• Access to bank finance for UK SMEs in the wake of the recent financial crisis

      Cowling, M; Liu, W; Zhang, N.; University of Brighton (Emerald, 05/09/2016)
      The purpose of this paper is to investigate how entrepreneurs demand for external finance changed as the economy continued to be mired in its third and fourth years of the global financial crisis (GFC) and whether or not external finance has become more difficult to access as the recession progressed. Using a large-scale survey data on over 30,000 UK small- and medium-sized enterprises between July 2011 and March 2013, the authors estimate a series of conditional probit models to empirically test the determinants of the supply of, and demand for external finance. Older firms and those with a higher risk rating, and a record of financial delinquency, were more likely to have a demand for external finance. The opposite was true for women-led businesses and firms with positive profits. In general finance was more readily available to older firms post-GFC, but banks were very unwilling to advance money to firms with a high-risk rating or a record of any financial delinquency. It is estimated that a maximum of 42,000 smaller firms were denied credit, which was significantly lower than the peak of 119,000 during the financial crisis. This paper provides timely evidence that adds to the general understanding of what really happens in the market for small business financing three to five years into an economic downturn and in the early post-GFC period, from both a demand and supply perspective. This will enable the authors to consider what the potential impacts of credit rationing on the small business sector are and also identify areas where government action might be appropriate.
    • Access to finance for innovative SMEs since the financial crisis

      Lee, N; Sameen, H; Cowling, M; University of Brighton (Elsevier, 7/11/2014)
      In the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, there has been increased focus on access to finance for small firms. Research from before the crisis suggested that it was harder for innovative firms to access finance. Yet no research has considered the differential effect of the crisis on innovative firms. This paper addresses this gap using a dataset of over 10,000 UK SME employers. We find that innovative firms are more likely to be turned down for finance than other firms, and this worsened significantly in the crisis. However, regressions controlling for a host of firm characteristics show that the worsening in general credit conditions has been more pronounced for non-innovative firms with the exception of absolute credit rationing which still remains more severe for innovative firms. The results suggest that there are two issues in the financial system. The first is a structural problem which restricts access to finance for innovative firms. The second is a cyclical problem has been caused by the financial crisis and has impacted relatively more severely on non-innovative firms.
    • Accountability of transnational corporations in the developing world: The case for an enforceable international mechanism.

      Omoteso, Kamil; Yusuf, Hakeem; Coventry University; University of Birmingham (2017-03-06)
      Purpose: This paper contends that the dominant voluntarism approach to the accountability of Transnational Corporations (TNCs) is inadequate and not fit-for-purpose. It argues for the establishment of an international legal mechanism for securing the accountability of TNCs particularly in the context of developing countries with notoriously weak governance mechanisms to protect all relevant stakeholders. Design/methodology/approach: The study adopts insights from the fields of management and international law to draw out synergies from particular understandings of corporate governance, corporate social responsibility and international human rights. The governance challenges in developing countries with regard to securing the accountability of TNCs is illustrated with the Nigerian experience of oil-industry legislation reform. Findings: The specific context of the experiences of developing countries in Africa on the operations of TNCs particularly commends the need and expedience to create an international legal regime for ensuring the accountability of TNCs. Originality/value: Mainstream research in this area has focused mainly on self and voluntary models of regulation and accountability that have privileged the legal fiction of the corporate status of TNCs. This article departs from that model to argue for an enforceable model of TNC accountability based on an international mechanism.
    • Accountability of transnational corporations in the developing world: The case for an enforceable international mechanism.

