• Access to medicine in developing countries: instituting state obligation over corporate profit

      YUSUF, HAKEEM OLAYINKA; Omoteso, Kamil; University of Derby (Indiana University Press, 2021)
      This paper investigates the divergence between the objectives of the State in ensuring the right to health of citizens and the profit maximization objective of pharmaceutical corporations in relation to access to, and supply of, medicine. This is pertinent given the rising cost of medicines and unmet needs, particularly in developing countries. This paper analyses the contention between pharmaceutical corporations’ profit drive and the State’s welfare obligation. There is a need to bridge the gap between business and human rights and this can be achieved by combining the concepts of ‘business ethical responsibility’ and corporation’s contributions to ‘common good’ with the jurisprudence on the right to health. This is imperative in view of the impact of the business of pharmaceutical corporations on vulnerable populations particularly in, but not limited to, developing countries.
    • An analysis of the impact of unconventional oil and gas activities on public health: New evidence across Oklahoma counties

      Apergis, Nicholas; Mustafa, Ghulam; Ghosh Dastidar, Sayantan; University of Texas at El Paso, USA; University of Derby; Queen Mary University of London, UK (Elsevier, 2021-03-17)
      The expansion of unconventional oil and gas development (UNGD) in the US has been highly controversial so far with no consensus on its health, economic, environmental, and social implications. This paper examines the effects of UNGD on the health profile of the population in the context of Oklahoma using a unique data set. To this end, the analysis assembles a panel data set including 76 counties of Oklahoma, spanning the period 1998-2017. The analysis estimates the long-run relationship between the health profile and its determinants using the Common Correlated Effects (CCE) method. The empirical setup allows for cross-sectional dependence and accounts for both observed and unobserved heterogeneity. The main findings provide strong evidence that UNGD activities have negative effects on human health-related outcomes across all counties in Oklahoma. Specifically, an increase in the number of (unconventional) wells has a positive impact on mortality rates, and incidences of cancer, cardiac, and respiratory diseases in communities in close spatial proximity, and a negative impact on life expectancy. These findings provide evidence that UNGD activities pose significant risks to the public health profile across the Oklahoma population. Such findings are expected to have substantial implications for the national debate on the regulation of UNGD.
    • NGO accountability on environmentalism: a literature review of relevant issues and themes

      Yekini, Liafisu Sina; Yekini, Kemi, C; University of Derby (Emerald Publishing, 2021-01-04)
      This chapter, which is in themes, starts with a survey of the rise of environmentalism for the purpose of sustainability. It then evaluates the roles of nongovernmental organisations' (NGOs') self-regulation and government regulation on the need for accountability that ensures sustainability. NGOs' accountability is a way of making sure that stakeholders' social, environmental and economic sustainability are protected and rigorously evaluated. This chapter further examines what the enduring mechanisms should be if true accountability, which leads to sustainability, will be achieved to suggest a holistic accountability that involves downward and upward accountability. In doing so, this chapter utilised the identified five mechanisms that ensure the continuity of world sustainability, which is prima-facie, the objective of funders/donors, beneficiaries/stakeholders and the NGO's loop.
    • Audit committee and audit quality: An empirical analysis considering industry expertise, legal expertise and gender diversity

      Alhababsah, Salem; Yekini, Liafisu Sina; Coventry University; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2021-01-20)
      The extant literature and corporate governance regulations suffer from a tight focus on audit committee (AC) financial expertise as a mean of improving the AC’s oversight role. However, there is a lack of evidence about other kinds of expertise that might be important for AC effectiveness which could contribute to the quality of financial statements. This study examines whether AC industry expertise and AC legal expertise have an impact on audit quality in a developing country (Jordan). Furthermore, mixed and inconsistent findings regarding the role played by female directors and the peculiarity of the Jordanian context creates a motive to examine the effect of AC gender diversity on audit quality. By utilizing 1,035 firm-year observations, using two proxies to capture audit quality, and employing different estimation methods, this study highlights the importance of AC industry expertise in ensuring high audit quality. AC legal expertise and AC gender diversity have no significant effect on audit quality. This study offers a valuable contribution to the literature, and also has implications for policy-makers in Jordan and other countries with similar institutional environments to consider for future regulatory reform.
    • An empirical study on the building blocks of resilience in British food supply chains in case of Brexit

