• Energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth: Fresh evidence from 57 countries and panel quantile regressions

      Apergis, Nicholas; Altinoz, Buket; Aslan, Alper; University of Derby; Nisantasi University; Erciyes University (Asian Pacific Economic Association, 2020-09-11)
      This paper analyzes the association across energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth. According to the results of panel quantile regression model for 57 countries from three different regions, deviations from sustainable growth after the middle growth level in the full sample and the European and Asian countries sample are prominent. Similar results are obtained from Middle East and African countries, but the deviations begin earlier. In the case of the Latin American findings, the estimates clearly document that carbon emissions (at all levels) and energy consumption (at the medium and high levels) exert a negative impact on economic growth, indicating the inability of Latin American countries to achieve sustainable economic growth targets.
    • The role of Covid-19 for Chinese stock returns: evidence from a GARCHX model

      Apergis, Nicholas; Apergis, Emmanuel; University of Derby; University of Huddersfield (Taylor & Francis, 2020-09-03)
      This paper examines the effect of Covid-19 pandemic on the Chinese stock market returns and their volatility using the generalized autoregressive conditionally heteroskedastic GARCHX model. The GARCHX model allows us to include Covid-19 information within the GARCH framework. The findings document that daily increases in total confirmed Covid-19 cases in China, measured as total daily deaths and cases, have a significant negative impact on stock returns, with the negative impact of the Covid-19 on stock returns being more pronounced when total deaths proxy the effect of this infectious disease. The results also document that Covid-19 has a positive and statistically significant effect on the volatility of these market returns. Overall, new evidence is offered that infectious diseases, such as Covid-19, can seriously impact market returns, as well as their volatility. The findings could be essential in understanding the implications of Covid-19 for the stock market in China.
    • U.S. monetary policy and herding: Evidence from commodity markets

      Apergis, Nicholas; Christou, Christina; Hayat, Tasawar; Saeed, Tareq; University of Derby; Open University of Cyprus; King Abdulaziz University (Springer, 2020-08-28)
      This paper investigates the presence of herding behavior across a spectrum of commodities (i.e., agricultural, energy, precious metals, and metals) futures prices obtained from Datastream. The main novelty of this study is, for the first time in the literature, the explicit investigation of the role of deviations of U.S. monetary policy decisions from a standard Taylor-type monetary rule, in driving herding behavior with respect to commodity futures prices, spanning the period 1990-2017. The results document that the commodity markets are characterized by herding, while such herding behavior is not only driven by U.S. monetary policy decisions, but also such decisions exert asymmetric effects this behavior. An additional novelty of the results is that they document that herding is stronger in discretionary monetary policy regimes.
    • Persation: an IoT based personal safety prediction model aided solution

      Alofe, Olasunkanmi Matthew; Fatema, Kaniz; Azad, Muhammad Ajmal; Kurugollu, Fatih; University of Derby; Aston University, Birmingham (University of Bahrain, 2020)
      The number of attacks on innocent victims in moving vehicles, and abduction of individuals in their vehicles has risen alarmingly in the past few years. One common scenario evident from the modus operandi of this kind of attack is the random motion of these vehicles, due to the driver’s unpredictable behaviours. To save the victims in such kinds of assault, it is essential to offer help promptly. An effective strategy to save victims is to predict the future location of the vehicles so that the rescue mission can be actioned at the earliest possibility. We have done a comprehensive survey of the state-of-the-art personal safety solutions and location prediction technologies and proposes an Internet of Things (IoT) based personal safety model, encompassing a prediction framework to anticipate the future vehicle locations by exploiting complex analytics of current and past data variables including the speed, direction and geolocation of the vehicles. Experiments conducted based on real-world datasets demonstrate the feasibility of our proposed framework in accurately predicting future vehicle locations. In this paper, we have a risk assessment of our safety solution model based on OCTAVE ALLEGRO model and the implementation of our prediction model.
    • Threshold effects of housing affordability and financial development on the house price-consumption nexus

