• Congestion prediction for smart sustainable cities using IoT and machine learning approaches

      Majumdar, Sharmila; Subhani, Moeez M.; Roullier, Benjamin; Anjum, Ashiq; Zhu, Rongbo; University of Derby; University of Leicester; South Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan, China (Elsevier BV, 2020-09-25)
      Congestion on road networks has a negative impact on sustainability in many cities through the exacerbation of air pollution. Smart congestion management allows road users to avoid congested areas, decreasing pollutant concentration. Accurately predicting congestion propagation is difficult however, due to the dynamic non-linear behavior of traffic flow. With the rise of Internet of Things devices, there are now data sets available that can be used to provide smart, sustainable transport solutions within cities. In this work, we introduce long short-term memory networks for the prediction of congestion propagation across a road network. Based on vehicle speed data from traffic sensors at two sites, our model predicts the propagation of congestion across a 5-min period within a busy town. Analysis of both univariate and multivariate predictive models show an accuracy of 84–95% depending on the road layout. This accuracy shows that long short-term memory networks are suitable for predicting congestion propagation on road networks and may form a key component of future traffic modelling approaches for smart and sustainable cities around the world.
    • Gender and bank lending after the global financial crisis: are women entrepreneurs safer bets?

      Cowling, Marc; Marlow, Susan; Liu, Weixi; University of Derby; University of Bath (Springer, 2019-04-13)
      Using gender as a theoretical framework, we analyse the dynamics of bank lending to small- and medium-sized enterprises (SME) in the aftermath of the 2008 global financial crisis. Using six waves of the SME Finance Monitor survey, we apply a formal Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition to test whether gender impacts upon the supply and demand for debt finance by women. Reflecting established evidence, we found women had a lower demand for bank loans; contradicting accepted wisdom however, we found that women who did apply were more likely to be successful. We argue that feminised risk aversion might inform more conservative applications during a period of financial uncertainty which may be beneficial for women in terms of gaining loans. However, we also uncover more subtle evidence suggesting that bank decisions may differ for women who may be unfairly treated in terms of collateral but regarded more positively when holding large cash balances.
    • Is there a trade-off between accrual-based and real earnings management activities in the presence of (fe) male auditors?

      Owusu, Andrews; Mansour Zalata, Alaa; Omoteso, Kamil; Elamer, Ahmed A; University of Coventry; University of Southampton; University of Derby; Brunel University London (Springer, 2020-11-13)
      Prior research suggests that the presence of high quality auditors (i.e. proxied by audit firm characteristics) constrains accrual-based earnings management, but it inadvertently leads to higher real activities manipulation. We investigate whether such trade-off exists between accrual-based and real earnings management activities in the presence of female or male auditors. We use a sample of UK firms for the period 2009 to 2016 and find that firms audited by female auditors do not resort to a higher level real activities manipulation when their ability to engage in accruals management is constrained. Overall, our results suggest that the benefits of hiring female auditors (i.e. less accrual-based earnings management) are overwhelmingly higher than the costs they might bring to the client firms (i.e. higher real activities manipulation).
    • Did you save some cash for a rainy COVID-19 day? The crisis and SMEs

      Cowling, Marc; Brown, Ross; Rocha, Augusto; University of Derby; University of St Andrews (SAGE, 2020-08-04)
      As COVID-19 spreads across the globe, a common public policy response has been to enforce the temporary closure of non-essential business activity. In some countries, governments have underwritten a proportion of the wage income for staff forced to furlough or broadened their welfare systems to accommodate newly laid off workers or small business owners. While these actions are helpful, they do not explicitly address the lack of sales trading activity on business income and cash balances. In commentary, we identify what types of businesses have been increasing their cash holdings in the lead up to COVID-19 as an indication of what types of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are most at risk if the lockdown extends for a protracted period of time. We find that only 39% of the of businesses were bolstering their cash balances leading up to COVID-19 which suggests that 61% of businesses may run out of cash, including 8.6% that had no retained earnings whatsoever with micro firms at particular risk. The importance of precautionary saving for SMEs is critical to enhance resilience when Black Swan events occur.
    • The snowballing penalty effect: Multiple disadvantage and pay