      Liravi, Pouria; Polychronakis, Yiannis; Fassam, Liam; University of Derby; University of Salford; University of Northampton (2020-12)
      In the wake of Britain’s referendum results, which will lead to the UK leaving the EU, the pressures on British food supply chains to obtain safe and secure sources of supply has increased. This study aims to investigate “resilience” as a form of capability for risk mitigation within food supply chains. To achieve this aim, three major food companies, that have an active presence in British food supply chains, have contributed to this study. This empirical research adapted a multiple case study approach and used qualitative data to interpret answers to the research questions. Semi-structured interview questions were the principal data collection method. To increase the credibility and validity of the research findings, observational studies and document archival reviews were conducted and their findings were triangulated against the findings of interview responses. This research drew a theoretical framework for resilient food supply chains. The buying power and buying behaviour of large companies can not only affect their direct and indirect partners in supply chains, but also affect other companies, that are not in any supply chain relationship with the organisation. None-availability of products due to various external, internal factors can effectively distort food supply chains and jeopardise the flow of activities of companies. Financial strength of supply chain partners is considered as an essential criterion for entering business relationships, especially for the transport and logistics companies within the food supply chains. The ease of communication, amongst various levels of staff members of organisations, which consequently leads to a resilient supply chain. The capabilities of a procurement department in enabling resilience in food supply chains was highlighted and it was claimed that the extent of development of this role is closely related to the ability of the company, to fulfil its orders in the time of Brexit.
    • The geographical impact of the Covid-19 crisis on precautionary savings, firm survival and jobs: Evidence from the United Kingdom’s 100 largest towns and cities

      Brown, Ross; Cowling, Marc; University of St Andrews; University of Derby (SAGE Journals, 2021-01-28)
      In this commentary, we trace the economic and spatial consequences of the Covid-19 pandemic in terms of potential business failure and the associated job losses across the 100 largest cities and towns in the United Kingdom (UK). The article draws on UK survey data of 1500 firms of different size classes examining levels of firm-level precautionary savings. On business failure risk, we find a clear and unequal impact on poorer northern and peripheral urban areas of the UK, indicative of weak levels of regional resilience, but a more random distribution in terms of job losses. Micro firms and the largest firms are the greatest drivers of aggregate job losses. We argue that spatially blind enterprise policies are insufficient to tackle the crisis and better targeted regional policies will be paramount in the future to help mitigate the scarring effects of the Covid-19 pandemic in terms of firm failures and the attendant job losses. We conclude that Covid-19 has made the stated intention of the current government’s ambition to ‘level up’ the forgotten and left-behind towns and cities of the UK an even more distant policy objective than prior to the crisis.
    • Relationship between routines of supplier selection and evaluation, risk perception and propensity to form buyer–supplier partnerships

      Gallear, David; Ghobadian, Abby; He, Qile; Kumar, Vikas; Hitt, Michael; Brunel University London; University of Reading; University of Derby; University of the West of England; Texas A&M University (Taylor and Francis, 2021-01-25)
      Supply chain partnership is viewed as an important contributor to superior competitiveness, yet the knowledge of ex-ante factors contributing to the deployment of supply chain partnership is nascent. This paper examines the influence of the current supplier selection routines, supplier evaluation routines, and managerial attitude towards relational and performance risks on the future intention to form buyer–supplier partnerships, based on relational and evolutionary economics theory. The analysis is based on 156 questionnaires received from senior executives and supply/logistics managers of UK firms. We found that partner selection routine positively influences firms’ propensity (future intention) to form buyer–supplier partnerships, unlike the supplier evaluation routine and perceptions of both relational risk and performance risk, which were not found to have a significant role. Our findings suggest that firms wishing to initiate buyer–supplier partnerships can increase the likelihood of doing so by ensuring that their supplier selection routines incorporate efforts to establish potential suppliers’ inclination for openness in a relationship, to establish their track record of demonstrating a high degree of integrity with other buyers, and to confirm that potential suppliers have a deep knowledge and understanding of the buyer’s business, a recognized strong reputation, and demonstrable financial stability.
    • The covid-19 lockdown in the United Kingdom and subjective well-being: have the self-employed suffered more due to hours and income reductions?