      Yusuf, Hakeem O.; Omoteso, Kamil; University of Birmingham; Coventry University (Emerald, 2017)
      Purpose: This paper contends that the dominant voluntarism approach to the accountability of Transnational Corporations (TNCs) is inadequate and not fit-for-purpose. It argues for the establishment of an international legal mechanism for securing the accountability of TNCs particularly in the context of developing countries with notoriously weak governance mechanisms to protect all relevant stakeholders. Design/methodology/approach: The study adopts insights from the fields of management and international law to draw out synergies from particular understandings of corporate governance, corporate social responsibility and international human rights. The governance challenges in developing countries with regard to securing the accountability of TNCs is illustrated with the Nigerian experience of oil-industry legislation reform. Findings: The specific context of the experiences of developing countries in Africa on the operations of TNCs particularly commends the need and expedience to create an international legal regime for ensuring the accountability of TNCs. Originality/value: Mainstream research in this area has focused mainly on self and voluntary models of regulation and accountability that have privileged the legal fiction of the corporate status of TNCs. This article departs from that model to argue for an enforceable model of TNC accountability based on an international mechanism.
    • Achieving data completeness in electronic medical records: A conceptual model and hypotheses development.

      Liu, Caihua; Zowghi, Didar; Talaei-Khoei, Amir; Daniel, Jay; University of Technology Sydney; University of Nevada (University of Hawaii, 2018-01-03)
      This paper aims at proposing a conceptual model of achieving data completeness in electronic medical records (EMR). For this to happen, firstly, we draw on the model of factors influencing data quality management to construct our conceptual model. Secondly, we develop hypotheses of relationships between influencing factors for data completeness and mediators for achieving data completeness in EMR based on the literature. Our conceptual model extends the prior model for factors influencing data quality management by adding a new factor and exploring the relationships between the influencing factors within the context of data completeness in EMR. The proposed conceptual model and the presented hypotheses once empirically validated will be the basis for the development of tools and techniques for achieving data completeness in EMR.
    • Adoption of blockchain technology in supply chain transparency: Australian manufacturer case study

      Maroun, Elias A.; Daniel, Jay; Fynes, Brian; University of Derby; University of Technology Sydney; University College Dublin (European Decision Sciences Institute (EDSI), 2019-06)
      The arrival and capabilities of Blockchain is set to change traditional supply chain activities. Consumers are increasingly demanding details about the products they purchase, the sources of the manufactured product and manufacturing details. Organisations are declaring that they strive to improve labour practices and minimise the environmental effect of manufacturing goods however consumers still have a limited view of supply chains. The increasing development of the digital economy, the internet of things (IOT) and the growing use of sensors providing information in supply chains is providing Blockchain leverage to streamline and create an efficient supply chain track and trace of all types of transactions more transparently and securely. This paper explores the adoption of Blockchain technology in supply chain transparency. Specifically, we examine whether Blockchain technology is a good fit for use in an Australian manufacturer supply chain. Blockchain allows us to have permissioned or permission-less distributed ledgers where stakeholders can interact with each other. We describe in detail how Blockchain works and the mechanism of hash algorithms, which allows for greater security of information. Using a single case study, we focus on the intricacies of this technology and present a summary of adoption for Blockchain technology. The adoption for using Blockchain technology has the potential to bring greater transparency, validity across the supply chain, and improvement of communication between all stakeholders involved.
    • The adoption of IPSAS (accrual accounting) in Indonesian local government: a neo-institutional perspective

      Boolaky, Pran; Mirosea, Nitri; Omoteso, Kamil; Griffith University; University of Derby (Routledge, 2019-10-02)
      This study investigates the speed and drivers of IPSAS adoption in Indonesia. Using data from 205 local government entities, the results show while the interaction between auditors and representatives of opposition on the council has more impact on the speed of adoption than with the councillors representing the government, the timing of the council meeting has delayed the adoption of IPSAS accrual. Government grant, Supreme Audit Office, councillors and religious beliefs are the isomorphic drivers of IPSAS adoption. Our results support the hypotheses that the three institutional pressures (coercive, mimetic and normative) influence the speed of IPSAS adoption.
    • Alternative research methods: introducing marketing sensing, a qualitative and interpretive perspective on research

