• Attachment relationships and psychological distress in young adults: The mediating role of self-esteem

      Imran, Somia; Jackson, Sophie; Newcastle University; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2022-02-16)
      The relationship between attachment security and psychological distress (such as depressive and anxiety symptoms) is well established. However, the role of attachment security beyond primary attachment, referred to as secondary attachment, and the mechanism underlying this relationship is under-explored among young adults. This study sought to investigate the effects of primary attachment and secondary attachment on psychological distress with self-esteem as a mediator in young adults. Four hundred and fifty two UK participants aged 18–25 (55.76% females; Mean age = 20.72; SD = 2.29) completed measures of attachment, self-esteem and psychological distress. Using two mediation models, we tested the effects of primary attachment and secondary attachment separately on psychological distress mediated by self-esteem, while controlling for the other type of attachment (i.e. primary or secondary). The findings supported the mediation effects of both primary attachment and secondary attachment through self-esteem on psychological distress. This study provides the first empirical evidence for the individual role of primary and secondary attachment relationships through self-esteem, which has important implications for preventive and intervention strategies to lessen psychological distress among young adults.
    • A Longitudinal Study of Theory of Mind and Listening Comprehension: Is preschool Theory of Mind Important?

      Jackson, Sophie; Slade, Lance; Levy, Joseph; Samantha, McCormick; University of Roehampton; Canterbury Christ Church University; Royal Holloway University of London; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2022-02-12)
      Theory of mind has been shown to be important for listening comprehension for children at a range of ages. However, there is a lack of longitudinal evidence for a relationship between early theory of mind and later listening comprehension. The aim of this study was to examine whether preschool theory of mind has a longitudinal direct effect on later listening comprehension over and above the effects of concurrent theory of mind. A total of 147 children were tested on measures of theory of mind, working memory, vocabulary, and grammatical knowledge at Time 1 (mean age = 4;1 [years;months]) and Time 2 (mean age = 5;11). In addition, at Time 2 listening comprehension, comprehension monitoring, and inference making measures were taken. Data were fitted to concurrent and longitudinal models of listening comprehension. Concurrent findings at Time 2 showed theory of mind to have a direct effect on listening comprehension. However, longitudinal findings showed that earlier theory of mind in preschool (Time 1) did not have a direct effect on listening comprehension 22 months later; instead, there was only an indirect effect of earlier theory of mind on later listening comprehension via concurrent theory of mind (Time 2). Taken together, the results give further support for the importance of theory of mind for listening comprehension but show that there are limited additional benefits of early theory of mind acquisition. Implications for the development of children’s listening comprehension are discussed.
    • A qualitative meta-synthesis of pregnant women's experiences of accessing and receiving treatment for opioid use disorder

      Tsuda-McCaie, Freya; Kotera, Yasuhiro; University of Derby (Wiley, 2022-01-17)
      Addressing opioid use disorder (OUD) among pregnant women is of growing importance, and substance use treatment positively impacts outcomes for mother and baby. Understanding substance use treatment experiences is important to improve access, and retention, and no review or synthesis of research addressing the treatment experiences of pregnant women exists. Approach: Thus, a qualitative meta-synthesis (QMS) was conducted, which investigated the psychological motivators and barriers of pregnant women with OUD trying to access treatment and their perceptions of treatment. Key Findings: Three thousand, eight hundred forty-four articles were retrieved from the literature search. Nine articles met eligibility criteria, were appraised, then synthesised using a comparative thematic approach. Four themes, (i) Embodied Experiences, (ii) Institutional Pressures, (iii) Social Context, and (iv) Reconstructing Selves, indicate that women with OUD are motivated to engage in treatment (a) to pursue the safety and custody of the unborn baby, and (b) to pursue and enact the changes necessary to claim 'normal' parenthood status. Pregnant women describe psychological and relational barriers to engaging in treatment, including anxieties about the baby's health, fears of authorities' involvement, stigma, and experiencing relationships with treatment providers as constrictive or invalidating. Implications: Identity Theory's concepts of identity verification, closed environments and master status identities illuminate the findings. Implications include recognising the salience of bodily experiences, providing medication assisted treatment (MAT) support groups, and promoting validating relationships in treatment using strengths-based approaches. Conclusions: Pregnant women face unique psychological challenges in accessing and engaging in substance use treatment for OUD.
    • Celebrity status, sex, and variation in psychopathy predicts judgements of and proclivity to generate and distribute deepfake pornography