      Yue, Wei; Cowling, Marc; Hunan University, China; University of Derby (Sage, 2021-01-21)
      It is well documented that the self-employed experience higher levels of happiness than waged employees even when their incomes are lower. Given the UK government’s asymmetric treatment of waged workers and the self-employed, we use a unique Covid-19 period data set which covers the months leading up to the March lockdown and the months just after to assess three aspects of the Covid-19 crisis on the self-employed: hours of work reductions, the associated income reductions and the effects of both on subjective well-being. Our findings show the large and disproportionate reductions in hours and income for the self-employed directly contributed to a deterioration in their levels of subjective well-being compared to waged workers. It appears that their resilience was broken when faced with the reality of dealing with rare events, particularly when the UK welfare support response was asymmetric and favouring waged employees.
    • The geography of business angel investments in the UK: Does local bias (still) matter?

      Cowling, Marc; Brown, Ross; Lee, Neil; University of Derby; University of St Andrews; London School of Economics and Political Science (SAGE Publishing, 2021-01-20)
      Business angels (BAs) - high net worth individuals who provide informal risk capital to firms - are seen as important providers of entrepreneurial finance. Theory and conventional wisdom suggest that the need for face-to-face interaction will ensure angels will have a strong predilection for local investments. We empirically test this assumption using a large representative survey of UK BAs. Our results show local bias is less common than previously thought with only one quarter of total investments made locally. However, we also show pronounced regional disparities, with investment activity dominated by BAs in London and Southern England. In these locations there is a stronger propensity for localised investment patterns mediated by the ‘thick’ nature of the informal risk capital market. Together these trends further reinforce and exacerbate the disparities evident in the UK’s financial system. The findings make an important contribution to the literature and public policy debates on the uneven nature of financial markets for sources of entrepreneurial finance.
    • Inter-firm knowledge transfer between strategic alliance partners: A way forward

      He, Qile; Ghobadian, Abby; Gallear, David; University of Derby; University of Reading; Brunel University London (Wiley, 2021-01-11)
      Strategic alliance (SA) is pursued by a diverse array of firms motivated by a range of factors. Among the SA themes, knowledge transfer (KT) has gained significant popularity over the past fifteen years. The developing literature is ontologically, epistemologically, and methodologically diverse. In spite of helpful reviews, the intellectual structure (up-stream decisions) of SA–KT research remains unclear, arguably resulting in the accidental rather than deliberate diversity potentially slowing the advancement of knowledge, its efficacy, its interpretation, and utility. By systematically analysing the intellectual structure of the empirical SA–KT studies published in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2017 we address these shortcomings. The aim is to identify the preponderance of particular methods, and/or analytical procedures, developing the essence of the established research conventions. By reviewing the up-stream rather than the more conventional down-stream decisions, we offer an alternative approach to conducting systematic management literature reviews helpful to future researchers.
    • The intercultural skills graduates and businesses in Europe need today

      Halila, Fawzi; Pillalamarri, Kalyani; Bell, Robin; Ali, Sa'ad; Moser, Karin; Brand, Milou; Clarke, Isabel; Godts, Inge; Mulier, Lieve; Prouska, Rea; et al. (European Commission, 2020)
      This project aims to develop the intercultural competencies of graduates and employees in Europe by enhancing the quality and relevance of their skills to enable them to be active professionals in the European working environment. The project investigates the perceived and actual intercultural competencies of graduates required by employers and then provides outputs that help address these needs. The project responds to the European Commission’s (EC) Strategic Framework – Education & Training 2020 view, that there has been a lack of focus on the involvement of social institutions on the cross-cultural skill-needs that companies have and on the effectiveness of investment in education and training in this area on business productivity. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. Project Number 2019-1-UK01-KA203-061672. The project website in available below https://medialab.educationhost.co.uk/robbell/(link is external) The fist output is The Intercultural Skills Graduates and Businesses in Europe Need Today report and is availble at the website and the link below https://eprints.worc.ac.uk/9999/1/The%20Intercultural%20Skills%20Graduat...
    • Impact of gender on use of wasta among human resources management practitioners