      Longbottom, David; Lawson, Alison; University of Derby (Routledge, 2018-12-07)
      This chapter examines research from an interpretive perspective where qualitative methods are predominantly used. We present that qualitative methods may be used by researchers seeking to gain deeper insights and understanding of underlying issues particularly in the context of social science studies which often involve people and organisations in a social setting. We will argue that such methods can be used within an interpretive philosophy, or may be combined with quantitative methods in a pragmatic and mixed methods approach. Whilst the chapter considers traditional methods associated with qualitative research, such as depth interview and focus group, it also introduces several alternative methods and techniques which may be used by researchers seeking to gain creativity in their research design and presentation and provide deeper understanding to build their analysis and research conclusions. The chapter is arranged in two parts. In part one, we examine issues of context, philosophy, approach and strategy. In part two, we examine issues of strategy and methods, planning, data collection, and data presentation.
    • The application of big data and AI in the upstream supply chain

      Hanson-New, Colin; Daniel, Jay; University of Derby (Logistics Research Network, 2019-09)
      The use of Big Data has grown in popularity in organisations to exploit the purpose of their primary data to enhance their competitiveness. In conjunction with the increased use of Big Data, there has also been a growth in the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to analyse the vast amounts of data generated and provide a mechanism for locating and constructing useable patterns that organisations can incorporate in their supply chain strategy programme. As these organisations embrace the use of technology and embed this in their supply chain strategy, there are questions as to how this may affect their upstream supply chains especially with regards to how SME’s may be able to cope with the potential changes. There exists the opportunity to conduct further research into this area, mainly focusing on three key industry sectors of aerospace, rail and automotive supply chains.
    • Assessing sustainability support to small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs)

      Conway, Elaine; University of Derby (Totem Publishing Ltd., 2014)
      The aim of this paper is to evaluate qualitatively the impact of sustainability support to Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) where quantitative results are often difficult to appraise. Many of these organisations require sustainable business support to enable them to start or build their business concepts on sound sustainable platforms. Many SMEs are unable to quantitatively evaluate the benefit which they have received from support programmes because they are in the project planning stage or have limited financial data. Without a form of evaluation, support networks often cannot retain funding support. This paper is based on the grounded theory approach to analyse qualitative data received from participants in a sustainability support programme. Research on such programmes to SMEs is scant. This paper proposes the use of qualitative data collection and its evaluation to be considered when making the case for funding such programmes, along with quantitative data when available
    • Assessment innovation and student experience: a new assessment challenge and call for a multi-perspective approach to assessment research

      Bevitt, Sheena; University of Derby (2014-02-26)
      The impact of innovative assessment on student experience in higher education is a neglected research topic. This represents an important gap in the literature given debate around the marketization of higher education, international focus on student satisfaction measurement tools and political calls to put students at the heart of higher education in the UK. This paper reports on qualitative findings from a research project examining the impact of assessment preferences and familiarity on student attainment and experience. It argues that innovation is defined by the student, shaped by diverse assessment experiences and preferences and therefore its impact is difficult to predict. It proposes that future innovations must explore assessment choice mechanisms which allow students to shape their own assessments. Cultural change and staff development will be required to achieve this. To be accepted, assessment for student experience must be viewed as a complementary layer within a complex multi perspective model of assessment which also embraces assessment of learning, assessment for learning and assessment for life long learning. Further research is required to build a meta theory of assessment to enhance the synergies between these alternative approaches and to minimise tensions between them.
    • BIM-based deconstruction tool: Towards essential functionalities

      Akinade, Olugbenga O.; Oyedele, Lukumon O.; Omoteso, Kamil; Ajayi, Saheed O.; Bilal, Muhammad; Owolabi, Hakeem A.; Alaka, Hafiz A.; Ayris, Lara; Henry Looney, John; Bristol Enterprise, Research and Innovation Centre; et al. (2017-06)
      This study discusses the future directions of effective Design for Deconstruction (DfD) using BIM-based approach to design coordination. After a review of extant literatures on existing DfD practices and tools, it became evident that none of the tools is BIM compliant and that BIM implementation has been ignored for end-of-life activities. To understand how BIM could be employed for DfD and to identify essential functionalities for a BIM-based deconstruction tool, Focus Group Interviews (FGIs) were conducted with professionals who have utilised BIM on their projects. The interview transcripts of the FGIs were analysed using descriptive interpretive analysis to identify common themes based on the experiences of the participants. The themes highlight functionalities of BIM in driving effective DfD process, which include improved collaboration among stakeholders, visualisation of deconstruction process, identification of recoverable materials, deconstruction plan development, performance analysis and simulation of end-of-life alternatives, improved building lifecycle management, and interoperability with existing BIM software. The results provide the needed technological support for developing tools for BIM compliant DfD tools.
    • Calling the judiciary to account for the past : transitional justice and judicial accountability in Nigeria.

