Springer, 2021-08-03)
      Shame contains external and internal aspects. However, a Japanese language scale for simultaneously assessing both aspects of shame has not been developed to date. This study aimed to standardize the Japanese version of the External and Internal Shame Scale (EISS-J). An online survey was conducted among university students (N = 203) at six universities in Japan (Study 1). A retest questionnaire was sent to the participants by email three weeks after the first survey (Study 2). Study 1 examined the internal consistency, factor structure, and criterion-related validity of the EISS-J, while Study 2 examined its test-retest reliability. Moreover, an additional study was conducted to examine the criterion-related validity of the scale. Study 1 demonstrated the high internal consistency of the EISS-J. Moreover, confirmatory factor analysis indicated a two-factor model: external and internal shame. However, exploratory factor analysis indicated a three-factor structure. Study 2 confirmed the test-retest reliability of the scale. Furthermore, both studies indicated correlations between the EISS-J and fear of compassion, anger, humiliation, depression, anxiety, and stress. In addition, the study established the criterion-related validity of the scale. These results confirmed adequate reliability and validity of the EISS-J.
    • Self-compassion in Irish social work students: Relationships between resilience, engagement and motivation

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Tsuda-McCaie, Freya; Edwards, Ann-Marie; Bhandari, Divya; Maughan, Geraldine; University of Derby; Medical Governance Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan; Limerick Institute of Technology, Limerick, Ireland (MDPI AG, 2021-08-02)
      Self-compassion recognises a meaning of life's suffering, aligning with existential positive psy-chology. Although this construct is known to protect our mental health, how to augment self-compassion remains to be evaluated. Social work students suffer from high rates of mental health problems, however research into self-compassion in this population remains to be devel-oped. This study aimed to evaluate i) relationships between self-compassion and more tradition-al positive constructs—resilience, engagement and motivation, and ii) differences of these con-structs between the levels of studies, to inform how self-compassion can be enhanced in social work students. One hundred twenty-nine Irish social work students completed self-report scales regarding self-compassion, resilience, engagement and motivation. Correlation, regression, and one-way MANOVA were conducted. Self-compassion was associated with gender, age, resili-ence, engagement and intrinsic motivation. Resilience and intrinsic motivation were significant predictors of self-compassion. There was no significant difference in the levels of these constructs between the levels of studies. Findings suggest that social work educators across different levels can strengthen students’ resilience and intrinsic motivation to cultivate the students' self-compassion. Moreover, the close relationships between self-compassion, resilience and in-trinsic motivation indicate that orienting students to a meaning of the studies helps their mental health.
    • Ontological Addiction Theory and Mindfulness-Based Approaches in the Context of Addiction Theory and Treatment

      Barrows, Paul; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby (MDPI AG, 2021-07-30)
      Buddhist-derived interventions have increasingly been employed in the treatment of a range of physical and psychological disorders, and in recent years, there has been significant growth in the use of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) for this purpose. Ontological Addiction Theory (OAT) is a novel metaphysical approach to understanding psychopathology within the framework of Buddhist teachings and asserts that many mental illnesses have their root in the widespread mistaken belief in an inherently existent self that operates independently of external phenomena. OAT describes how different types of MBI can help undermine these beliefs and allow a person to reconstruct their view of self and reality to address the root causes of suffering. As well as proving effective in treating many other psychological disorders, MBIs based on OAT have demonstrated efficacy in treating conventional behavioural addictions, such as problem gambling, workaholism, and sex addiction. The goal of this paper is to (i) discuss and appraise the evidence base underlying the use of MBIs for treating addiction; (ii) explicate how OAT advances understanding of the mechanisms of addiction; (iii) delineate how different types of MBI can be employed to address addictive behaviours; and (iv) propose future research avenues for assessing and comparing MBIs in the treatment of addiction.
    • Policing in a pandemic: a commentary on officer well-being during COVID-19

