• Configuration of enterprise support towards the clean growth challenge: a place-based perspective

      Baranova, Polina; Paterson, Fred; Gallotta, Bruno; University of Derby (SAGE, 2020-09-17)
      Although clean growth has been identified as one of the grand challenges of the UK Industrial Strategy, public policy paid little attention to the configuration of business support towards enhancing clean growth potential of SMEs. The dominant approach of policymakers to the design of enterprise support interventions appears to be ‘place-blind’ and downplays the challenges that SMEs face in engaging with the clean growth policy agenda. Based on a mixed methods methodology, involving a survey of 306 businesses, a range of public engagement exercises and an extensive interview schedule, the study explores SMEs engagement with the clean growth challenge and associated business support mechanisms. We conceptualise the nexus of place-policy-practice as a way of framing policymaking approach in addressing the challenge. As part of the clean growth policy implementation, business support mechanisms need to move beyond a singular focus on energy efficiency and shift towards a holistic approach to capacity building for sustainable development. Small business needs to project a district voice in the definition of place in the local industrial strategies and have access to enterprise support which is place-based, policy-informed and practice-relevant.
    • Use of social marketing principles in sexual health: an exploratory review

      Akbar, M Bilal; French, Jeff; Lawson, Alison; University of Derby (Westburn Publishers Ltd, 2020-09-17)
      This paper presents a systematic review of the use of social marketing principles in sexual health studies in order to determine the effectiveness of the programmes. Systematic literature review method was used, and Andreasen’s (2002) benchmark criteria were adopted to analyse the use of social marketing principles in the selected studies. There is evidence of full use of some elements of Andreasen’s (2002) benchmark criteria, for example, consumer research, behaviour change objectives and segmentation. The use of the marketing mix theory and exchange elements were limited, whereas the evidence of the use of competition is not noted. In addition, the majority of the selected studies focus on short-term objectives leading to varying and inconsistent outcomes. Overall, no single element of Andreasen’s (2002) benchmark criteria was independently associated with the success of any of the selected studies. The review highlights a need to use more social marketing principles in planning and implementing sexual health programmes to enhance their effectiveness. Improvement in performance might be achieved through the development and application of a new social marketing informed methodology for designing social programmes on sexual health.
    • When too little or too much hurts: evidence for a curvilinear relationship between team faultlines and performance

      Chen, S.; Wang, D.; Zhou, Y.; Chen, Z.; Wu, D.; Zhejiang University of Finance & Economics, Hangzhou, 310018, China; City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China (Springer, 2017-04-27)
      Faultlines are inherent to many workgroups, but the literature has not fully explained what faultlines mean for team functioning. In this study, we investigate the curvilinear relationship between faultlines and team performance from a crosscategorization perspective. Analyses of multisource data obtained from 61 workgroups located in China support an inverted U-shaped relationship between faultlines and team performance. Additionally, we find that this curvilinear relationship is moderated by a team’s climate of psychological safety such that the curvilinear relationship is more pronounced among teams with a weaker psychological safety climate. The findings contribute to elaborating the nature of and advancing a contingency view of the relationship between faultlines and team performance. Theoretical implications are discussed along with possible limitations and directions for future research.
    • Standing in my customer’s shoes: effects of customer-oriented perspective taking on proactive service performance

      Huo, Y.; Chen, Z.; Lam, W.; Wood, S. A.; University of Surrey; City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong; The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kon (The British Psychology Society, 2018-12-04)
      We develop a theoretical framework that delineates the process by which customer oriented perspective taking contributes to employees’ proactive service performance. Drawing from motivated information processing and proactivity perspectives, the model hypothesizes that employees’ customer-oriented perspective taking enhances their role breadth self-efficacy (RBSE), which in turn enhances proactive customer service performance and proactive complaint-handling performance. A three-wave, time-lagged study, involving 145 frontline employees and their immediate supervisors in the Chinese hospitality industry, tests the research model. The results of structural equation modelling show taking customers’ perspectives results in a high level of RBSE. This relationship grows stronger if employees exhibit a strongly proactive personality. A high level of RBSE also mediates the interactive effects of customer-oriented perspective taking and proactive personality on proactive customer service performance and proactive complaint-handling performance. These findings provide insights for research on perspective taking, RBSE, and proactive service performance.
    • Who is fit to serve? person–job/organization fit, emotional labor, and customer service performance