      Yusuf, Hakeem O.; University of Glasgow (2008-03-19)
      Institutional and individual accountability is an important feature of societies in transition from conflict or authoritarian rule. The imperative of accountability has both normative and transformational underpinnings in the context of restoration of the rule of law and democracy. This article argues a case for extending the purview of truth-telling processes to the judiciary in postauthoritarian contexts. The driving force behind the inquiry is the proposition that the judiciary as the third arm of government at all times participates in governance. To contextualize the argument, I focus on judicial governance and accountability within the paradigm of Nigeria’s transition to democracy after decades of authoritarian military rule.
    • Case 13: Exploring employees experiences of remote working practices

      Lee, Amanda; University of Derby (Pearson, 2019-04-24)
    • Civil law consequences of corruption and bribery in France.

      Jaluzot, Beatrice; Meiselles, Michala; Université Jean Moulin (Lyon 3) (Nomos, 2009)
    • Colonial and post-colonial constitutionalism in the commonwealth: Peace, order and good government

      Yusuf, Hakeem O.; University of Strathclyde (Routledge, 2014-01-10)
      The peace, order and good government clause (POGG) clause is found in the constitutions of almost all Commonwealth countries. Since its introduction, the clause has played a significant role in colonial and post-colonial constitutionalism in Commonwealth jurisdictions. This book is the first full length analysis of the various dimensions of the peace, order and good government clause. It argues that the origins of the POGG clause mark it out as an anachronistic feature of British constitutionalism when set against a modern setting of human rights, liberty and democratisation. The book traces the history, politics and applications of the clause through the colonial period in Commonwealth territories to date. It provides critical evaluation of the POGG clause in a cross-continental enquiry, examining statutory, political and constitutional deployment in Australia, Canada, India, Nigeria, South Africa and the United Kingdom. The evaluation demonstrates that the POGG clause has relevance in a number of significant aspects of legal and socio-political ordering across the Commonwealth featuring prominently in the federalism question, emergency powers and the review of administrative powers. It maintains that while the clause is not entirely devoid of positive value, the POGG clause has been used not only to further the objects of colonialism, but also authoritarianism and apartheid. This book calls for a rethink of the prevailing subjective approach to the interpretation of the clause.
    • Colonialism and dilemmas of transitional justice in Nigeria.

      Yusuf, Hakeem O.; University of Birmingham (Oxford University Press, 2018-03-27)
      Adoption of the colonial template of governance by successive postcolonial governments in Nigeria has limited the ambit of transitional justice, rendering it incapable of addressing the root causes of systematic abuses and conflict in the country. Pathologies of colonial injustice and violence were transmitted into governance in the postcolony and this structural continuity has locked down the prospect of justice and reforms as an integral part of the governance complex. Critical analysis of the Nigerian experience calls attention to the need for transitional justice theory and praxis to engage with the colonial legacy in nonsettler, postcolonial societies. Understanding and engaging with the colonial legacy is critical to the prospects of successful transitional justice in postcolonial polities.
    • Combating environmental irresponsibility of transnational corporations in Africa: an empirical analysis.