      Fido, Dean; Rao, Jaya; Harper, Craig, A; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University (Elsevier, 2021-12-21)
      With the advent of means to generate and disseminate fake, sexualised images of others for the purposes of financial gain, harassment, or sexual gratification, there is a need to assess and understand the public's awareness and judgements of said behaviour. In two independently-sampled studies, we used moderation (Study 1; n = 290, 42% female) and linear mixed effects (Study 2; n = 364, 51% female) analyses to investigate whether judgements of deepfaking (measured across 12 self-report items) differed as a function of victim status (celebrity, non-celebrity), victim and participant demographics, and image use (sharing, own sexual gratification), whilst controlling for the potential covariates of psychopathy and beliefs about a just world. We consistently observed more lenient judgements of deepfake generation and dissemination for victims who were celebrities and male, and when images were created for self-sexual gratification rather than being shared. Moreover, lenient judgements, as well as proclivity to act were predicted by greater levels of psychopathy. We discuss our findings in the context of future research needing to better understand the general public's rationale for said disparity in judgements, as well as identifying and combating barriers to disclose victimisation. Open data and a preprint of this paper are available at https://osf.io/fp85q/?view_only = 8006547d6a524f4fbb9dd55005c73319.
    • Teach Public Health With a Sense of Humor: Why (and How to) Be a Funnier and More Effective Public Health Professor and Laugh All the Way to Your Classroom

      Gonot-Schoupinsky, Freda; Garip, Gulcan; University of Derby (The Curious Academic Publishing, 2021-11-25)
      Whether you’re a new Public Health teacher/faculty just starting out or a professor looking to use humor for your next “serious” lecture, this book is for you. This book is NOT about boring academic theories. Reading it, not only will you learn how to discover practical humor techniques and teaching strategies to dramatically improve your sense of humor, you’ll also have plenty of healthy laughs along the way. This book will help you develop techniques for leveraging humor and take action to improve your teaching immediately today. Top contributing professors in this book will answer your hundreds of questions such as: Why is humor effective in teaching healthcare topics? How to teach on-line with humor? How to address isolation brought about by on-line teaching? (Chapter 1); Why (and how to) teach improv to healthcare practitioners over Zoom? What is the ‘golden rule’ about improv? (Chapter 2); How to use humor as a pedagogical tool in public health? How make use of situations and simulation games, and twist them into humor? (Chapter 3); Is humor in health education a laughing matter? How to think from big to small to entertain and educate your students? (Chapter 4); Why (and how to) teach more effectively through the application of humor and laughter to healthcare students? How to promote creativity and enhance short-term memory? How to reduce stress? (Chapter 5); What are the types of humor and what are the strategies for using humor? How to avoid bad humor? (Chapter 6); What is the (natural) link between humor and healthcare? What are the technical tips to use humor more effectively? (Chapter 7); How to teach students the use of humor with traumatized individuals? (Chapter 8); What are the little-known tips about writing jokes for your class? (Chapter 9); Exactly how to teach with a sense of humor? What humor techniques to use in the class and how? (Chapter 10); Why and laughter helps learning? How to use comedy in the classroom? How to use online humor? (Chapter 11); What is your own sense of humor? Can you translate this sense of humor to engage your audience? How to “keep it simply simple”? (Chapter 12); Exactly how to use humor techniques such as funny quotes, definitions, and abbreviations to infuse humor into your writing and presentation or lecture. (Chapter 13). If you want to minimize the teacher burnout and improve your teaching effectiveness, you could hire a bunch of professional development consultants – or you could just read this book.
    • Facilitating the planning and evaluation of narrative intervention reviews: Systematic Transparency in All Intervention Reviews (STAIR)