      Lam, W.; Huo, Y.; CHEN, Ziguang; Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong; University of Surrey (Wiley, 2018-11-07)
      This study investigates person–job (P–J) fit and person–organization (P–O) fit perceptions and relates these perceptions to employees' emotional labor and customer service performance. Data from a two-point, time-lagged study of 263 employees and 690 customers reveal that both P–J and P–O fit relate positively to deep acting and negatively to surface acting, in accordance with an emotional labor perspective. In addition, P–J and P–O fit are jointly associated with emotional labor, such that the positive link between P–J fit and deep acting is stronger, and the negative link between P–J fit and surface acting is weaker when P–O fit is high. Emotional labor partially mediates the interactive effects of P–J and P–O fit on service interaction quality and customer satisfaction; service interaction quality relates positively to customer satisfaction. These findings have multiple theoretical and practical implications.
    • How and when peers' positive mood influence employees' voice

      Liu, w.; Tangirala, S.; Lam, W.; Chen, Z.; Jia, R. T.; Huang, X.; City University of Hong Kong (American Psychological Association, 2014-11-03)
      Employees often assess whether the social context is favorable for them to speak out, yet little research has investigated how the target’s mood might influence the actor’s voice behavior. From an affect-associal-information perspective, we explored such potential effects of the target’s mood on the actor’s promotive voice in 2 empirical studies. In a scenario-based study with 142 MBA students (Study 1), the target’s positive mood was positively associated with the actor’s intentions to engage in promotive voice toward that target, mediated by the actor’s perceived psychological safety. This mediated relationship was stronger when (a) the quality of the relationship between the actor and the target was poor or (b) the actor had a lower social status than the target. We replicated these results in Study 2, a correlational field study with 572 dyads nested within 142 members of 30 teams, where the actor’s promotive voice behaviors (rather than intentions) were measured.
    • Uncovering the impact of triadic relationships within a team on job performance: an application of balance theory in predicting feedback‐seeking behaviour

      Lan, Junbang; Huo, Yuanyuan; Cai, Zhenyao; Wong, Chi‐Sum; Chen, Ziguang; Lam, Wing; Sun Yat‐sen University, China; University of Surrey; Shanghai University, China; University of Technology Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; et al. (Wiley, 2020-04-14)
      Although a great deal of knowledge has accumulated about dyadic relationships (i.e., leader–member exchange (LMX) or team–member exchange (TMX)) within a team, employee behaviours that involve triadic relationships among focal employees, leaders, and teammates have seldom been investigated. Using balance theory, which describes triadic relationships from a power dependence perspective, in the current study, we explore how the interplay of LMX, TMX, and peers’ LMX jointly impacts employees’ feedback‐seeking behaviour (FSB) and subsequent job performance. By conducting a multilevel moderated polynomial regression on three‐wave, multi‐source data from 147 team members and their leaders (from 45 work teams), we found that the incongruence between LMX and TMX facilitates FSB when peers’ LMX or task interdependence is high. We also found an asymmetrical incongruence effect concerning the way in which individuals are more likely to seek feedback when LMX is worse than TMX, compared with when LMX is better than TMX. This differential effect is stronger when peers’ LMX or task interdependence is high. The interplay of LMX, TMX, peers’ LMX, and task interdependence eventually has an indirect effect on job performance through FSB. The results from a follow‐up study of 270 employees from 77 teams further confirm our predictions about the mechanism of balance theory. Specifically, the results indicate that when peers’ LMX is high, the incongruence between LMX and TMX decreases employees’ psychological safety.
    • Analysing the risks of adopting circular economy initiatives in manufacturing supply chains