      Edwards, Ann-Marie; Kotera, Yasuhiro; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-07-24)
      The role of police officers during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is challenging, faced with the difficult task of keeping communities safe and preventing the spread of COVID-19 while putting their physical and mental health at risk. Emerging evidence points to the stress experiences of officers during the COVID-19 pandemic. With cases now surpassing 174 million and close to four million deaths worldwide, as well as stringent lockdown measures, police officers are faced with unprecedented challenges resulting from the pandemic. This commentary suggests police departments strengthen resources by putting in place appropriate emergency planning for future public health incidents, in addition to preparing for temporary or permanent loss of human resources. It is important to implement robust training plans post-pandemic to allow officers to offer better care for communities when faced with future public health emergencies. Finally, police officers should be provided with the resources and support to cope with the stresses associated with COVID-19.
    • Cross-Cultural Comparison of Mental Health Shame: Negative Attitudes and External, Internal, and Reflected Shame About Mental Health in Japanese and UK Workers

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Sheffield, David; Green, Pauline; Asano, Kenichi; University of Derby; Mejiro University, Tokyo, Japan (Springer International Publishing, 2021-07-22)
      Although often categorised by cultural differences (e.g., collectivism and individualism), Japan and the United Kingdom have several cultural commonalities. One of them is that both countries are known to have a ‘shame culture’; people in these countries often recognise shame in their lives relating to their cultural virtues. While shame can lead to social conformity, this negative affect associated with a sense of inadequacy can also damage our wellbeing. Because of the rapid advancement of technologies in these economically developed countries in the 4IR, workers are put under greater pressure, which is associated with more mental health problems. Their challenged mental health is further exacerbated by strong shame associated with mental health problems. Accordingly, we examined mental health shame in UK and Japanese workers. Four hundred workers (131 Japanese and 269 UK workers) completed measures of mental health and mental health shame, specifically negative attitudes, external, internal, and reflected shame. The results showed that Japanese workers had higher levels of mental health problems and shame than UK workers. In both countries, mental health and shame were overall associated with each other, apart from some family-related variables in Japanese workers. Family reflected shame was a significant predictor in Japanese workers, while self reflected shame was a significant predictor in UK workers. We discuss the implications of these findings with particular reference on how to reduce mental health shame in Japanese and UK workplaces and the provision of solutions for better work mental wellbeing, relating to the advantages of technologies. Because shame often involves perception of others, online interventions may be useful as they can be undertaken by each worker at a private place (instead of their office). Such individualised interventions enabled by the technologies of the 4IR may help to address shame-associated mental health problems in modern workplaces.
    • Study protocol: psychoeducation on attachment and narcissism as treatment of sex addiction

      Rhodes, Christine; Kotera, Yasuhiro; University of Derby (Concurrent Disorders Society, 2021-07-22)
      This study protocol reports a research design to examine the effects of a psycho-educational programme about attachment and narcissism on sex addiction. Previous research highlighted the great impacts of anxious attachment and narcissism on sex addiction. Unlike therapeutic approaches, where a therapist intervenes the client, psychoeducation can influence clients’ symptoms more subtly related to their less resistance. Further, considering a strong association between sex addiction and narcissism, such an approach may be more conducive. Given high shame associated with sex addictions and clients existing in many countries, the programme is implemented online using recorded videos, delivered four times weekly. Findings from this study can inform utility of this original intervention for sex addiction.
    • Systematic review: self-monitoring of blood glucose in patients with Type 2 Diabetes

