• Attachment relationships and psychological distress in young adults: The mediating role of self-esteem

      Imran, Somia; Jackson, Sophie; Newcastle University; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2022-02-16)
      The relationship between attachment security and psychological distress (such as depressive and anxiety symptoms) is well established. However, the role of attachment security beyond primary attachment, referred to as secondary attachment, and the mechanism underlying this relationship is under-explored among young adults. This study sought to investigate the effects of primary attachment and secondary attachment on psychological distress with self-esteem as a mediator in young adults. Four hundred and fifty two UK participants aged 18–25 (55.76% females; Mean age = 20.72; SD = 2.29) completed measures of attachment, self-esteem and psychological distress. Using two mediation models, we tested the effects of primary attachment and secondary attachment separately on psychological distress mediated by self-esteem, while controlling for the other type of attachment (i.e. primary or secondary). The findings supported the mediation effects of both primary attachment and secondary attachment through self-esteem on psychological distress. This study provides the first empirical evidence for the individual role of primary and secondary attachment relationships through self-esteem, which has important implications for preventive and intervention strategies to lessen psychological distress among young adults.
    • A Longitudinal Study of Theory of Mind and Listening Comprehension: Is preschool Theory of Mind Important?

      Jackson, Sophie; Slade, Lance; Levy, Joseph; Samantha, McCormick; University of Roehampton; Canterbury Christ Church University; Royal Holloway University of London; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2022-02-12)
      Theory of mind has been shown to be important for listening comprehension for children at a range of ages. However, there is a lack of longitudinal evidence for a relationship between early theory of mind and later listening comprehension. The aim of this study was to examine whether preschool theory of mind has a longitudinal direct effect on later listening comprehension over and above the effects of concurrent theory of mind. A total of 147 children were tested on measures of theory of mind, working memory, vocabulary, and grammatical knowledge at Time 1 (mean age = 4;1 [years;months]) and Time 2 (mean age = 5;11). In addition, at Time 2 listening comprehension, comprehension monitoring, and inference making measures were taken. Data were fitted to concurrent and longitudinal models of listening comprehension. Concurrent findings at Time 2 showed theory of mind to have a direct effect on listening comprehension. However, longitudinal findings showed that earlier theory of mind in preschool (Time 1) did not have a direct effect on listening comprehension 22 months later; instead, there was only an indirect effect of earlier theory of mind on later listening comprehension via concurrent theory of mind (Time 2). Taken together, the results give further support for the importance of theory of mind for listening comprehension but show that there are limited additional benefits of early theory of mind acquisition. Implications for the development of children’s listening comprehension are discussed.
    • Structured groups make more accurate veracity judgements than individuals

      Hamlin, Iain; Bolger, Fergus; Vasilichi, Alexandrina; Belton, Ian; Crawford, Megan, M.; Sissons, Aileen; Taylor Browne Lūka, Courtney; Wright, George; University of Strathclyde; University of Derby (Wiley, 2021-10-27)
      Groups often make better judgments than individuals, and recent research suggests that this phenomenon extends to the deception detection domain. The present research investigated whether the influence of groups enhances the accuracy of judgments, and whether group size influences deception detection accuracy. 250 participants evaluated written statements with a pre-established detection accuracy rate of 60% in terms of veracity before viewing either the judgments and rationales of several other group members or a short summary of the written statement and revising or restating their own judgments accordingly. Participants’ second responses were significantly more accurate than their first, suggesting a small positive effect of structured groups on deception detection accuracy. Group size did not have a significant effect on detection accuracy. The present work extends our understanding of the utility of group deception detection, suggesting that asynchronous, structured groups outperform individuals at detecting deception.
    • Celebrity status, sex, and variation in psychopathy predicts judgements of and proclivity to generate and distribute deepfake pornography