      Woodhams, Carol; Lutpon, Ben; Cowling, Marc; University of Exeter; Manchester Metropolitan University (Wiley, 2013-06-26)
      This paper makes the case that the current single-axis approach to the diagnosis and remedy of pay discrimination is inadequate in the case of multiple disadvantage. While a good deal is known about pay gaps, particularly those affecting women, less is known about those affecting people in other disadvantaged groups and those in more than one such group. This analysis of multiple years of pay data, n = 513,000, from a large UK-based company shows that people with more than one disadvantaged identity suffer a significantly greater pay penalty than those with a single disadvantage. The data also suggest that penalties associated with multiple disadvantage exponentially increase. In other words, disadvantages seem to interact to the detriment of people at ‘intersections’. The paper considers the implications for policies aimed at reducing pay inequalities. These currently take a single-axis approach and may be misdirected.
    • Link between Islamic business and Wasta

      Ali, Sa'ad; University of Worcester (Winterwork, 2020-10-01)
      We can learn the falah economy concept – a well-being-oriented economy – from Islamic business. This goal has been around far longer than the sustainability debate, which started with the Brundtland Report in 1987. The falah economy also predates the Sustainable Development Goals by many centuries. These goals were announced in 2015 and adopted by all the United Nations‘ member states as a universal call to action to improve the environment and society by 2030. This book invites the reader on a journey of discovery of the key pillars of Islamic business, detailing its concepts and outlining how they impact corporate functions, such as finance, marketing, and human resources, while also shedding light on corporate behaviours with regard to, for example, contracts and charitable activities.
    • LDBG loan and grant funding recipients

      Cowling, Marc; Nadeem, Simon Peter; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2019-12-11)
    • A study of Chinese policy attention on cybersecurity

      Li, Zhengrong; Guo, Xi; He, Qile; Inner Mongolia University; University of Derby (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2020-10-20)
      The rising number of cyber-attacks and cyber-criminals around the world has put major threats on the cyber-security and even the national security of many countries. In response, governments started to introduce policies and regulations to improve cyber-security. It is increasingly realized that the effective cyber-security policy making largely depends upon optimized policy attention and the effective use of public resources. This paper draws on the “attention-driven policy choice model” and the Punctuated Equilibrium Theory (PET) to analyse the relationship between policy attention allocation, policy agenda setting and the choice of policy tools in different periods of cyber-security development. Using Chinese cyber-security development as the main context, content analysis of policy texts was conducted to examine the pathway of cyber-security policy development in China between 1994 and 2019. The findings suggest that there is evidence for punctuated equilibrium with policy stagnation and incrementality being broken up by major events which shifts policy attention and subsequently affects agenda setting and the choice of policy tools. The findings of this paper will provide important implications for the development of strategic foresight of cyber-security and the effective use of public resources to improve cyber-security.
    • Promoting effectiveness of “working from home”: findings from Hong Kong working population under COVID-19

      Wong, A. H. K.; Cheung, J. O.; Chen, Z.; Lingnan University, Tuen Mun, Hong Kong; University of Derby (Emerald Publishing, 2020-10-26)
      Working-from-home (WFH) practice has been adopted by many companies of a variety of industries in a diverse manner; however, it is not until the recent outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic WFH gains worldwide popularity. With so many different views out there and based on work–family balance theory, this study aims to find out the factors which affect peoples' WFH effectiveness and whether they want the extended WFH practice when the pandemic crisis is over. This paper adopted an online survey approach by posting questionnaires on the university website and different social media channels to collect views from full-time Hong Kong workers who have had WFH experience during the coronavirus outbreak. A total of 1,976 effective responses were collected for the data analysis. The findings of this study indicate that WFH effectiveness is improved by personal and family well-being but reduced by environmental and resource constraints. When workers are experiencing higher WFH effectiveness, they have a higher preference for WFH even after the pandemic; the female workers preferred WFH twice per week, while the male workers more often preferred WFH once per week. Finally, workers from the management and the self-employed levels demonstrated a lower preference for WFH, compared to the front-line and middle-grade workers. This paper fulfils to provide a timely reflection on workers' post-pandemic WFH preference, the factors affecting their WFH effectiveness and the demographic differences inducing to the differentiated preferences.
    • Developing a new multidimensional model for selecting strategic plans in balanced scorecard