      Gonot-Schoupinsky, Freda; Garip, Gulcan; Sheffield, David; Independent Researcher; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2021-11-17)
      Narrative reviews offer a flexible way to report intervention results and comprise the majority of reviews published in top medical journals. However variations in their transparency pose evaluation challenges, compromising their value and potentially resulting in research wastage. Calls have been made to reduce the number of narrative reviews published. Others argue narrative reviews provide an important platform and should even be placed on an equal footing to systematic reviews. We believe narrative intervention reviews can provide a vital perspective when transparent, and thus support Systematic Transparency Assessment in Intervention Reviews (STAIR). This research evaluates the transparency of 172 health-related narrative and literature reviews (K = 172), by assessing how they communicate information about the interventions they review. Eight points supporting transparency, relating to sample sizes, traceability, article numbers, and references, were assessed. Half of the reviews reported on at least four of the eight points, but 24% reported on none. Only 56% of the reviews clearly communicated full references. The STAIR* (Sample sizes, Traceability, Article numbers, Intervention numbers, References*) checklist comprises five sections, and nine points. It is proposed as a convenient tool to address STAIR and complement existing review guidelines to assist authors in planning, reviewers in evaluating, and scholars in utilising narrative reviews. The objectives of STAIR* are to: 1) encourage narrative review transparency and readability, 2) facilitate the incorporation of narrative reviews results into other research; and 3) enrich narrative review methodology with a checklist to guide, and evaluate, intervention reviews.
    • Structured groups make more accurate veracity judgements than individuals

      Hamlin, Iain; Bolger, Fergus; Vasilichi, Alexandrina; Belton, Ian; Crawford, Megan, M.; Sissons, Aileen; Taylor Browne Lūka, Courtney; Wright, George; University of Strathclyde; University of Derby (Wiley, 2021-10-27)
      Groups often make better judgments than individuals, and recent research suggests that this phenomenon extends to the deception detection domain. The present research investigated whether the influence of groups enhances the accuracy of judgments, and whether group size influences deception detection accuracy. 250 participants evaluated written statements with a pre-established detection accuracy rate of 60% in terms of veracity before viewing either the judgments and rationales of several other group members or a short summary of the written statement and revising or restating their own judgments accordingly. Participants’ second responses were significantly more accurate than their first, suggesting a small positive effect of structured groups on deception detection accuracy. Group size did not have a significant effect on detection accuracy. The present work extends our understanding of the utility of group deception detection, suggesting that asynchronous, structured groups outperform individuals at detecting deception.
    • The Development and Validation of the Successful Psychopathy Scale [Protocol]

      Wallace, Louise; Medvedev, Oleg; Fido, Dean; Sumich, Alexander, L.; Heym, Nadja; Nottingham Trent University; University of Derby; University of Waikato, Hillcrest, Hamilton, New Zealand (Concurrent Disorders Society, 2021-10-16)
      The personality construct known as ‘Successful Psychopathy’ has attracted the interests of researchers and clinicians alike. The concept suggests an individual who demonstrates the core traits associated with psychopathy but is able to adapt and function within society to prototypical or superior standards. There has yet to be a sound theoretical model of this construct by which to base a psychometric measure. This protocol presents the ethical procedure that will endeavour to create such a measure and validate it within general population samples.
    • Loss and Assimilation: Lived Experiences of Brexit for British Citizens Living in Luxembourg