      Fido, Dean; Rao, Jaya; Harper, Craig, A; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University (Elsevier, 2021-12-21)
      With the advent of means to generate and disseminate fake, sexualised images of others for the purposes of financial gain, harassment, or sexual gratification, there is a need to assess and understand the public's awareness and judgements of said behaviour. In two independently-sampled studies, we used moderation (Study 1; n = 290, 42% female) and linear mixed effects (Study 2; n = 364, 51% female) analyses to investigate whether judgements of deepfaking (measured across 12 self-report items) differed as a function of victim status (celebrity, non-celebrity), victim and participant demographics, and image use (sharing, own sexual gratification), whilst controlling for the potential covariates of psychopathy and beliefs about a just world. We consistently observed more lenient judgements of deepfake generation and dissemination for victims who were celebrities and male, and when images were created for self-sexual gratification rather than being shared. Moreover, lenient judgements, as well as proclivity to act were predicted by greater levels of psychopathy. We discuss our findings in the context of future research needing to better understand the general public's rationale for said disparity in judgements, as well as identifying and combating barriers to disclose victimisation. Open data and a preprint of this paper are available at https://osf.io/fp85q/?view_only = 8006547d6a524f4fbb9dd55005c73319.
    • From "blind elation" to "oh my goodness, what have I gotten into"… Exploring the experience of executive coaching during leadership transitions into C-suite roles

      McGill, Pamela; Clarke, Philip; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Oxford Brookes University, 2019-02-01)
      A promotion to a more senior role brings an exciting yet challenging period in a leader's career. Using an interpretative phenomenological methodology, this study explores the experiences of six leaders who received coaching during recent transitions into C-suite roles (Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) and direct reports) within global corporate organisations. Leaders experienced significant change, challenge and emotional turmoil. They valued the coaching, which led to lasting benefits in terms of confidence, capabilities and strengthened identity. In a nascent research landscape, results advocate the benefits of coaching, highlighting aspects of value, success factors and areas where further research is needed.
    • The Role of Future Time Perspective, Body Awareness, and Social Connectedness in the Relationship Between Self-efficacy and Resilience

      O’Neill, Ellsy; Clarke, Philip; Fido, Dean; Vione, Katia Correa; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-11-23)
      Defined as the successful adaptation to dynamic environments, resilience is considered a cornerstone of mental health. However, with the underpinnings of resilience not yet fully understood, this manuscript tests the potential contribution of self-efficacy and embeddedness on resilience (explored through validated measures of future time perspective, body awareness, and social connectedness). The convenience sample of 18-to-77-yearold adults included 297 individuals, ofwhich 36 were men and 171 were female. Participants completed online surveys composed of fifty-two questions in total, measuring self-efficacy, resilience, social connectedness, FTP, and body awareness. Resilience was positively related to self-efficacy, future time perspective, and social connectedness—but not to body awareness—and self-efficacy was positively associated with indices of embeddedness. Considering these correlations, and that only self-efficacy significantly predicted resilience, an exploratory model was proposed to test whether embeddedness directly predicted selfefficacy, and whether self-efficacy directly predicted resilience. Structural Equation Modelling suggested a good fit of this model, elucidating the interplay of psychological mechanisms underlying resilience. Thus, we identify potential variables of interest for clinical interventions aimed at increasing resilience and self-efficacy. Theoretical implications and future research are suggested based on these findings.
    • An Investigation of the Learning Motivation of Student Studying Accounting Courses in China

      Ho, Miu Hing; Fido, Dean; Simonovic, Boban; Beijing Institute of Technology, Zhuhai, China; University of Derby (EJournal Publishing, 2021-09)
      Since the 1980s, concerns within the accounting profession have asked whether the accounting curriculum aligns with evolving accounting practice and the preparation of students for working in accounting field. In recent years, the accountancy profession has played a vital role in the growth of China’s economy, and so identifying the motivation of college students to study accounting in China and their inclination to enter the accounting profession is paramount. This paper investigates the learning motivation of students studying accounting in China through the use of self-administered questionnaires. Non-probability sampling technique was used in this study. A total of 103 questionnaire responses were collected and underwent descriptive and correlation analysis. Findings indicated that undergraduate accounting students were mainly motivated by their concerns about their future career and qualification, altruism, enjoy social life, and self-exploration. These findings are consistent with the self-determined theory about self-identity as an accounting professional, and support the expectancy-value theory in the value of studying accounting to the career aspiration, and concurs with the achievement goal theory in achieving the professional qualifications and personal growth. Findings from this study have implications for helping students to understand their motivations to study accounting and their suitability of entering the accounting profession. Accounting professional bodies may also use the findings reported here to inform on member recruitment strategies, whilst facilitating education providers’ assessment of suitability for candidates to studying accounting and the design of curriculum and teaching strategies.
    • Loss and Assimilation: Lived Experiences of Brexit for British Citizens Living in Luxembourg