      Daniel, Jay; Merigó, JM; University of Derby; University of Technology Sydney; University of Chile (IOS Press, 2020-08-11)
      The main motivation of this research is to develop an innovative multidimensional model through multi attribute decision making (MADM) methods for strategic plans selection process in the Balanced Scorecard (BSC). The current study has adopted MADM analytical methods including AHP, ELECTRE, BORDA, TOPSIS and SAW to rank the initiatives / strategic plans in BSC. Then the results of those methods have been compared against each other in order to find a robust model for selecting strategic plans. The correlation coefficient between methods has indicated that multidimensional and ELECTRE methods with 0.944 are the best and AHP with negative correlation (–0.455) is the worst method for selecting strategic plans in BSC. It has shown that the model can be useful and effective tool to finding the critical aspects of evaluation criteria as well as the gaps to improve company’s performance for achieving desired level. Developing multidimensional model is the core model for the selection of strategic plans. This study addresses the problem and issues of group decision making process for selecting strategic plans in BSC. It has numerous contributions that particularly includes; 1) Determination of the explicit criteria sub-criteria and criteria to improve ranking strategic plans in BSC, 2) Adopting MADM analytical methods including AHP, ELECTRE, BORDA, TOPSIS and SAW for the selection of strategic plans decision problem in BSC, 3) Developing multidimensional model to address the selection of strategic plans problems in BSC. The proposed model will provide an approach to facilitate strategic plans decision problem in BSC.
    • Can Facebook improve students’ engagement in flipped classes? Community of inquiry approach

      Talaei-Khoei, Amir; Daniel, Jay; Dokhanchi, Mohsen; University of Nevada; University of Derby; University of Queensland (HICSS, 2020-01-07)
      This paper aims at using Facebook to improve the students’ engagements with the flipped learning materials through implementation of a socially enabled peer learning environment. The article reports an experiment comparing the online quizzes and Facebook to increase the students’ engagement with the online materials in flipped classes. The study looks at the students’ perceptions. The current study utilizes the Community of Inquiry (RCOI) to analyze the students’ opinions about using Facebook for implementation of flipped learning. The paper provides recommendations to the instructors on how to use Facebook for increasing the students’ engagement with the flipped materials. This study also motivates teaching practitioners in Information Systems to improve flipped learning by using social networking sites in their courses.
    • Developing a conceptual model to evaluate green suppliers: Decision making method using DEMATEL

      Daniel, Jay; Talaei-Khoei, Amir; University of Technology Sydney (AIS Electronic Library (AISeL), 2016-01-01)
      Nowadays stakeholder pressure and public awareness have been raised against companies‟ environmental impacts, so green supply chain management (GSCM) seems vital for companies‟ environmental compliance and business growth. Companies continuously seek novel ideas and methods enabling them to obtain and/or maintain environmental sustainability. Greening the supply chain is one of such innovative idea involving all of the business value-adding operations, comprising purchasing and in-bound logistics, production and manufacturing, distribution, out-bound logistics and collaboration with patrons and suppliers in a way that has the least negative environmental effect. The main objective of the present study is finding interrelationship between green supplier criteria. For this to happen, we investigated experts‟ opinions through nominal group technique (NGT) to find out the interrelationship and causal preferences of the green supplier evaluation aspects using Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) method. A numerical example demonstrates the application of the proposed model.
    • Peer tutoring on Facebook to engage students with flipped classes: A correlational experiment on learning outcomes

      Talaei-Khoei, Amir; Daniel, Jay; University of Technology Sydney (AIS Electronic Library (AISeL), 2016)
      This paper aims to demonstrate the potentials of using Facebook to improve the students’ engagements with the flipped learning materials through implementation of socially enabled peer learning. The article looks at comparing the correlations between the learning outcomes with online quizzes as well as with the Facebook engagement of students. The findings show that although the learning outcomes are correlated with the both of these two interventions, the students’ engagement on Facebook has a stronger correlation with the learning outcomes in the flipped classes. The study also reports the lessons learned in deploying Facebook groups to implement peer learning in flipped classes. The results have been discussed in the lens of Theory of Peer Learning and the future avenues of research have been suggested. This study also motivates teaching practitioners in Information Systems to improve flipped learning by the use of social networking sites in their courses.
    • Sustainable supply chain analytics: Grand challenges and future opportunities