      Apergis, Nicholas; Coskun, Esra; Coskun, Yener; University of Derby; University of Huddersfield; University of Sheffield (Wiley, 2020-08-28)
      The study explores the asymmetric effect of housing and financial wealth on household consumption behavior using panel data from 24 OECD countries, spanning the period 2000 to 2016 by employing a financial development (FD) index (proxy for financial deepening) and the house price-to-income (HPI) ratio (proxy for housing affordability) through a threshold empirical framework. The analysis tests certain hypotheses, such as: (i) the housing wealth effect on consumption is stronger than its financial counterpart, (ii) overall wealth effects increase (decrease) during bubble (post bubble) periods, (iii) the higher level of financial development and the lower level of housing affordability ratio both result in stronger wealth effects, (iv) increasing wealth effects show a bubble formation. The results suggest that housing wealth has generally a greater positive effect on consumption. The effect of housing and financial wealth on consumption increases, depending on higher financial development and declining housing affordability. The evidence also suggests that the impact of housing and stock market wealth has increased during the dot.com and housing bubble periods.
    • Inflation expectations, volatility and Covid-19: Evidence from the US inflation swap rates

      Apergis, Nicholas; Apergis, Emmanuel; University of Derby; University of Huddersfield (Taylor & Francis, 2020-08-28)
      The goal of this work is to explore the role of the Covid-19 pandemic event in the course of inflation expectations and their volatility through US inflation swap rates. The findings document that inflation expectations and their volatility are positively affected by the Covid-19 pandemic. These results have real activity implications, while close monitoring of inflation expectations could signal inflation expectations un-anchoring risks.
    • Developing more inclusive schools for pupils with special educational needs: key messages for school leaders and communities

      Robinson, Deborah; Hanson, Jill; Codina, Geraldene; Dimitrellou, Eleni; Qureshi, Sarwat; University of Derby (2020-08-26)
      This paper will provide an outline of a unique local area project of school improvement for inclusion and special educational needs called the ‘SEND Peer Challenger programme’ so that its principles might be understood and/or emulated by school leaders who are looking for new ways to improve provision for pupils with special educational needs and disabilities (SENDs) in general classrooms. Its aims are to: Provide an example of how researchers in universities, front line educationalists and local governors can collaborate to deepen the reach of school improvement initiatives for SEND and inclusion in mainstream schools. Share the findings of a research study that cast light on the character of effective leadership and management for high quality SEND provision in mainstream education. Explore the implications of these findings for researchers, local governors, and school leaders through understanding the elements of high-quality SEND provision in general classrooms. Operationalising leadership and management approaches to improve SEND provision in general classrooms.
    • Psychological Impacts of the New Ways of Working (NWW): A Systematic Review

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Correa Vione, Katia; University of Derby (MDPI AG, 2020-07-14)
      Digitalization of knowledge work is essential for today’s organizations, responding todiversified employee needs. Many organizations are already implementing some form of flexibility tohelp workers perform work and non-work duties, while maintaining high productivity. While thesechanges in workplaces, “New Ways of Working (NWW)”, have been discussed in the literature,a systematic appraisal of evidence of NWW has not been conducted. Relating to poor work-relatedmental health worldwide, this systematic review analyzed the psychological impacts of NWW, andthe quality and quantity of NWW research. Following the preferred reporting items for systematicreviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, NWW studies targeting psychological outcomeswere evaluated. Initial literature search on ProQuest, PsycINFO, Science Direct, and Google Scholarretrieved 308 titles, from which seven articles fulfilled all inclusion criteria. Our appraisal revealedthat NWW research evaluated diverse psychological outcomes. While NWW can help workers’engagement, work-related flow, and connectivity among staff, NWW can also increase blurredwork-home boundary, fatigue, and mental demands. The quality of NWW research was overallmedium, needing more rigorous studies. Our findings can inform decision-makers in the workplaceto effectively implement NWW, and researchers to improve the quality and the usefulness of futureNWW studies.
    • Changes in the spatial distribution of COVID-19 incidence in Italy using GIS-based maps

      Martellucci, Cecilia Acuti; Sah, Ranjit; Rabaan, Ali A.; Dhama, Kuldeep; Casalone, Cristina; Arteaga-Livias, Kovy; Sawano, Toyoaki; Ozaki, Akihiko; Bhandari, Divya; Higuchi, Asaka; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-07-18)
      Massive spreading of the pandemic Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in different continents [1, 2], have been observed. Analyses mostly focused on the number of cases per country and administrative levels, multiple times without considering the relevance of the incidence rates. These help to see the concentration of disease among the population in terms of cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Even more using geographical information systems (GIS)-based maps stakeholder may rapidly analyze changes in the epidemiological situation [3, 4]. Although the epidemic of COVID-19 caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) started in Italy on January 31, 2020, no reports on the use of GIS-based maps have been published to analyze the distinct differences in incidence rates across its regions and provinces during the last months. For these reasons, we have developed epidemiological maps of incidence rates using official populations, by regions and provinces, for COVID-19 in Italy using GIS.
    • The role of fiscal policy in the link between income inequality and banking crises

