• The development of fears of compassion scale Japanese version.

      Asano, Kenichi; Tsuchiya, Masao; Ishimura, Ikuo; Lin, Shuzhen; Matsumoto, Yuki; Miyata, Haruko; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Eiji; Gilbert, Paul; Chiba University; et al. (Public Library of Science (PLOS), 2017-10-12)
      Objectives Cultivation of compassion is a useful way to treat mental problems, but some individuals show resistance. Fears of compassion can be an obstacle for clinicians when providing psychotherapy, and for clients when engaging in interpersonal relationships. Despite its importance, a Japanese version of fears of compassion scales (for others, from others, and for self) has not yet been developed. This study developed a Japanese version of the Fears of Compassion Scales and tested its reliability and validity. Design This study used a cross-sectional design, and a self-report procedure for collecting data. Methods A total of 485 students (121 males and 364 females) answered self-report questionnaires, including the draft Fears of Compassion Scales—Japanese version. Results There were distinctive factor structures for fear of compassion from others, and for self. The fear of compassion from others scale consisted of concern about compassion from others and avoidance of compassion from others. All scales had good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, face validity, and construct validity. Discrimination and difficulty were also calculated. Conclusions These results indicate that the Fears of Compassion Scales—Japanese version is a well-constructed and useful measure to assess fears of compassion and the existence of cultural differences in fears of compassion.
    • Self-criticism and self-reassurance as mediators between mental health attitudes and symptoms: Attitudes towards mental health problems in Japanese workers.

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Gilbert, Paul; Asano, Kenichi; Ishimura, Ikuo; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Wiley, 2018-12-13)
      Japanese workers suffer high rates of mental health symptoms, recognised recently by the Japanese government, which has enacted workplace well-being initiatives. One reason for poor mental health concerns negative attitudes about mental health problems such as shame, which may be mediated by self-reassurance and self-criticism. This study aimed to evaluate shame-based attitudes towards mental health problems, and explore the relationship between mental health attitudes, self-criticism, self-reassurance and mental health symptoms. Japanese workers (n=131) completed three measures; attitudes towards mental health problems, mental health symptoms, and self-criticism/reassurance. A high proportion of workers reported negative attitudes about mental health problems. There were strong relationships between mental health attitudes, mental health symptoms, self-criticism, and self-reassurance. Path analyses revealed that the total and indirect effects (through self-criticism and self- reassurance) of mental health attitudes on mental health were larger than the direct effect alone. Hated-self and family-reflected shame were identified as predictors for mental health symptoms. The findings suggest the importance of self-criticism and self-reassurance in mental health and mental health attitudes. Implications for help-seeking behaviours are also discussed. Interventions aimed at reducing self-criticism and enhancing self-reassurance are recommended to improve mental health attitudes and increase help-seeking in Japanese workers.