      Ethirajan, Manavalan; Arasu M, Thanigai; Kandasamy, Jayakrishna; K.E.K, Vimal; Nadeem, Simon Peter; Kumar, Anil; VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India; National Institute of Technology, Patna, Bihar, India; University of Derby; London Metropolitan University (Wiley, 2020-08-25)
      The concept of circular economy (CE) has proven its worth due to the scarcity of natural resources and huge amounts of wastage which impacts the environment. Thus, the adoption of the CE concept in the supply chain becomes critical. However, due to the complex nature of processes/activities in the circular supply chain (CSC), managing risk has become a priority to avoid disruption. In current literature, no discussion has been conducted on how to analyse the risks in the context of CSC. Therefore, to fill this literature gap, this study concentrates on identifying and analysing the risks to promote effective circular initiatives in supply chains in the context of the manufacturing industry, thus minimising the negative environmental impact. A total of 31 risks were identified through an extensive literature review and discussions with experts. A grey‐based decision‐making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method is applied by incorporating the experts' knowledge to compute prominence and cause/effect scores to develop an interrelationship map. Finally, a vulnerability matrix for risk categories is developed using the average of prominence and cause/effect scores of risks. The results show that transparent process is the most prominent risk and branding is the least significant risk. By using the average prominence and cause/effect score, a risk category, namely, financial risk, is identified as most vulnerable to CSC. These findings will help industry managers not only to prepare business strategies in the adoption of CE initiatives in supply chains by eliminating risks but also in minimising negative environmental impact.
    • Can local finance add value to local small business? Evidence from a UK local loan and grant fund

      Cowling, Marc; Nadeem, Simon Peter; Foster, Carley; Baranova, Polina; University of Derby (Senate Hall Academic Publishing, 2020-05)
      Access to finance is a key constraint on the creation, survival, and growth of SMEs, and this issue has prompted governments to directly intervene in financial markets, but has also led to the development of new forms of financial intermediation and new players in the market encouraged by a desire to increase competition in the market. Today these new forms of financing and new players in the market are in part complementary to more established sources, but also potential substitutes particularly for those businesses that are most constrained. In this paper we use new data from a survey of local small businesses to assess whether access to a local loan and grant fund has added value to supported businesses. Our findings suggest that there are tangible benefits associated with local finance provision that are likely to generate a positive local economic multiplier that extends beyond the funding period.
    • Developing a new conceptual framework of meaningful interaction for understanding social isolation and loneliness

      Wigfield, Andrea; Turner, Royce; Alden, Sarah; Green, Marcus; Karania, Vinal; University of Sheffield; University of Derby; Age UK (Cambridge Journals, 2020)
      Academic debate about social isolation and loneliness, and their adverse health and well-being implications, has resulted in many policy and programme interventions directed towards reducing both, especially among older people. However, definitions of the two concepts, their measurement, and the relationship between the two are not clearly articulated. This article redresses this and draws on theoretical constructs adapted from symbolic interactionism, together with the Good Relations Measurement Framework, developed for the Equality and Human Rights Commission in the UK, to challenge the way in which social isolation and loneliness are currently understood. It argues for a need to understand experiences of social relationships, particularly those which facilitate meaningful interaction, suggesting that opportunities and barriers to meaningful interaction are determined by wider societal issues. This is set out in a new conceptual framework which can be applied across the life course and facilitates a new discourse for understanding these challenging concepts.
    • Exploring informal weak tie bonded social networks through a multi-level theoretical lens

      Weir, David; Ali, Sa'ad; York St John's University; University of Derby (2020-07-03)
      In this paper we are chiefly concerned with a desired focus on “co-evolution of networks and organizational attributes, such as innovation introduce a third type of approach to network dynamics that deals with existing networks that are self-regulating, , self-balancing, tend to be self-reproducing and can handle issues of uncertainty and complexity: for instance informal social networks of the type covered Wasta in the Arab Middle East ,Guanxi in the Chinese world and Blat in Russia (Ali and Weir, 2019). In Arab countries “Wasta” describes networks rooted in family and kinship ties, used to bypass formal bureaucratic procedures easing the process of achieving a goal through connections (Cunningham and Sarayrah, 1993; Hutchings and Weir, 2006a; Hutchings and Weir, 2006b; Smith et al., 2012). Wasta is also known as Ma’arifa or Piston, in North African nations such as Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco (Iles, 2012; Smith et al., 2012b). While these phenomena have been increasingly written about over the past decade (Smith et al., 2012a; Smith et al., 2012b; Velez-Calle et al., 2015; Horak and Taube, 2016; Weir et al., 2016; Ali and Weir, 2019), the emphasis of Western researchers has tended to be critical even dismissive characterising these phenomena as at best stages in the evolution of developing business systems of interest only in the Third World of underdeveloped societies (Loewe et al., 2008) or more pejoratively as inadequate or deviant versions of other approaches to Network Dynamics that derive from the received wisdoms of the classical approaches central to liberal market, rational economic actor paradigms at the heart of western business analysis. The results of these framings are a consensual depiction in some writings of Wasta processes as “favouritism”, “pull”, “corruption” and similar negative portrayals (Ali, 2016; Ali, Weir et al., 2016; Ali and Weir, 2019). The default possibility that these negative emergences are also to be found in other cultures for example of the USA, Europe and the UK tends not to be seriously examined as nor does the implication that the actual experienced present in all its imperfectabilities may be a safer place to start the analysis than deductive essays based on a perfect but unattainable social order as represented by the mainstream rational actor framings. As such, this paper focuses on Wasta as an case study to explore how studying such informal social networks using a multi theoretical lens can expand our understanding of this phenomena and informal social networks in general enabling us to achieve a holistic view of the network linking the structural aspects with the actors of the network which this track calls for.
    • Turning motivation into action: A strategic orientation model for green supply chain management