      Taghikhah, Firouzeh; Daniel, Jay; Mooney, Grant; University of Technology Sydney (AIS Electronic Library (AISeL), 2017)
      Over the last few years, the pressure for decreasing environmental and social footprints has motivated supply chain organizations to significantly progress sustainability initiatives. Since supply chains have implemented sustainability strategies, the volume of economic, environmental and social data has rapidly increased. Dealing with this data, business analytics has already shown its capability for improving supply chain monetary performance. However, there is limited knowledge about how business analytics can be best leveraged to grow social, environmental and financial performance simultaneously. Therefore, in reviewing the literature around sustainable supply chain, this research seeks to further illuminate the role business analytics plays in addressing this issue. A literature survey methodology is outlined, scrutinizing key papers published between 2012 and 2016 in the research fields of Information/Computing Science, Business and Supply Chain Management. From examination of 311 journal papers, 39 were selected as meeting defined criteria for further categorization into three distinct research groups including: (a) sustainable supply chain configuration; (b) sustainable supply chain implementation; (c) sustainable supply chain evaluation. The issues involved within each grouping are identified and the business analytics processes (i.e. prescriptive, predictive, prescriptive analytics) to specifically address them are discussed. This wide-ranging review of sustainable supply chain analytics can assist both scholars and practitioners to better appreciate the current grand challenges and future research opportunities posed by this area
    • Profit, planet and people in supply chain: grand challenges and future opportunities

      Taghikhah, Firouzeh; Daniel, Jay; Mooney, Grant; University of Technology Sydney (AIS Electronic Library (AISeL), 2017)
      Recent pressure from governments and customers on supply chain organizations to consider environmental and social issues has increased dramatically. The challenge ahead for supply chain managers is how to grow business profit while protecting the planet and respecting people’s rights. The significance of this issue motivates researchers in the fields of “sustainability” and “supply chain” to further integrate these concepts. To identify affected areas, and how sustainability influences them, this research has employed a literature survey of related papers published between 2012 and 2016 within 16 A* indexed journals that are relevant to Information and Computing Science, Transportation/Freight Services and Manufacturing Engineering. Findings show that sustainable supply chain network structure, impact factors, relationship integration and performance evaluation are the main research topics in these streams. The role of decision-making tools within each discipline, the key methodologies and techniques are discussed. Generally speaking, primary challenges in the sustainable supply chain domain devolve from use of inadequate decision-making tools and inappropriate information systems. The holistic picture presented in this paper is important for helping scholars, system developers, and supply chain analysts to become more aware of current grand challenges and future research opportunities within this field.
    • Use of lean robotic communication to improve social response of children with autism

      Talaei-Khoei, Amir; Lewis, Lundy; Kaul, Mala; Daniel, Jay; Sharma, Rajeev; University of Nevada; Southern New Hampshire University; University of Derby; University of Waikato (Association for Information Systems, 2017-01-01)
      In light of inconclusive results reported in the literature on the benefits of using robots to foster social skills in autistic children, this paper assesses the use of robots with no facial expressions to create basic structured communication with autistic children. We address the complexity of communication when autistic children cannot understand the unintentional facial expressions of human instructors in training sessions. The paper reports 19 training sessions of a mild autistic child interacting with a humanoid robot with approximate duration of 20 minutes each. It was observed that during these 19 sessions, the child improved his responses to the directives given by the robot. The paper discusses the results in terms of the implications for professionals in the field. Further, the study serves as a proof of concept for future contributions to media richness theory.
    • When do frontline hospitality employees take charge? Prosocial motivation, taking charge, and job performance: the moderating role of job autonomy