      Fido, Dean; knight, stephanie; Harper, Craig, A; University of Derby (Springer, 2021-10-08)
      Inconsistent political realities are associated with mental health issues such as hopelessness, anxiety, and depression. The psychological impact of Brexit is clearly an important and timely issue, but hitherto has been understudied. This study uses a critical realist approach to qualitatively explore the lived experiences of British citizens living in Luxembourg during the Brexit era. The study reports on semi-structured interviews conducted with 6 British citizens aged 18–65. An experientially focused thematic analysis was conducted, exploring two main themes: Loss (with psychological and broader social implications) and Integration (contrasting the mover’s community with the receiving community). This study demonstrates the psychological impact of Brexit and highlights the urgency for future researchers and mental health practitioners alike — both in the UK and overseas — to consider the human consequences associated with political upheaval. Open access materials for this project can be viewed here: https://osf.io/38rg7/?view_only=b8c04dfc3fe5474f9aff4897e370b3e6.
    • A spotlight on acceptance and commitment therapy

      Ducasse, Déborah; Van Gordon, William; Courtet, Philippe; University of Derby (Edizioni Minerva Medica, 2021-09-28)
      There is increasing scientific interest into third-wave cognitive behavioral therapies, which include a range of interventions advocating awareness of both oneself and the present moment. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is one such third-wave therapeutic modality, which employs a “self as context” framework. ACT aims at changing the relationship to one’s sensorial and automatic psychological events, leading to decreased experiential avoidance. However, there is a lack of awareness as to the range of health conditions for which empirical findings appear to support the therapeutic delivery of ACT. There also exists some confusion in terms of the key Eastern contemplative principles that underlie the conceptual and therapeutic framework of ACT. Consequently, the present paper briefly outlines the key conceptual and therapeutic principles that ACT embodies, provides a high-level map of current directions in ACT treatment research, and discusses challenges and future directions. ACT appears to be an effective treatment for a range of psychological and somatic disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and chronic pain. However, further studies using randomized controlled trial designs are required to better understand the other health conditions for which ACT is likely to be an effective treatment. Furthermore, there is a need for greater understanding as to the most appropriate means by which ancient contemplative principles should be integrated into ACT approaches, as well as other therapeutic modalities likely to be compatible with the ACT approach.
    • Motivation of UK graduate students in education: Self-compassion moderates pathway from extrinsic motivation to intrinsic motivation

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Taylor, Elaina; Fido, Dean; Williams, Dan; Tsuda-McCaie, Freya; University of Derby (Springer, 2021-09-22)
      Academic motivation is recognised as a key factor for academic success and wellbeing. Highly motivated students actively engage with academic activities and maintain higher levels of wellbeing. Despite the importance of motivation in education, its relationship with engagement and wellbeing remains to be evaluated. Accordingly, this study explored the relationships between motivation, engagement, self-criticism and selfcompassion among UK education postgraduate students. Of 120 postgraduate students approached, 109 completed three self-report scales regarding those constructs. Correlation, regression and moderation analyses were performed. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation were positively associated with engagement, whereas amotivation was negatively associated with it. Engagement positively predicted intrinsic motivation. Self-criticism and self-compassion moderated the pathway from extrinsic motivation to intrinsic motivation: higher self-criticism weakened the pathway, while higher selfcompassion strengthened it. Findings suggest the importance of engagement in relation to cultivating intrinsic motivation of education students. Moreover, enhancing selfcompassion and reducing self-criticism can help transfer extrinsic to intrinsic motivation.
    • The Covid-19 Pandemic as an Opportunity for Positive Psychology to Promote a Wider-Ranging Definition of Humour and Laughter