      Alsarhan, Fadi; Ali, Sa'ad; Weir, David; Valax, Marc; Université de Lyon, Jean Moulin, iaelyon, Magellan, Lyon, France; University of Derby; Huddersfield University; York St John University; IAE Nice, Nice, France (Wiley, 2020-12-14)
      The practice of wasta dominates all aspects of Arabs’ lives; it is a parallel inegalitarian system that categorizes people according to their connections. One of the epicenters of wasta is human resources management (HRM). This paper studies the concept of wasta in the Arab world by examining its use in HRM according to gender, in the case of the Jordanian public sector. Results obtained from 27 semi-structured interviews of HR managers indicate that though wasta is an important feature of HRM in general, there is a notable discrepancy between male and female employees, with the former displaying higher tendencies for using wasta than the latter. An explanation for this finding is the prevalent masculine nature of Jordanian society, which entails social caveats related to the traditional role of women. Professional determinants, such as gendered job segregation and variance in qualifications, also affect men’s and women’s access to wasta
    • Active entrepreneurship education and the impact on approaches to learning: Mixed methods evidence from a six-year study into one entrepreneurship educator’s classroom

      Curtis, Vic; Moon, Rob; Penaluna, Andy; University of Derby; University of Wales, Trinity St David (Sage, 2020-11-25)
      Taking an active and experiential approach to teaching is often assumed to be the best way to promote learning. However, the empirical evidence to support this assertion in entrepreneurship education is inconclusive, and current practice suggests that delivery in higher education is still quite passive and traditional. This 6-year, mixed method study sets out to demonstrate that, in a final-year International Entrepreneurship module at a UK university mapped through the lens of ‘about’, ‘for’ and ‘through’ entrepreneurship, a more innovative, active, experiential and constructively aligned approach to teaching, learning and assessment impacts positively on students’ deep and surface approaches to learning. Students viewed the module as significantly more active than passive and the level of deep learning was significantly greater than the level of surface learning. Additionally, the more active approach was significantly correlated to increased deep learning and reduced surface learning. Students highlighted the active teaching approach and the creation of videos for a local company as part of the authentic assessment as catalysts for deeper learning approaches. The study provides empirical evidence that active entrepreneurship education has a positive impact on student approaches to learning.
    • A conceptual information sharing framework to improve supply chain security collaboration

      Koliousis, Ioannis; Tanveer, Umair; Ishaq, Shamaila; University of Derby; Coventry University; University of the West of England (Inderscience Publishers, 2020-10-20)
      Modern Supply Chains are critical in terms of efficiency, economic activities and commercial impact, particularly in case of security incidents. Inland terminals, commercial ports and dry ports constitute key gateways for the transportation flows in these modern supply chains and are require enhanced security procedures. This paper develops a framework that facilitates the sharing of information among various supply chain stakeholders, which is expected to improve the security level from a value chain perspective. In this context, we propose the upgrade of the current security strategies utilizing existing processes, equipment in order to minimise time and cost currently needed but more importantly improving the level of security in the supply chain. A conceptual rule and role-based data fusion framework is developed enabling the seamless and timely exchange of messages. The proposed Data Fusion Framework has a simple architecture that supports quick integration to either network-based, distributed systems or conventional stand-alone systems and adheres to common data fusion principles. The proposed framework considers different components (e.g. sensors, algorithms and fusing procedures) in an equipment agnostic approach so as to enable easy access and easy usage of security information.
    • Regional and spatial issues in the financing of small and medium-sized enterprises and new ventures

      Cowling, Marc; Ughetto, Elisa; Lee, Neil; Politecnico di Torino, Turin, Italy; University of Brighton; London School of Economics (Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2019-04-12)
      This editorial introduces the papers addressing regional and spatial aspects relating to the demand for, and the supply of, finance for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and start-ups. Reflecting the breadth of financial instruments that are potentially available to SMEs and new ventures (e.g., business angel, bank credit and credit card financing), this special issue offers a combination of up-to-date studies that integrate the regional and spatial perspectives into the debate on SMEs and start-up financing. Overall, the papers contribute to an understanding of the mechanisms by which geography shapes access to finance for SMEs and new ventures, and the implications for local economic activity.
    • Cost of capital and public loan guarantees to small firms

      Ughetto, Elisa; Scellato, Giuseppe; Cowling, Marc; Politecnico di Torino, Torino, Italy; University of Derby (Springer, 2017-03-09)
      In this paper, we study the determinants of the spread charged by banks under a UK policy intervention scheme, aimed at supporting access to the credit market for small firms through guarantee backed loans. We exploit a unique dataset containing data on 29,266 guarantee backed loans under the UK SFLG scheme over the period 2000 to 2005. Results suggest that lower spreads are offered for loans of larger amounts and higher durations, for service firms, for larger firms, and for those located in the most advanced regions. Higher spreads are applied to high-tech manufacturing firms and to loans issued for working capital purposes. We also find that the presence of other extant debt is associated with a relatively higher spread and that this effect is especially significant for the subset of firms that have reached a maximum debt capacity based on collateralized assets. Further, we also find that the higher the incidence of the publicly guaranteed debt over the total amount of outstanding loans, the lower, on average, the spread. However, an increase in the guaranteed coverage leads to a contraction in the spread only for loans aimed at covering working capital needs rather than investments.
    • Investment motivations and UK business angels' appetite for risk taking: The moderating role of experience