      Fido, Dean; knight, stephanie; Harper, Craig, A; University of Derby (Springer, 2021-10-08)
      Inconsistent political realities are associated with mental health issues such as hopelessness, anxiety, and depression. The psychological impact of Brexit is clearly an important and timely issue, but hitherto has been understudied. This study uses a critical realist approach to qualitatively explore the lived experiences of British citizens living in Luxembourg during the Brexit era. The study reports on semi-structured interviews conducted with 6 British citizens aged 18–65. An experientially focused thematic analysis was conducted, exploring two main themes: Loss (with psychological and broader social implications) and Integration (contrasting the mover’s community with the receiving community). This study demonstrates the psychological impact of Brexit and highlights the urgency for future researchers and mental health practitioners alike — both in the UK and overseas — to consider the human consequences associated with political upheaval. Open access materials for this project can be viewed here: https://osf.io/38rg7/?view_only=b8c04dfc3fe5474f9aff4897e370b3e6.
    • Personality Predictors of Yips and Choking Susceptibility

      Clarke, Philip; Sheffield, David; Akehurst, Sally; University of Derby (Frontiers Media SA, 2020-01-21)
      The ability to perform under heightened levels of pressures is one of the largest discriminators of those who achieve success in competition and those who do not. There are several phenomena associated with breakdowns in an athlete’s performance in a high-pressure environment, collectively known as paradoxical performances. The two most prevalent and researched forms of paradoxical performance are the yips and choking. The aim of the current study is to investigate a range of psychological traits (fear of negative evaluation, individual differences, anxiety sensitivity, self-consciousness, perfectionistic self-presentation, and perfectionism) and their ability to predict susceptibility to choking and the yips in an experienced athlete sample. 155 athletes (Golfers n = 86; Archers n = 69) completed six trait measures and a self-report measure of yips or choking experience. The prevalence rate for choking and yips in both archers and golfers was 67.7 and 39.4%, respectively. A 2 × 2 × 2 MANOVA and discriminant function analysis revealed that a combination of 11 variables correctly classified 71% of choking and non-choking participants. Furthermore, analysis confirmed that a combination of four variables correctly classified 69% of the yips and non-yips affected participants. In this first study to examine both paradoxical performances simultaneously, these findings revealed that for the yips, all predictors stemmed from social sources (i.e., perfectionistic self-presentation), whereas choking was associated with anxiety and perfectionism, as well as social traits. This important distinction identified here should now be tested to understand the role of these traits as development or consequential factors of choking and the yips.
    • The Development and Validation of the Successful Psychopathy Scale [Protocol]

      Wallace, Louise; Medvedev, Oleg; Fido, Dean; Sumich, Alexander, L.; Heym, Nadja; Nottingham Trent University; University of Derby; University of Waikato, Hillcrest, Hamilton, New Zealand (Concurrent Disorders Society, 2021-10-16)
      The personality construct known as ‘Successful Psychopathy’ has attracted the interests of researchers and clinicians alike. The concept suggests an individual who demonstrates the core traits associated with psychopathy but is able to adapt and function within society to prototypical or superior standards. There has yet to be a sound theoretical model of this construct by which to base a psychometric measure. This protocol presents the ethical procedure that will endeavour to create such a measure and validate it within general population samples.
    • A qualitative meta-synthesis of pregnant women's experiences of accessing and receiving treatment for opioid use disorder

      Tsuda-McCaie, Freya; Kotera, Yasuhiro; University of Derby (Wiley, 2022-01-17)
      Addressing opioid use disorder (OUD) among pregnant women is of growing importance, and substance use treatment positively impacts outcomes for mother and baby. Understanding substance use treatment experiences is important to improve access, and retention, and no review or synthesis of research addressing the treatment experiences of pregnant women exists. Approach: Thus, a qualitative meta-synthesis (QMS) was conducted, which investigated the psychological motivators and barriers of pregnant women with OUD trying to access treatment and their perceptions of treatment. Key Findings: Three thousand, eight hundred forty-four articles were retrieved from the literature search. Nine articles met eligibility criteria, were appraised, then synthesised using a comparative thematic approach. Four themes, (i) Embodied Experiences, (ii) Institutional Pressures, (iii) Social Context, and (iv) Reconstructing Selves, indicate that women with OUD are motivated to engage in treatment (a) to pursue the safety and custody of the unborn baby, and (b) to pursue and enact the changes necessary to claim 'normal' parenthood status. Pregnant women describe psychological and relational barriers to engaging in treatment, including anxieties about the baby's health, fears of authorities' involvement, stigma, and experiencing relationships with treatment providers as constrictive or invalidating. Implications: Identity Theory's concepts of identity verification, closed environments and master status identities illuminate the findings. Implications include recognising the salience of bodily experiences, providing medication assisted treatment (MAT) support groups, and promoting validating relationships in treatment using strengths-based approaches. Conclusions: Pregnant women face unique psychological challenges in accessing and engaging in substance use treatment for OUD.
    • Facilitating the planning and evaluation of narrative intervention reviews: Systematic Transparency in All Intervention Reviews (STAIR)