      Apergis, Nicholas; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2020-08-16)
      This paper explores the link between income inequality and banking crises, when inequality is affected by fiscal policy. Using a two-stage probit least squares method and a panel of 21 countries, spanning the period 1971-2017, the findings indicate that inequality impacts the probability of banking crises through budget deficits, followed by government expenses.
    • Airbnb and hotel revenues in Greek popular destinations

      Apergis, Nicholas; Hayat, Tasawar; Saeed, Tareq; University of Derby; King Abdulaziz University (Emerald, 2020-08-19)
      This paper explores the role of Airbnb listings on hotel revenues in certain popular Greek tourist destinations. The analysis makes use of the panel GMM method, while the findings document that the Airbnb listings exert a negative impact on hotel revenues. Moreover, the results indicate that it is primarily non-business and low-price hotels that are being influenced, while the hotel industry responds to the competition through lower room prices and not through occupancy rates. The paper documents that although the Airbnb is a new factor in the Greek tourism industry, it has turned into a significant competitor against hotels. The findings of this paper are expected to provide further insights into the workings of the sector and the potential regulated policies needed to be adopted by tourism authorities.
    • Effect of powder bed fusion laser melting process parameters, build orientation and strut thickness on porosity, accuracy and tensile properties of an auxetic structure in IN718 alloy

      Bahi, S.; Gunputh, U.; Rusinek, A.; Wood, P.; Miguelez, M.H.; Laboratory of Microstructure Studies and Mechanics of Materials, UMR-CNRS; Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Carlos III of Madrid; Institute for Innovation in Sustainable Engineering, University of Derby (Elsevier, 2020-06-26)
      In this paper the geometry of an auxetic, re-entrant honeycomb structure made from Inconel 718 (IN718), was optimised with respect to the process parameters of laser melting process using a Renishaw AM250 after which the quasi static behaviour was analysed under tensile loading. Two different PBF process parameters were used with 2 different laser energy densities to manufacture the auxetic structures with 3 different strut thicknesses (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 mm) in 2 building orientations (XY and ZX plane). A strut thickness of 0.6 mm was found to have the least porosity and the best dimensional accuracy. The latter geometry was then manufactured as part of a tensile test sample which were then tested at a strain rate of 0.001 s−1 after which the stress strain curve, yield stress, structural stiffness, plastic work and Poisson's Ratio were compared. The building directions XY, ZX and XZ of the auxetic structure were investigated, as well as the orientation of the individual cells with respect to the loading direction. XY was found to provide the best mechanical properties and the kinematics of deformation was found to be dependent on the loading direction with respect to the cells direction which resulted in a significant change in Poisson's ratio. Finite Element Analysis was also done in order to compare the stress strain curves and the deformation mode obtained from numerical modelling and experiment, and a good agreement was observed.
    • Effect of element wall thickness on the homogeneity and isotropy of hardness in SLM IN718 using nanoindentation

      Abo Znemah, Reem; Wood, Paul; Gunputh, Urvashi Fowdar; Zhang, Cheng; Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA; University of Derby; Medtronic Inc., Tempe, Arizona, US (Elsevier, 2020-07-28)
      In this paper the homogeneity and isotropy of the mechanical hardness of thin-walled Inconel 718 (IN718) alloy samples manufactured by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) were examined using nanoindentation testing. SLM-produced honeycombed samples with wall thicknesses of 0.8, 0.6 and 0.4 mm respectively were studied by measuring the hardness across the wall thickness, and on the planes parallel and perpendicular to the build direction over the range of depths of 10-2000 nm. The average hardness values close to the edges were 4.0-6.5% lower than the areas away from the them. Interestingly the average hardness dropped by 15.2% with reduction in the cell wall thickness from 0.8 mm to 0.4 mm. Average hardness values were reported to be higher on the plane perpendicular to the build direction compared to the parallel plane. A variable material length scale was proposed in this work to describe the size effects of the microstructure. It was evaluated using the nanoindentation hardness test results and a computational model developed in previous studies by the first author and his co-workers.
    • Effects of shinrin-yoku (forest bathing) and nature therapy on mental health: A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Richardson, Miles; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Springer, 2020-07-28)
      Shinrin-yoku (forest-bathing), immersing oneself in nature using one's senses, has been receiving increased attention internationally. While most of the existing studies have focused on physical health, this systematic review and meta-analysis examined the mental health benefits of shinrin-yoku (i.e., depression, anxiety, anger), using the PRISMA guidelines (PROSPERO registery: BLINDED). Articles in English were retrieved on research databases including PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. Of 481 articles retrieved, twenty met the inclusion criteria (eight non-randomised and twelve randomised controlled trials). All studies were conducted in Asia and Europe and used a variety of different bathing approaches (e.g., breathing, walking, yoga). While noting a need for more rigorous research and more extensive follow-up assessments, the findings indicate that shinrin-yoku can be effective in reducing negative mental health symptoms in the short-term (large effects, g> .80); particularly, the effects on anxiety were largest. Overall, forest bathing improved depression, anxiety and anger in the short-term but there were a number of moderators of the effects. More careful examination of shinrin-yoku practices are needed; longer follow-up with participants from a range of countries along with greater examination of potential mechanisms of action are needed for shinrin-yoku to be accepted into mainstream interventions.
    • International nurses day 2020: The importance of the healthcare sector to society