      Liu, Shumin; Eweje, Gabriel; He, Qile; Lin, Zhibin; Guangdong University of Foreign Studies, China; Massey University, New Zealand; University of Derby, United Kingdom; Durham University, United Kingdom (Wiley, 2020-07-03)
      This study examines the key motivations for a firm to adopt green supply chain management (GSCM) strategic orientation, and the mechanisms that subsequently influence GSCM practices. Three components of GSCM orientation were examined, i.e. strategic emphasis, management support, and resource commitment. Data were collected from a sample of 296 manufacturing firms in China. The results indicate that the most important motivation is environmental concern, followed by customer requirements, cost saving and competitive pressure, while legal requirements were not a significant factor. The results confirm that strategic orientation plays mediating role between motivations and the actual practices. Within the three components of strategic orientation, resource commitment and strategic emphasis have stronger direct impact on practices, whereas the effect of management support on GSCM practices is indirect through resource commitment. This study contributes to the literature by clarifying the key role of strategic orientation in turning GSCM motivations into actions.
    • Wasta: Advancing a holistic model to bridge the micro-macro divide

      Ali, Sa'ad; Weir, David; University of Derby; York St John's University (Cambridge University Press, 2020-07-21)
      This paper offers a synthesis of understandings of Wasta, seen as a form of social network prevalent in the Arab Middle East. Whilst there has been increasing interest in this practice, research remains fragmented and has been criticised for its limited theoretical rigor. To address this issue, a systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles exploring Wasta published between 1993 and 2019 was conducted. The authors analysed the identified papers according to the theoretical lens from which Wasta was viewed, creating a bridge between a theoretical focus on the macro aspect of Wasta and an alternative focus on its micro aspects, leading to the development of a holistic model of Wasta. The model also helps us to understand the complexity of Wasta, both as the network itself and as the social ties that exist among its members, and sheds light on the complex nature of the role and interactions of the Waseet. The findings respond to calls for more holistic and inclusive research to inform social networks research and bridge the micro–macro divide. The paper offers recommendations to future researchers to build on the holistic and emic approach to Wasta research adopted here.
    • Social media in politics – simple aggregator or the emerging Ministry of truth

      Amoncar, Nihar; Deacon, Jonathan; University of South Wales (Academy of Marketing, 2017-07-06)
      Ravi and Vasundara (2015) posit that Social Networking Sites (SNS) like Twitter and Facebook have become great tools for the reluctant young Indians to actively engage in discussions concerning Political, Economic and Social issues. Within the last decade, authors have identified the competitive advantage SNS can offer in shaping Political discourse in a country as Simba (2009) highlights that beside Obama’s ability of public speaking and inspiring people, his use of Social media and Internet to engage voters provided him with the support that most of other candidates never saw. On the other hand, confronted by an increasingly cynical and distrustful electorate (Whiteley et al., 2016), political parties and candidates have now started to adopt digital communication tools as a means to engage with publics. Consistent with Whiteley’s assertion, several international publications earmarked the 2014 Indian general elections as “India’s first social media elections” (Pandey, 2015). Over 500 million voters turned up to exercise their right in the world’s largest democracy which also recorded a record voter turnout of 66.38% beating the previous record on 1984 polls, results showed that the BJP won the biggest victory by any party for 30 years (BBCnews.com, 2014). Authors such as Sambandan (2014) and Ravi and Vasundara (2015) have explored and discussed the approach of Indian Prime Minister Modi and his party i.e. Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) in the use of social media for communication, these studies highlight the communication initiated from the Political party/Government end. However, this paper explores the role of Citizen initiated discussion forum on Facebook and the role they play within the national Political dialogue. The paper hence presents literature that explains how the factors that have caused social media to emerge as a tool of choice in political dialogue between Government/Party and the citizens; but more importantly the paper explores the role of region-centric Facebook based discussion forum in the political dialogue in order to gain clarity over ‘why’ social media is emerging as an alternate medium of political dialogue to Mainstream Media (MSM), what is the rationale behind social media forums like Goa+ emerging? The paper conducts a netnographic study using Administrators and Moderators of Goa+, a Facebook based Political discussion forum originating in Goa, India and consisting of over 76, 680 members.
    • The emerging conditions of meta-modernism: an observation-based interpretivist perspective on the curious case of Royal Enfield