      Gonot-Schoupinsky, Freda; Garip, Gulcan; Sheffield, David; Independent Researcher; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2021-11-17)
      Narrative reviews offer a flexible way to report intervention results and comprise the majority of reviews published in top medical journals. However variations in their transparency pose evaluation challenges, compromising their value and potentially resulting in research wastage. Calls have been made to reduce the number of narrative reviews published. Others argue narrative reviews provide an important platform and should even be placed on an equal footing to systematic reviews. We believe narrative intervention reviews can provide a vital perspective when transparent, and thus support Systematic Transparency Assessment in Intervention Reviews (STAIR). This research evaluates the transparency of 172 health-related narrative and literature reviews (K = 172), by assessing how they communicate information about the interventions they review. Eight points supporting transparency, relating to sample sizes, traceability, article numbers, and references, were assessed. Half of the reviews reported on at least four of the eight points, but 24% reported on none. Only 56% of the reviews clearly communicated full references. The STAIR* (Sample sizes, Traceability, Article numbers, Intervention numbers, References*) checklist comprises five sections, and nine points. It is proposed as a convenient tool to address STAIR and complement existing review guidelines to assist authors in planning, reviewers in evaluating, and scholars in utilising narrative reviews. The objectives of STAIR* are to: 1) encourage narrative review transparency and readability, 2) facilitate the incorporation of narrative reviews results into other research; and 3) enrich narrative review methodology with a checklist to guide, and evaluate, intervention reviews.
    • Teach Public Health With a Sense of Humor: Why (and How to) Be a Funnier and More Effective Public Health Professor and Laugh All the Way to Your Classroom

      Gonot-Schoupinsky, Freda; Garip, Gulcan; University of Derby (The Curious Academic Publishing, 2021-11-25)
      Whether you’re a new Public Health teacher/faculty just starting out or a professor looking to use humor for your next “serious” lecture, this book is for you. This book is NOT about boring academic theories. Reading it, not only will you learn how to discover practical humor techniques and teaching strategies to dramatically improve your sense of humor, you’ll also have plenty of healthy laughs along the way. This book will help you develop techniques for leveraging humor and take action to improve your teaching immediately today. Top contributing professors in this book will answer your hundreds of questions such as: Why is humor effective in teaching healthcare topics? How to teach on-line with humor? How to address isolation brought about by on-line teaching? (Chapter 1); Why (and how to) teach improv to healthcare practitioners over Zoom? What is the ‘golden rule’ about improv? (Chapter 2); How to use humor as a pedagogical tool in public health? How make use of situations and simulation games, and twist them into humor? (Chapter 3); Is humor in health education a laughing matter? How to think from big to small to entertain and educate your students? (Chapter 4); Why (and how to) teach more effectively through the application of humor and laughter to healthcare students? How to promote creativity and enhance short-term memory? How to reduce stress? (Chapter 5); What are the types of humor and what are the strategies for using humor? How to avoid bad humor? (Chapter 6); What is the (natural) link between humor and healthcare? What are the technical tips to use humor more effectively? (Chapter 7); How to teach students the use of humor with traumatized individuals? (Chapter 8); What are the little-known tips about writing jokes for your class? (Chapter 9); Exactly how to teach with a sense of humor? What humor techniques to use in the class and how? (Chapter 10); Why and laughter helps learning? How to use comedy in the classroom? How to use online humor? (Chapter 11); What is your own sense of humor? Can you translate this sense of humor to engage your audience? How to “keep it simply simple”? (Chapter 12); Exactly how to use humor techniques such as funny quotes, definitions, and abbreviations to infuse humor into your writing and presentation or lecture. (Chapter 13). If you want to minimize the teacher burnout and improve your teaching effectiveness, you could hire a bunch of professional development consultants – or you could just read this book.
    • The Effect of Self-Compassion on Job Burnout and Hours Worked in Employees’ Working from Home