      Yusuf, Hakeem O.; Omoteso, Kamil; University of Birmingham; Coventry University (Taylor & Francis, 2015-12-15)
      Environmental irresponsibility is one of the most prominent issues confronting host communities of transnational corporations (TNCs) engaged in the production of economic goods and, sometimes, services. Drawing mainly on stakeholder theory, combined with legitimacy theory, this article addresses how host communities in Africa combat the challenge of environmental irresponsibility of TNCs. To illustrate the dimensions and dynamics of the challenge, this paper examines the experience of despoliation of Ogoniland by the oil giant Shell in Nigeria. The analysis draws attention to the significance of the role of individuals and civil society groups in securing accountability of one of the most formidable fronts of economic globalisation. The analysis is particularly relevant to the experience of environmental irresponsibility in the context of weak governance structures.
    • Combating environmental irresponsibility of transnational corporations in Africa: an empirical analysis.

      Yusuf, Hakeem O.; Omoteso, Kamil; University of Birmingham; Coventry University (Taylor and Francis., 2015-12-15)
      Environmental irresponsibility is one of the most prominent issues confronting host communities of transnational corporations (TNCs) engaged in the production of economic goods and, sometimes, services. Drawing mainly on stakeholder theory, combined with legitimacy theory, this article addresses how host communities in Africa combat the challenge of environmental irresponsibility of TNCs. To illustrate the dimensions and dynamics of the challenge, this paper examines the experience of despoliation of Ogoniland by the oil giant Shell in Nigeria. The analysis draws attention to the significance of the role of individuals and civil society groups in securing accountability of one of the most formidable fronts of economic globalisation. The analysis is particularly relevant to the experience of environmental irresponsibility in the context of weak governance structures.
    • Competitiveness through responsible supply chains and resource efficiency: a regional outlook

      Baranova, Polina; Paterson, Fred; University of Derby; East Midlands Chamber (University of Derby, 2018-02)
      This report describes an independent analysis by the University of Derby Business School (DBS) of surveys conducted by the East Midlands Chamber of Commerce (EMCC) in 2017 and 2015. Whilst the surveys were part of the EMCC’s routine quarterly engagement with local businesses that dealt with a range of traditional business interests, this analysis focuses upon a series of questions that addressed companies’ awareness and engagement with resource efficiency and the degree to which they supply and benefit from low carbon and environmental goods and services (LCEGS). Respondents to the EMCC survey were evenly balanced across Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire and the three major cities therein. Similarly, there was a good balance between SMEs and larger businesses represented in the survey sample. The study shows that the number of businesses supplying low carbon and environmental goods and services (LCEGS) across the East Midlands is growing - with 24% of companies surveyed by EMCC in 2017 deriving some degree of turnover from LCEGS, compared with 16% in 2015. 12% of businesses surveyed generated more than 20% of their turnover from LCEGS in 2017, compared with only 8% of business in this category in 2015. According to the survey data, micro and small sized businesses have shown the greatest growth in LCEGS sector activity between 2015-2017. Both these categories of businesses show a significant increase in the number of businesses generating a proportion of their turnover from LCEGS (8.8% and 9.1% respectively). On the other hand, slightly more medium-sized businesses in 2017 said they derived no turnover from LCEGS (81.4%) compared with 2015 (79.7%). Whilst none of the large businesses in the sample generated their entire turnover from LCEGS in 2017, they increased the proportion of their LCEGS turnover in the 20-49% and 50-79% categories (by 9.6% and 6.1% respectively). Countering this trend, however, was a 2.6% decrease in large businesses deriving 80-100% of turnover from LCEGS. The three top manufacturing sectors in the region by contribution to the LCEGS sector in both 2015 and 2017 samples are: construction, engineering & manufacturing and the energy and water supply sectors. The top three services sectors across the region, by their contribution to the LCEGS sector are: professional services, transport and logistics, and retail sectors. Compared with other key sectors in the region, the construction sector alongside energy and water services derive the largest proportion of turnover from LCEGS. However, engineering & manufacture, transport & logistics, retail and professional services companies are all showing significant growth in LCEGS business. On average, in 2017 manufacturing sector companies generated more annual turnover from LCEGS than companies operating in the services sector. This is a 20% improvement on 2015 figures, which indicate that over the last two years more and more regional businesses in the manufacturing sectors successfully supply LCEGS. Businesses operating in the various services sector are significantly lagging behind this trend with little increase in the supply of low carbon environmental services over the last two years.