      Amoncar, Nihar; Deacon, Jonathan; University of South Wales (Academy of Marketing, 2016-07-07)
      The paper aims to propose the emerging conditions Meta-modernism through an observation based, interpretivist perspective on Royal Enfield, an erstwhile iconic British motorcycle manufacturer from Redditch, England. The company went out of business in the UK, however, what remained of the company was a single functioning manufacturing plant in India, which was established in 1955. The company was saved from disappearing all together in 1994 by Eicher Group (a diverse automotive firm, better known as the manufacturer for Eicher Mitsubishi trucks in India). Fast-forward to 2015, at a time when the entire motorcycle industry in India is struggling (overall motorcycle sales in India were down 4.06 per cent during April to September 2015), Royal Enfield defied the trend by posting over 50 per cent sales growth during the April-September 2015 period (Doval, 2015; economictimes.indiatimes.com, 2015). This paper explores the authors’ perspective over some of the Marketing methods that attempts to propose possible reasons behind Royal Enfield, today, boasting a ‘niche’ bike manufacturer image not just in its home market of India but again: globally. Market segmentation is to understate the cult following the company has in terms of fans and enthusiasts of the brand and the product. Hence the paper unashamedly and in line with the meta-modernist view, revisits the concepts of post-modernism and tribe and seeks to gain insight into phenomena through this lens, attempting to explain and justify the use of culture, heritage, tribes and a disruptive marketing ‘campaign’ by a company which was on the brink of collapse, but has recently raced past Harley Davidson in terms of global sales.
    • Role of culture in effectuation: exploring the Marwari cultural philosophy and entrepreneurial approach

      Amoncar, Nihar; Deacon, Jonathan; Stephens, Paula; University of South Wales (Institute of Small Business and Entrepreneurship Conference 2016: Institutional voids, 2016-10-28)
      Social constructivist research within Entrepreneurship has gained momentum in recent years and this paper fits within this category. The paper explores the Marwari Business community from India which according to Timberg (2014, pp. 12), starting out as mere shopkeepers, the Marwaris controlled much of India’s inland trade by the time of the First World War. From trading and money-lending in the early 19th century, they gradually entered industrial entrepreneurship and by the 1970’s owned most of India’s private industrial assets. They now account for a quarter of the Indian names on the Forbes billionaires list (Timberg, 2014, pp. 12). The sustainable success of the Marwaris resulted in the authors of this paper leading an exploration on the history of the business community in India. This exploration led the authors of the paper into exploring the Hindu cultural philosophy based on the Vedantic school of thought to understand the roots of the Marwari community. The paper explores in detail the accounts of the limited empirical data available on the community through the works of Timberg (2014) and Damodaran (2008). This exploration resulted in identifying examples of entrepreneurial practice, which closely resemble what Sarasvathy (2001) terms as Effectuation. Effectuation theory has gained traction as growing number of researchers acknowledge that todays entrepreneurs tend to work within an uncertain environment wherein it is not possible to predict the future (Morrish, 2009, pp. 35). But according to Chandler (2011, pp. 387), there is need to explore more antecedents or determinants of Effectuation than simply uncertainty. The paper hence explores whether culture may emerge as an antecedent or determinant of Effectuation by presenting literature on the relationship between Effectuation, Entrepreneurial Orientation and Culture. The research questions emerging are as follows: RQ1) Do certain socio-cultural conditions positively impact Effectual behavior in Entrepreneurship? RQ2) Can culture be positioned as an antecedent to Effectuation in a collectivist society? This paper is based on the literature being explored as a part of PhD research. The research is in its early stage and the approach involves interpretive deductive analysis of the existing literature on Marwaris, Hindu Philosophy, Entrepreneurial Orientation and Effectuation, which results in the conceptual framework. The second stage of the PhD research will involve thematic analysis of narratives gathered from prominent members of the Marwari community from Calcutta and Jharkhand in India, which is aimed at inducting contemporary empirical evidence of Marwari entrepreneurial philosophy and potentially addressing not only the conceptual framework, but also the questions and discussions arising from the interpretive deductive analysis of the literature presented within this paper. The paper begins with the Methodology chapter in order to a) present an early clarity on the flow of literature within the paper and b) to avoid a break in flow of the ‘story’, a manner in which the literature and arguments are presented thereafter. This is followed by review of literature on Effectuation, community entrepreneurship, role of culture within entrepreneurship, Indian Hindu cultural philosophy and finally, a case account of Marwaris through review on limited existing empirical data on the community.
    • The pursuit of economic prosperity – exploring the entrepreneurial philosophy and approach of the Marwari Business community in India