      Cotterill, Matthew; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Garip, Gulcan; University of Derby (Concurrent Disorders Society, 2021-08-10)
      Working from home (WFH) has been associated with increased levels of job burnout; a psycho-physiological outcome of experiencing intense or extended periods of work-related stress. Individuals with higher levels of self-compassion have been shown to mitigate the effects of stress by reducing the negative affect associated with stressful situations. The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of self-compassion on job burnout and number of working hours in full time employees WFH. Fifty-eight full time WFH participants (37 females, 21 males; age M = 34, SD = 8 years) completed online self-report questionnaires. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that SC did not predict job burnout and number of working hours for this sample of WFH employees. The obtained evidence suggests that self-compassion was not enough to mitigate job burnout or number of working hours, therefore employers should not rely on employees to manage workloads and hours effectively but assist in developing schedules to reduce the negative impact of job burnout on their mental health.
    • A spotlight on acceptance and commitment therapy

      Ducasse, Déborah; Van Gordon, William; Courtet, Philippe; University of Derby (Edizioni Minerva Medica, 2021-09-28)
      There is increasing scientific interest into third-wave cognitive behavioral therapies, which include a range of interventions advocating awareness of both oneself and the present moment. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is one such third-wave therapeutic modality, which employs a “self as context” framework. ACT aims at changing the relationship to one’s sensorial and automatic psychological events, leading to decreased experiential avoidance. However, there is a lack of awareness as to the range of health conditions for which empirical findings appear to support the therapeutic delivery of ACT. There also exists some confusion in terms of the key Eastern contemplative principles that underlie the conceptual and therapeutic framework of ACT. Consequently, the present paper briefly outlines the key conceptual and therapeutic principles that ACT embodies, provides a high-level map of current directions in ACT treatment research, and discusses challenges and future directions. ACT appears to be an effective treatment for a range of psychological and somatic disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and chronic pain. However, further studies using randomized controlled trial designs are required to better understand the other health conditions for which ACT is likely to be an effective treatment. Furthermore, there is a need for greater understanding as to the most appropriate means by which ancient contemplative principles should be integrated into ACT approaches, as well as other therapeutic modalities likely to be compatible with the ACT approach.
    • Contemplative Psychology: History, Key Assumptions, and Future Directions

      Van Gordon, William; Sapthiang, Supakyada; Shonin, Edo; University of Derby; Awake to Wisdom Centre for Meditation and Mindfulness Research (SAGE Publications, 2021-06-29)
      Contemplative psychology is concerned with the psychological study of contemplative processes and practices, such as meditation, mindfulness, yoga, introspection, reflection, metacognition, self-regulation, self-awareness, and self-consciousness. Although contemplative psychology borders with other psychological and nonpsychological disciplines, some of its underlying assumptions distinguish it from other remits of psychological and scholarly inquiry, as do its component areas of empirical focus, conceptual nuances, and challenges. Furthermore, the discipline has tended to be somewhat disparate in its approach to investigating the core techniques and principles of which it is composed, resulting in a need for greater intradisciplinary and interdisciplinary awareness of the commonalities and differences of core contemplative psychology attributes. As a remedy to these issues, in this article, we adopt a whole-discipline perspective and aim to explicate contemplative psychology’s history, breadth, key assumptions, challenges, and future directions.
    • A Novel Mindful Nature Connectedness Intervention Improves Paranoia but Not Anxiety in a Nonclinical Population

      Muneghina, Orso; Van Gordon, William; Barrows, Paul; Richardson, Miles; University of Derby (Mary Ann Liebert Inc, 2021-09-03)
      Paranoia and anxiety are both recognized as experiences that are widespread in the general population. Studies have investigated the use of brief mindfulness-based interventions on both conditions, with encouraging results among nonclinical populations in particular. However, there is also promising evidence for the effectiveness of brief nature connectedness interventions on anxiety and mental health more generally. Since mindfulness has been shown to allow individuals to feel more connected to nature, and given that connection to natural environments can foster mindfulness and mental health, this study aimed to investigate the combined effects of a brief online mindful nature connectedness intervention (B-MNCI) on paranoia and anxiety. A total of 72 participants of nonclinical status were randomly allocated to either an online B-MNCI (10 min of daily guided meditation practice over 5 consecutive days) or a waitlist control group. Measures of paranoia, anxiety, mindfulness, and nature connectedness were taken at baseline, immediately after the intervention, and at 2 weeks follow-up. Findings indicated that compared with the control group, the B-MNCI showed significant improvements in nature connectedness and paranoia, with changes maintained at follow-up assessment. However, no significant differences were observed for anxiety and mindfulness scores. The results provide a new approach to bringing about sustained increases in nature connectedness and confirm the relevance of such approaches for improving mental health outcomes. The study also demonstrates the potential utility of an online B-MNCI for people of nonclinical status experiencing paranoia symptoms, including for those who find it difficult to physically venture into nature.
    • Mindful parenting: future directions and challenges