      Williams, Alan; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2020-05-11)
      Dr Alan Williams, Academic Lead for Nursing and Perioperative Practice at the University of Derby, marks International Nurses Day 2020 (May 12) by discussing why he is proud of his profession and the wider healthcare sector and why it should be celebrated and appreciated all year round.
    • How will education 4.0 influence learning in higher education?

      Williams, Alan; Windle, Richard; Wharrad, Heather; University of Derby; University of Nottingham (Association for Learning Development in Higher Education, 2020-05-29)
      Higher education at the start of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Schwab, 2015) is undergoing unprecedented change because of the opportunities revealed through the use of digital technology. Though societies throughout time have undergone seismic change, it is the speed and magnitude of change now because of technology that is challenging higher education. The changes include access to knowledge, how that knowledge is shared and the increasing demand by students’ for their voice to be heard in their education and to be integral to the design of their learning. The opportunities revealed by the use of digital technology can lead to good and bad effects and it is essential academics and higher education investigate the design of learning objects used by students in higher education.
    • An investigation uncovering how students and how tutors design learning objects for novice students to use when acquiring established resuscitation knowledge.

      Williams, Alan; University of Nottingham (2018-07-01)
      Higher education in the twenty-first century is experiencing transformational change due to the advances in technology, with this period referred to as the Fourth Industrial Revolution – the Information Age. Just as the three previous revolutions created step changes in society so will this one, and as the changes now are occurring over a much shorter time period academics, educators and universities have less time to understand and respond to these events. The three key technological changes are firstly the availability, power and pervasiveness of computers, secondly the development of the Internet and finally how these factors have affected knowledge and learning, in the new millennium. These changes in the Information Age have influenced learning theories and learners, with the rapidity meaning there is less time to consider and investigate how technology can be used to enhance student learning in higher education. The opportunities technology provide to improve student learning in higher education range from the design of small educational resources to overarching curricula and educational organisations themselves. This work investigated the design of small educational resources called learning objects and in particular, the storyboard creation aspect of this process and then the educational gains achieved from using said resources. The established knowledge of resuscitation was a suitable vehicle to investigation the design of learning objects as it has a strong internationally accepted theoretical foundation and nurses are required to learn this knowledge as part of their pre-registration education. The Storyboard Workshop (phase 1) of this research investigated how learning objects are designed by nursing students (n=7) and by tutors (n=6), by applying Tuckman’s stage of group development model revealing how each homogenous group functioned and what twelve pedagogical factors student-designers and tutor-designers felt important when analysed using the Learning Object Attributes Metric (LOAM) Tool. In the Learning and Evaluation (phase 2) of this investigation, novice nursing student were randomly assigned to view either the student-designed (n=58) or tutor-designed (n=61) learning object to acquire established resuscitation knowledge with the learning gain and acceptability of the resource viewed, assessed. The results of phase 1 revealed student-designers and tutor-designers generally discussed similar LOAM pedagogical factors though students spent more time discussing navigation and tutors focussed on the objective. When Tuckman’s model was applied the student-designers spent significantly less time forming and storming and significantly more time performing than the tutor-designers, suggesting when designing learning objects on established knowledge, students focus on the task whereas tutors may refer to professional experience that may distract from the design process. Phase two demonstrated irrespective of the designers, viewing either the student-designed or tutor-designed learning object conferred significant learning gains when pre and post viewing (knowledge, student-designed 4.3 to 8.3, p=.000; tutor-designed 4.4 to 8.2, p=.000 and confidence in knowledge, student-designed 5.4 to 7.5, p=.000; tutor-designed 5.3 to 6.9, p=.000) was assessed. However, the difference in confidence in knowledge significantly favoured the student-designed resource (2.1 v 1.5, p=.042), though both resources were very positively evaluated. In the design of a learning object it may be the student-designers are more attuned to their peers needs, and this effect could be exploited by ensuring students are integral in the design of a learning object for novice student to use when acquiring established knowledge. In addition, this effect may be applicable with projects to design learning objects for novice learners to acquire established knowledge, whether this has a clinical focus or for novice students in non-healthcare disciplines.
    • Reduction of visual acuity decreases capacity to evaluate radiographic image quality