      Cai, Z.; Huo, Y.; Lan, J.; Chen, Z.; Lam, W.; City University of Hong Kong; University of Surrey; Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong, PR China; City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, PR China; The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, PR China (SAGE, 2018-09-04)
      This study draws on trait activation theory to examine the effects of frontline hospitality employees’ prosocial motivation on their taking charge and job performance and how job autonomy moderates these effects. We collected data in two stages from 185 pairs of frontline hospitality employees and their direct supervisors, and we found a positive relationship between employees’ prosocial motivation and their taking charge. In addition, job autonomy strengthened this positive relationship, and taking charge mediated the interactive effect of prosocial motivation and job autonomy on job performance. These results suggest that when frontline hospitality employees perceive their level of job autonomy to be high enough to activate their expression of prosocial motivation, they will be more likely to engage in taking charge, which should lead to a higher evaluation of their job performance. Theoretical and practical implications for hospitality industry were discussed at the end of the article.
    • Sustainability adoption through sustainable human resource management: a systematic literature review and conceptual framework

      Kumar, Anil; Bhaskar, Preeti; Nadeem, Simon Peter; Tyagi, Mrinal; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; London Metropolitan University; Ibra College of Technology, Oman; University of Derby (IJMEMS, 2020-09)
      Sustainability is a key aspiration of most businesses as they face pressure from regulatory authorities as well as consumer demand for sustainable products. Sustainability discussion often revolves around the areas of raw materials, product and process design and innovation. However, the role of human resources is least discussed in this regard. This research utilises a systematic literature review approach to explores the concept of Sustainable Human Resource Management (SHRM) and identifies the indicators, drivers, barriers, and benefits of SHRM adoption. Based on the findings, an integrated conceptual framework that can be utilised by organisations for developing a long-lasting sustainability adoption through SHRM is proposed.
    • Did removing prudence from the Conceptual Framework impact accounting conservatism?

      Conway, Elaine; University of Derby (Inderscience, 2020-04-24)
      The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) removed explicit reference to the concept of prudence within the Conceptual Framework (CF) with effect from September 2010. This paper examines whether practitioner concerns that the removal of prudence might lead to a decrease in accounting conservatism and an increase in earnings management or overstated results were justified. It takes a sample of firms from the UK FTSE350, Australian ASX 300 and the South African JALSH (Johannesburg All Share) and evaluates three popular measures of accounting conservatism over the fourteen-year period of 2003-2016 (seven years pre and post the removal of prudence from the CF). The measures of accounting conservatism used were asymmetric timeliness of earnings, market-to-book ratio and total/non-operating accruals. Using all three measures, there was no evidence that the level of accounting conservatism has reduced during the period following the removal of prudence in the CF in those countries using IFRS. Despite this, the debate around prudence has continued and the IASB has since decided to reinstate it in the 2018 revised CF, effective 1 January 2020.
    • Entrepreneurial marketing and digital political communication – a citizen-led perspective on the role of social media in political discourse

      Amoncar, Nihar; University of Derby (Emerald, 2020-10-14)
      The paper intends to explore the role and function of citizen-led social media forums in the marketing of political discourse. Using the Entrepreneurial marketing perspective of ‘co-creation of value’, this paper explores the manner in which consumers of political communications in a specific region have created user generated value via setting up Facebook forums to manage the risk created by fake news and the trust deficit between citizens and mainstream media. The paper adopts a ‘netnographic’ approach to investigation and the data is analysed manual coding (Kozinets, 2015). Facebook groups form the virtual research field in in the context of this study. This approach is adopted because in a social media environment, netnography capitalizes over a growing virtual and online communities and allows researchers to study the richness of these online communities (Mkono and Markwell, 2014). The study provides insights on how administrators and moderators of Facebook groups create value for other users by identifying and communicating the risks emerging from Social media based political communication. The study finds that such citizen-led initiatives act as online social aggregators. The value that such groups offer its users/members resides within a well-bound, controlled and moderated online medium that encourages users to counter fake news and misinformation - thereby solving a key problem within the user market i.e. citizen-media trust deficit. The study utilizes a qualitative, netnographic approach and the emerging insights cannot be generalised. The emergent findings are specific to the context of this study and researchers are encouraged to further test the propositions emerging from this research in varied contexts. The study extends the application of Entrepreneurial marketing in political contexts using the seven dimensions of Entrepreneurial marketing which will provide impetus for future political campaigns in terms of unique value creation for publics. The paper also emerges with the role citizen-initiated forums can play in the effective dissemination of digital political communication as user generated content is aiding political debate. The paper takes initiative in investigating the use of Social media in Politics from the citizens perspective, which is comparatively marginalised against the number of studies taking place which investigate the Political party end use of Social media for Political marketing.