      Cowling, Carly; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby (Informa UK Limited, 2021-08-20)
      Mindful parenting teaches parents to focus awareness on their thoughts, feelings and behaviours, as well as pay attention to their children in an intentional, present-centered and non-judgmental manner. Mindfulness appears to improve the quality of parenting and the parent–child relationship, as well as enhance children’s and parents' levels of resilience and psychological functioning. However, an understanding of the processes and techniques underpinning effective mindful parenting remains constrained due to methodological limitations. These limitations include an over reliance on non-experimental designs, uncontrolled studies, self-report assessments, small sample sizes mostly comprising mothers, and uncertainty with regards to the definitions and meanings of certain concepts and protocols for mindful parenting interventions. In order to examine the effectiveness of mindful parenting interventions, standards need to be established which define the meaning of mindful parenting and identify the correlates, determinants and mechanisms of change in mindful parenting over time, in order to determine modifiable factors so that interventions can be appropriately targeted to vulnerable populations. This paper discusses some of the latest research developments in mindful parenting, provides recommendations for effective mindfulness practice from a parenting context and discusses key future challenges affecting this area of mindfulness research and practice.
    • The Covid-19 Pandemic as an Opportunity for Positive Psychology to Promote a Wider-Ranging Definition of Humour and Laughter

      Gonot-Schoupinsky, Freda; Garip, Gülcan; Independent Researcher, Monte Carlo, Monaco; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan/ Springer, 2021-09-17)
      Traditionally, positive psychology (PP) considers humour as one of 24 character strengths and associates it with the core virtue of transcendence, a view perpetuated in Second Wave PP. We debate the need for a wider conceptualisation of humour and a more pragmatic recognition of its benefits and applications within the framework of Third Wave PP. Anecdotal and observational findings relating to the use of humour during the Covid-19 pandemic are considered. We draw on empirical research revealing the diverse benefits of humour and laughter in different cultural settings, including during lockdown. Using examples, including Covid-19 humour, we contend that the depiction of beneficial humour in PP is incomplete, for example, it relates not only to transcendence but to all six core virtues, and misleading as it may not necessarily relate to any. A more practical and broader depiction of humour within Third Wave PP would be helpful, including emphasising the potential of multiple character strengths to support humour development. In particular, we highlight the need for laughter, currently viewed as a by-product of humour within PP, to play a more prominent role. Widening the portrayal of humour and laughter in PP will be helpful to value and harness their individual, and joint, benefits and applications. In this chapter, we call for Third Wave PP to encourage new research directions by embracing the complexity of humour as 1) an interlinked character strength; 2) associated to all core virtues; 3) benefitting overall personal development; and 4) differentiated from but co-equal to laughter.
    • Motivation of UK graduate students in education: Self-compassion moderates pathway from extrinsic motivation to intrinsic motivation

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Taylor, Elaina; Fido, Dean; Williams, Dan; Tsuda-McCaie, Freya; University of Derby (Springer, 2021-09-22)
      Academic motivation is recognised as a key factor for academic success and wellbeing. Highly motivated students actively engage with academic activities and maintain higher levels of wellbeing. Despite the importance of motivation in education, its relationship with engagement and wellbeing remains to be evaluated. Accordingly, this study explored the relationships between motivation, engagement, self-criticism and selfcompassion among UK education postgraduate students. Of 120 postgraduate students approached, 109 completed three self-report scales regarding those constructs. Correlation, regression and moderation analyses were performed. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation were positively associated with engagement, whereas amotivation was negatively associated with it. Engagement positively predicted intrinsic motivation. Self-criticism and self-compassion moderated the pathway from extrinsic motivation to intrinsic motivation: higher self-criticism weakened the pathway, while higher selfcompassion strengthened it. Findings suggest the importance of engagement in relation to cultivating intrinsic motivation of education students. Moreover, enhancing selfcompassion and reducing self-criticism can help transfer extrinsic to intrinsic motivation.