      Croce, Annalisa; Ughetto, Elisa; Cowling, Marc; Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy; Collegio Carlo Alberto, Torino, Italy; University of Derby (Wiley, 2019-08-13)
      In this paper we use a large UK survey of business angels (BAs) investing in two different publicly supported schemes to directly question the role that investment motivations play in shaping investors’ appetite for risk. We dive deeper into the relationship between investment reasons and risk taking, by exploring the potential for a moderating effect derived from BAs’ past experience (i.e. financial and entrepreneurial experience). Our analysis reveals that both investment reasons (for return and for passion) have substantial explanatory power in shaping angels’ risk attitude, but their effect is moderated by the investors’ prior experience. This key finding represents important empirical support for what has so far been anecdotal evidence concerning BAs’ appetite for risk when investing.
    • Congestion prediction for smart sustainable cities using IoT and machine learning approaches

      Majumdar, Sharmila; Subhani, Moeez M.; Roullier, Benjamin; Anjum, Ashiq; Zhu, Rongbo; University of Derby; University of Leicester; South Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan, China (Elsevier BV, 2020-09-25)
      Congestion on road networks has a negative impact on sustainability in many cities through the exacerbation of air pollution. Smart congestion management allows road users to avoid congested areas, decreasing pollutant concentration. Accurately predicting congestion propagation is difficult however, due to the dynamic non-linear behavior of traffic flow. With the rise of Internet of Things devices, there are now data sets available that can be used to provide smart, sustainable transport solutions within cities. In this work, we introduce long short-term memory networks for the prediction of congestion propagation across a road network. Based on vehicle speed data from traffic sensors at two sites, our model predicts the propagation of congestion across a 5-min period within a busy town. Analysis of both univariate and multivariate predictive models show an accuracy of 84–95% depending on the road layout. This accuracy shows that long short-term memory networks are suitable for predicting congestion propagation on road networks and may form a key component of future traffic modelling approaches for smart and sustainable cities around the world.
    • Gender and bank lending after the global financial crisis: are women entrepreneurs safer bets?

      Cowling, Marc; Marlow, Susan; Liu, Weixi; University of Derby; University of Bath (Springer, 2019-04-13)
      Using gender as a theoretical framework, we analyse the dynamics of bank lending to small- and medium-sized enterprises (SME) in the aftermath of the 2008 global financial crisis. Using six waves of the SME Finance Monitor survey, we apply a formal Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition to test whether gender impacts upon the supply and demand for debt finance by women. Reflecting established evidence, we found women had a lower demand for bank loans; contradicting accepted wisdom however, we found that women who did apply were more likely to be successful. We argue that feminised risk aversion might inform more conservative applications during a period of financial uncertainty which may be beneficial for women in terms of gaining loans. However, we also uncover more subtle evidence suggesting that bank decisions may differ for women who may be unfairly treated in terms of collateral but regarded more positively when holding large cash balances.
    • Is there a trade-off between accrual-based and real earnings management activities in the presence of (fe) male auditors?

      Owusu, Andrews; Mansour Zalata, Alaa; Omoteso, Kamil; Elamer, Ahmed A; University of Coventry; University of Southampton; University of Derby; Brunel University London (Springer, 2020-11-13)
      Prior research suggests that the presence of high quality auditors (i.e. proxied by audit firm characteristics) constrains accrual-based earnings management, but it inadvertently leads to higher real activities manipulation. We investigate whether such trade-off exists between accrual-based and real earnings management activities in the presence of female or male auditors. We use a sample of UK firms for the period 2009 to 2016 and find that firms audited by female auditors do not resort to a higher level real activities manipulation when their ability to engage in accruals management is constrained. Overall, our results suggest that the benefits of hiring female auditors (i.e. less accrual-based earnings management) are overwhelmingly higher than the costs they might bring to the client firms (i.e. higher real activities manipulation).