      Chircop, James; Sheffield, David; Kotera, Yasuhiro; University of Derby (Wolters Kluwer, 2021-07-20)
      The benefit of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in the reduction of HbA1c in non-insulin-treated participants remains unclear. HbA1c may be improved in this population with SMBG. We aimed to investigate this. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were performed comparing SMBG versus usual care and structured versus unstructured SMBG; the effect of clinician therapy adjustment based on SMBG readings was examined. Medline, Embase and Cochrane Central were electronically searched to identify articles published from 1 January 2000 to 30 June 2020. Trials investigating changes in HbA1c were selected. Screening was performed independently by two investigators. Two investigators extracted HbA1c at baseline and follow-up for each trial. Nineteen RCTs, involving 4,965 participants were included. Overall, SMBG reduced HbA1c. Preplanned subgroup analysis showed that using SMBG readings to adjust therapy contributed significantly to the reduction. No significant improvement in HbA1c was shown in SMBG without therapy adjustment). The same difference was observed in structured SMBG compared to unstructured SMBG. HbA1c is improved with therapy adjustment based on structured SMBG readings. Implications are for clinicians to prescribe structured SMBG with an aim for therapy adjustment based on the readings, and not prescribing unstructured SMBG. Participants with suboptimal glycemic control may benefit most. A SMBG regimen that improves clinical- and cost-effectiveness is presented. Future studies can investigate this regimen specifically.
    • “We All Need Purpose and Reason to Be Here.”: A Qualitative Investigation of How Members of Alcoholics Anonymous with Long-term Recovery Experience Aging

      mcinerney, Kevin; Garip, Gulcan; benson, tony; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2021-07-09)
      Using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) and theoretically framed within Frankl’s logotherapy, the current paper explored how members of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) with long-term recovery (LTR) experience aging and health-related issues. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken to explore the lived experiences of three older members of AA with LTR. IPA revealed five higher-order group concepts: spirituality, being in the present, acceptance, self-esteemandfellowship: a support network. Interpretation of the themes revealed that LTR in AA is beneficial in helping individuals transition to later life, develop coping mechanisms for poor health and find a purpose and meaning to life.
    • Mapping urban greenspace use from mobile phone GPS data

      Mears, Meghann; Brindley, Paul; Barrows, Paul D.; Richardson, Miles; Maheswaran, Ravi; University of Sheffield; University of Derby (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2021-07-07)
      Urban greenspace is a valuable component of the urban form that has the potential to improve the health and well-being of residents. Most quantitative studies of relationships between health and greenspace to date have investigated associations only with what greenspace exists in the local environment (i.e. provision of greenspace), rather than to what extent it is used. This is due to the difficulty of obtaining usage data in large amounts. In recent years, GPS functionality integrated into mobile phones has provided a potential solution to this problem by making it possible to track which parts of the environment people experience in their day-to-day lives. In this paper, we demonstrate a method to derive cleaned, trip-level information from raw GPS data collected by a mobile phone app, then use this data to investigate the characteristics of trips to urban greenspace by residents of the city of Sheffield, UK. We find that local users of the app spend an average of an hour per week visiting greenspaces, including around seven trips per week and covering a total distance of just over 2.5 km. This may be enough to provide health benefits, but is insufficient to provide maximal benefits. Trip characteristics vary with user demographics: ethnic minority users and users from more socioeconomically deprived areas tend to make shorter trips than White users and those from less deprived areas, while users aged 34 years and over make longer trips than younger users. Women, on average, make more frequent trips than men, as do those who spent more time outside as a child. Our results suggest that most day-to-day greenspace visits are incidental, i.e. travelling through rather than to greenspace, and highlight the importance of including social and cultural factors when investigating who uses and who benefits from urban greenspace.
    • Contemplative Psychology: History, Key Assumptions, and Future Directions

      Van Gordon, William; Sapthiang, Supakyada; Shonin, Edo; University of Derby; Awake to Wisdom Centre for Meditation and Mindfulness Research (SAGE Publications, 2021-06-29)
      Contemplative psychology is concerned with the psychological study of contemplative processes and practices, such as meditation, mindfulness, yoga, introspection, reflection, metacognition, self-regulation, self-awareness, and self-consciousness. Although contemplative psychology borders with other psychological and nonpsychological disciplines, some of its underlying assumptions distinguish it from other remits of psychological and scholarly inquiry, as do its component areas of empirical focus, conceptual nuances, and challenges. Furthermore, the discipline has tended to be somewhat disparate in its approach to investigating the core techniques and principles of which it is composed, resulting in a need for greater intradisciplinary and interdisciplinary awareness of the commonalities and differences of core contemplative psychology attributes. As a remedy to these issues, in this article, we adopt a whole-discipline perspective and aim to explicate contemplative psychology’s history, breadth, key assumptions, challenges, and future directions.