      Gonot-Schoupinsky, Freda; Garip, Gülcan; Independent Researcher, Monte Carlo, Monaco; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan/ Springer, 2021-09-17)
      Traditionally, positive psychology (PP) considers humour as one of 24 character strengths and associates it with the core virtue of transcendence, a view perpetuated in Second Wave PP. We debate the need for a wider conceptualisation of humour and a more pragmatic recognition of its benefits and applications within the framework of Third Wave PP. Anecdotal and observational findings relating to the use of humour during the Covid-19 pandemic are considered. We draw on empirical research revealing the diverse benefits of humour and laughter in different cultural settings, including during lockdown. Using examples, including Covid-19 humour, we contend that the depiction of beneficial humour in PP is incomplete, for example, it relates not only to transcendence but to all six core virtues, and misleading as it may not necessarily relate to any. A more practical and broader depiction of humour within Third Wave PP would be helpful, including emphasising the potential of multiple character strengths to support humour development. In particular, we highlight the need for laughter, currently viewed as a by-product of humour within PP, to play a more prominent role. Widening the portrayal of humour and laughter in PP will be helpful to value and harness their individual, and joint, benefits and applications. In this chapter, we call for Third Wave PP to encourage new research directions by embracing the complexity of humour as 1) an interlinked character strength; 2) associated to all core virtues; 3) benefitting overall personal development; and 4) differentiated from but co-equal to laughter.
    • A Novel Mindful Nature Connectedness Intervention Improves Paranoia but Not Anxiety in a Nonclinical Population

      Muneghina, Orso; Van Gordon, William; Barrows, Paul; Richardson, Miles; University of Derby (Mary Ann Liebert Inc, 2021-09-03)
      Paranoia and anxiety are both recognized as experiences that are widespread in the general population. Studies have investigated the use of brief mindfulness-based interventions on both conditions, with encouraging results among nonclinical populations in particular. However, there is also promising evidence for the effectiveness of brief nature connectedness interventions on anxiety and mental health more generally. Since mindfulness has been shown to allow individuals to feel more connected to nature, and given that connection to natural environments can foster mindfulness and mental health, this study aimed to investigate the combined effects of a brief online mindful nature connectedness intervention (B-MNCI) on paranoia and anxiety. A total of 72 participants of nonclinical status were randomly allocated to either an online B-MNCI (10 min of daily guided meditation practice over 5 consecutive days) or a waitlist control group. Measures of paranoia, anxiety, mindfulness, and nature connectedness were taken at baseline, immediately after the intervention, and at 2 weeks follow-up. Findings indicated that compared with the control group, the B-MNCI showed significant improvements in nature connectedness and paranoia, with changes maintained at follow-up assessment. However, no significant differences were observed for anxiety and mindfulness scores. The results provide a new approach to bringing about sustained increases in nature connectedness and confirm the relevance of such approaches for improving mental health outcomes. The study also demonstrates the potential utility of an online B-MNCI for people of nonclinical status experiencing paranoia symptoms, including for those who find it difficult to physically venture into nature.
    • The Engage-Disengage Model as an Inclusive Model for the Promotion of Healthy and Successful Aging in the Oldest-old

      Gonot-Schoupinsky, Freda; Garip, Gulcan; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Informa UK Limited, 2021-09-01)
      Theories relating to healthy and successful aging do not specifically cater for the oldest-old. This predominantly theoretical research considers the relevance of existing healthy and successful aging theories in the oldest-old. It explores a small sample of interviews of independently living oldest-old using Differential Qualitative Analysis. The Activity Theory and the Disengagement Theory were particularly relevant to investigate differences. The Engage-Disengage model was conceived as a pragmatic holistic model to address specific challenges facing the oldest-old. Engage-Disengage reflects attainable healthy and successful aging in the oldest-old according to individual abilities (intrinsic physical and mental capacities), values, and external resources (social, material, and environmental).
    • Videoconferencing for Home Care Delivery in Japan: Observational Study

