• Mental health of UK hospitality Workers: Shame, self-criticism and self-reassurance

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Adhikari, Prateek; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2020-02-05)
      This study aimed to evaluate shame for mental health problems, and explore relationships between shame, self-criticism, self-reassurance, and mental health among UK hospitality workers, because this group of workers suffer from poor mental health yet report strong shame. An opportunity sample of 114 UK hospitality workers completed measures examining shame for mental health problems, self-criticism, self-reassurance, and mental health problems. A high proportion of workers scored over the midpoint in almost all the shame subscales. Shame, self-criticism, self-reassurance, and mental health were related to one another. External shame and self-criticism were positive predictors, and self-reassurance was a negative predictor for mental health problems. While self-criticism moderated the relationship between shame and mental health problems, self-reassurance did not. Online compassion training was recommended as it can reduce self-criticism and shame, can be undertaken without colleagues knowing and tailored to specific work patterns.
    • Motivation types and mental health of UK hospitality workers.

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Adhikari, Prateek; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby (Springer, 2018-01-30)
      The primary purposes of this study were to (i) assess levels of different types of work motivation in a sample of UK hospitality workers and make a cross-cultural comparison with Chinese counterparts and (ii) identify how work motivation and shame-based attitudes towards mental health explain the variance in mental health problems in UK hospitality workers. One hundred three UK hospitality workers completed self-report measures, and correlation and multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify significant relationships. Findings demonstrate that internal and external motivation levels were higher in UK versus Chinese hospitality workers. Furthermore, external motivation was more significantly associated with shame and mental health problems compared to internal motivation. Motivation accounted for 34–50% of mental health problems. This is the first study to explore the relationship between motivation, shame, and mental health in UK hospitality workers. Findings suggest that augmenting internal motivation may be a novel means of addressing mental health problems in this worker population.
    • Relationship between types of work motivation and worker profile in UK hospitality workers.

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Adhikari, Prateek; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby (Global Academic Excellence, 2017-12-02)
      Objectives The UK hospitality industry employs more than two million workers and accounts for 7% of the country’s workforce. However, despite the number of people employed, work-related mental health issues are a cause for concern in this worker population. While our previous research in UK hospitality workers identified that work motivation was a predictor of mental health, the relationship between types of work motivation and worker profile (e.g. demography, work experience, position) has not been explored to date. This study aimed to i) identify the primary type of work motivation, and ii) explore relationships between worker profile and types of work motivation in UK hospitality workers. Methodology 103 UK hospitality workers completed a worker profile questionnaire and work motivation measure. Descriptive statistics were yielded to compare each type of motivation, and correlation analyses were conducted between worker profile and motivation type. Findings Levels of internal motivation were found to be significantly higher than external motivation. Male and longer time served in the industry were associated with amotivation, the lowest form of external motivation. A higher position in the organisation was associated with external regulation, the second lowest form of external motivation. Future research Research evaluating the effectiveness of interventions to enhance intrinsic motivation, particularly among male experienced workers or managers/owners is warranted. Furthermore, male hospitality workers’ high levels of external motivation may highlight the UK’s strong masculine culture as described in Hofstede’s cultural dimension theory. This echoes with our previous research finding that shame concerning mental health issues is a problem among UK hospitality workers. Cross-cultural comparisons of work motivation and mental health would be an important future direction to help place these findings in a global context.
    • The relationship between work motivation and worker profile in UK hospitality workers.

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Adhikari, Prateek; Van Gordon, William; University of Derby (Global Academic Excellence, 2018-01-04)
      While the UK hospitality industry is growing faster than the economy, mental health problems are a serious concern in this worker population. Our previous research identified that work motivation accounted for a significant variance in mental health, however, the relationship between types of work motivation and worker profile has not been explored to date. Therefore, this study aimed to i) identify the primary type of work motivation, and ii) explore relationships between types of work motivation and worker profile in UK hospitality workers. UK hospitality workers (n=103) completed a worker profile questionnaire and work motivation measure. Their internal motivation was significantly higher than external motivation. Male and longer industry experience were associated with amotivation, the lowest type of motivation. A higher position in the organisation was associated with external regulation, the second lowest type of motivation. Intervention research for intrinsic motivation, particularly among male experienced workers or managers/owners is warranted. Considering their low wages, the high levels of internal motivation may be explained by the ‘psychological justification’ strategies. Furthermore, male hospitality workers’ high levels of external motivation may highlight the UK’s strong masculine culture as described in Hofstede’s cultural dimension theory. Likewise, highly positioned workers' high levels of external motivation may relate to the UK's low power distance in the same theory. Cross-cultural comparisons of work motivation and mental health (e.g., with the high feminine Dutch culture and/or the high power distant Malaysian culture) would be an important future direction to help place these findings in a global context.