      Sá dos Reis, C.; Soares, F.; Bartoli, G.; Dastan, K.; Dhlamini, Z.S.; Hussain, A.; Kroode, D.; McEntee, M.F.; Mekis, N.; Thompson, J.D.; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-05-16)
      To determine the impact of reduced visual acuity on the evaluation of a test object and appendicular radiographs. Visual acuity was reduced by two different magnitudes using simulation glasses and compared to normal vision (no glasses). During phase one phantom images were produced for the purpose of counting objects by 13 observers and on phase 2 image appraisal of anatomical structures was performed on anonymized radiographic images by 7 observers. The monitors were calibrated (SMPTE RP133 test pattern) and the room lighting was maintained at 7 ± 1 lux. Image display and data on grading were managed using ViewDEX (v.2.0) and the area under the visual grading characteristic (AUC VGC) was calculated using VGC Analyzer (v1.0.2). Inferential statistics were calculated using SPSS. For the evaluation of appendicular radiographs the total interpretation time was longer when visual acuity was reduced with 2 pairs of simulation glasses (15.4 versus 8.9 min). Visual grading analysis showed that observers can lose the ability to detect anatomical and contrast differences when they have a simulated visual acuity reduction, being more challenging to differentiate low contrast details. No simulation glasses, compared to 1 pair gives an AUC VGC of 0.302 (0.280, 0.333), that decreases to 0.197 (0.175, 0.223) when using 2 pairs of glasses. Reduced visual acuity has a significant negative impact on the evaluation of test objects and clinical images. Further work is required to test the impact of reduced visual acuity on visual search, technical evaluation of a wider range of images as well as pathology detection/characterization performance. It seems that visual performance needs to be considered to reduce the risks associated with incomplete or incorrect diagnosis. If employers or professional bodies were to introduce regular eye tests into health screening it may reduce the risk of misinterpretation as a result of poor vision.
    • Impact of COVID-19 on tourism in Nepal

      Sah, Ranjit; Sigdel, Shailendra; Ozaki, Akihiko; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Bhandari, Divya; Regmi, Priyanka; Mehta, Rachana; Adhikari, Mahesh; Roy, Namrta; Dhama, Kuldeep; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2020-07-07)
    • Cross-cultural comparison of mental health between Japanese and Dutch workers: Relationships with mental health shame, self-compassion, work engagement and motivation

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Van Laethem, Michelle; Ohshima, Remi; University of Derby; University of Amsterdam; Mejiro Daigaku, Shinjuku-ku, Japan (Emerald, 2020-07-09)
      The primary purpose of this descriptive study was to compare the levels of, and relationships among mental health problems, mental health shame, self-compassion, work engagement, and work motivation between workers in Japan (collectivistic and success-driven culture) and the Netherlands (individualistic and quality-oriented culture). A cross-sectional design, where convenience samples of 165 Japanese and 160 Dutch workers completed self-report measures about mental health problems, shame, self-compassion, engagement and motivation, was used. Welch t-tests, correlation and regression analyses were conducted to compare i) the levels of these variables, ii) relationships among these variables, and iii) predictors of mental health problems, between the two groups. Dutch workers had higher levels of mental health problems, work engagement and intrinsic motivation, and lower levels of shame and amotivation than Japanese workers. Mental health problems were associated with shame in both samples. Mental health problems were negatively predicted by self-compassion in Japanese, and by work engagement in Dutch employees. The novelty of this study relates to exploring differences in work mental health between those two culturally contrasting countries. Our findings highlight potential cultural differences such as survey responding (Japanese acquiescent responding vs Dutch self-enhancement) and cultural emphases (Japanese shame vs Dutch quality of life). Job crafting, mindfulness and enhancing ikigai (meaningfulness in life) may be helpful to protect mental health in these workers, relating to self-compassion and work engagement. Findings from this study would be particularly useful to employers, managers, and staff in human resources who work with cross-cultural workforce.