      Miyatake, Hirotomo; Kosaka, Makoto; Arita, Satoshi; Tsunetoshi, Chie; Masunaga, Hidehisa; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Nishikawa, Yoshitaka; Ozaki, Akihiko; Beniya, Hiroyuki; Orange Home-Care Clinic , Fukui , JP; et al. (JMIR Publications Inc., 2021-09-01)
      Telemedicine has been increasingly used in many health care fields, including home care, where patients receive medical care at home. Owing to the current COVID-19 crisis, the value of telemedicine via videoconferencing is more recognized, particularly in allowing immobile patients to continue receiving care. However, the efficacy of telemedicine in home care settings in Japan remains to be fully appraised. This study aims to identify the use and impact of telemedicine in a singular home care delivery setting in Japan. A retrospective observational study was conducted using patient and other administrative records from a home care clinic. We considered patients who were involved in videoconferencing with home care physicians and telepresenters serving patients during 2018 and 2019. We extracted sociodemographic data of the patients and details of the videoconferencing and descriptively illustrated some specific cases. In a home care clinic in Japan, videoconferencing was conducted in 17 cases (involving 14 patients) over a 2-year period. Of all the cases, 12% (2/17) required emergency transfers and were hospitalized. A total of 88% (15/17) of cases remained; 71% (12/17) of cases were found to need extra medication or to go to a medical facility for consultation, whereas 18% (3/17) of cases were found not to be in need of urgent attention and were asked to rest. Problematic symptoms subsequently improved in 82% (14/17) of cases, and only 6% (1/17) of cases were later hospitalized. Telemedicine was deemed effective for assessing patients’ conditions in the home care setting in situations where home visits by a physician cannot be carried out. Our findings indicate that consultations via videoconferencing are safe and effective, suggesting more active use of videoconferencing in other clinical contexts.
    • An Investigation of the Learning Motivation of Student Studying Accounting Courses in China

      Ho, Miu Hing; Fido, Dean; Simonovic, Boban; Beijing Institute of Technology, Zhuhai, China; University of Derby (EJournal Publishing, 2021-09)
      Since the 1980s, concerns within the accounting profession have asked whether the accounting curriculum aligns with evolving accounting practice and the preparation of students for working in accounting field. In recent years, the accountancy profession has played a vital role in the growth of China’s economy, and so identifying the motivation of college students to study accounting in China and their inclination to enter the accounting profession is paramount. This paper investigates the learning motivation of students studying accounting in China through the use of self-administered questionnaires. Non-probability sampling technique was used in this study. A total of 103 questionnaire responses were collected and underwent descriptive and correlation analysis. Findings indicated that undergraduate accounting students were mainly motivated by their concerns about their future career and qualification, altruism, enjoy social life, and self-exploration. These findings are consistent with the self-determined theory about self-identity as an accounting professional, and support the expectancy-value theory in the value of studying accounting to the career aspiration, and concurs with the achievement goal theory in achieving the professional qualifications and personal growth. Findings from this study have implications for helping students to understand their motivations to study accounting and their suitability of entering the accounting profession. Accounting professional bodies may also use the findings reported here to inform on member recruitment strategies, whilst facilitating education providers’ assessment of suitability for candidates to studying accounting and the design of curriculum and teaching strategies.
    • Mindful parenting: future directions and challenges

      Cowling, Carly; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby (Informa UK Limited, 2021-08-20)
      Mindful parenting teaches parents to focus awareness on their thoughts, feelings and behaviours, as well as pay attention to their children in an intentional, present-centered and non-judgmental manner. Mindfulness appears to improve the quality of parenting and the parent–child relationship, as well as enhance children’s and parents' levels of resilience and psychological functioning. However, an understanding of the processes and techniques underpinning effective mindful parenting remains constrained due to methodological limitations. These limitations include an over reliance on non-experimental designs, uncontrolled studies, self-report assessments, small sample sizes mostly comprising mothers, and uncertainty with regards to the definitions and meanings of certain concepts and protocols for mindful parenting interventions. In order to examine the effectiveness of mindful parenting interventions, standards need to be established which define the meaning of mindful parenting and identify the correlates, determinants and mechanisms of change in mindful parenting over time, in order to determine modifiable factors so that interventions can be appropriately targeted to vulnerable populations. This paper discusses some of the latest research developments in mindful parenting, provides recommendations for effective mindfulness practice from a parenting context and discusses key future challenges affecting this area of mindfulness research and practice.
    • The Effect of Self-Compassion on Job Burnout and Hours Worked in Employees’ Working from Home

      Cotterill, Matthew; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Garip, Gulcan; University of Derby (Concurrent Disorders Society, 2021-08-10)
      Working from home (WFH) has been associated with increased levels of job burnout; a psycho-physiological outcome of experiencing intense or extended periods of work-related stress. Individuals with higher levels of self-compassion have been shown to mitigate the effects of stress by reducing the negative affect associated with stressful situations. The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of self-compassion on job burnout and number of working hours in full time employees WFH. Fifty-eight full time WFH participants (37 females, 21 males; age M = 34, SD = 8 years) completed online self-report questionnaires. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that SC did not predict job burnout and number of working hours for this sample of WFH employees. The obtained evidence suggests that self-compassion was not enough to mitigate job burnout or number of working hours, therefore employers should not rely on employees to manage workloads and hours effectively but assist in developing schedules to reduce the negative impact of job burnout on their mental health.
    • Development of the external and internal shame scale: Japanese version

      Hiramatsu, Yoichi; Asano, Kenichi; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Endo, Ayumu; Shimizu, Eiji; Matos, Marcela; Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan; The Japanese Centre for Compassionate Mind Research and Training, Tokyo, Japan; Komachi Clinical Psychology Office, Japan; Mejiro University, Japan; et al. (Springer, 2021-08-03)
      Shame contains external and internal aspects. However, a Japanese language scale for simultaneously assessing both aspects of shame has not been developed to date. This study aimed to standardize the Japanese version of the External and Internal Shame Scale (EISS-J). An online survey was conducted among university students (N = 203) at six universities in Japan (Study 1). A retest questionnaire was sent to the participants by email three weeks after the first survey (Study 2). Study 1 examined the internal consistency, factor structure, and criterion-related validity of the EISS-J, while Study 2 examined its test-retest reliability. Moreover, an additional study was conducted to examine the criterion-related validity of the scale. Study 1 demonstrated the high internal consistency of the EISS-J. Moreover, confirmatory factor analysis indicated a two-factor model: external and internal shame. However, exploratory factor analysis indicated a three-factor structure. Study 2 confirmed the test-retest reliability of the scale. Furthermore, both studies indicated correlations between the EISS-J and fear of compassion, anger, humiliation, depression, anxiety, and stress. In addition, the study established the criterion-related validity of the scale. These results confirmed adequate reliability and validity of the EISS-J.
    • Self-compassion in Irish social work students: Relationships between resilience, engagement and motivation

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Tsuda-McCaie, Freya; Edwards, Ann-Marie; Bhandari, Divya; Maughan, Geraldine; University of Derby; Medical Governance Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan; Limerick Institute of Technology, Limerick, Ireland (MDPI AG, 2021-08-02)
      Self-compassion recognises a meaning of life's suffering, aligning with existential positive psy-chology. Although this construct is known to protect our mental health, how to augment self-compassion remains to be evaluated. Social work students suffer from high rates of mental health problems, however research into self-compassion in this population remains to be devel-oped. This study aimed to evaluate i) relationships between self-compassion and more tradition-al positive constructs—resilience, engagement and motivation, and ii) differences of these con-structs between the levels of studies, to inform how self-compassion can be enhanced in social work students. One hundred twenty-nine Irish social work students completed self-report scales regarding self-compassion, resilience, engagement and motivation. Correlation, regression, and one-way MANOVA were conducted. Self-compassion was associated with gender, age, resili-ence, engagement and intrinsic motivation. Resilience and intrinsic motivation were significant predictors of self-compassion. There was no significant difference in the levels of these constructs between the levels of studies. Findings suggest that social work educators across different levels can strengthen students’ resilience and intrinsic motivation to cultivate the students' self-compassion. Moreover, the close relationships between self-compassion, resilience and in-trinsic motivation indicate that orienting students to a meaning of the studies helps their mental health.