      Amoncar, Nihar; Deacon, Jonathan; Stephens, Paula; University of South Wales (Academy of Marketing, 2017-07-06)
      The Marwari business community has evolved from being one of merely shopkeepers to controlling majority of India’s inland trade by the First World War. Moving from trading and money lending in the 19th century, the Marwaris owned majority of India’s private industrial assets by the 1970’s. From controlling much of India's industrial enterprise throughout the twentieth century, they now account for a quarter of the Indian names on the Forbes billionaire list (Timberg, 2014). Despite their prominence, surprisingly little research has attempted to explore the reasons for their success. This study addresses that gap by undertaking an examination of Marwari entrepreneurs operating in Kolkata, India. The paper leads an exploratory study into the Marwari approach to Entrepreneurship by conducting a narrative based research among Marwari entrepreneurs. The study presents evidence of the Marwaris’ unique approach to Entrepreneurship and argues for further research into the community in view of the research questions emerging out of this exploratory study.
    • Capacities of business incubator and regional innovation performance

      Wang, Zhaoxing; He, Qile; Xia, Senmao; Sarpong, David; Xiong, Ailun; Maas, Gideon; Coventry University; University of Derby; Brunel University London; Chongqing Technology and Business University, China (Elsevier, 2020-06-04)
      Recent years have witnessed the fast development of business incubators in many emerging economies, such as China. Business incubators are seen as important facilitators for innovation which provide office space, equipment, mentoring services, as well as financial, legal and administrative supports for technology entrepreneurs and start-up companies. Much investment has been undertaken to facilitate the development of business incubators, for example in financial frameworks, human resource development and communication infrastructure. This paper investigates the effects of business incubator capacities on the regional innovation performance, using a panel representing 31 Chinese provinces. This study finds that three capacities of business incubators have significant impacts on the regional innovation performance, while the incubation capacity appears to have a much greater effect than the basic capacity and the finance capacity. Moreover, this study also identifies that the regional communication infrastructure is an important moderator of the relationship between business incubator capacities and the regional innovation performance. This paper supports the view that emerging economies should encourage the development of business incubators in order to promote the development of technology entrepreneurs and domestic innovation performance, but more focus should be on creating free knowledge transfer platforms.
    • Social capital in Jordan: wasta in employment selection

      Sa'ad, Ali; Raiden, A; Kirk, S; University of Worcester; Nottingham Trent University (2015)
      Social capital has emerged as a concept of great interest and potential to help understand and explain how social structures and networks impact political, social and business practices at the collective and individual levels. The basic premise is: investment in social relations will yield expected returns. Extant research has largely focused on the West; our knowledge of how social capital plays out in the Middle East is limited. We marry social capital with ‘wasta’, the strong family and tribal based connections secured in networks in the Arab world, and investigate HR managers’ perceptions of wasta in employment selection in Jordan. Often use of wasta in employment selection is related to favouritism and nepotism and the many negative outcomes of not adhering to merit-based selection. Through in-depth interview data we reveal a more nuanced and multifaceted view of wasta in employment selection. When examined through the social capital lens six distinct themes emerge: (i) wasta as an enabler to get jobs, (ii) wasta as social ties/ solidarity, (iii) wasta as a method to transfer/ attain information, (iv) wasta as a guide in decision-making, (v) wasta as an exchange, and (vi) wasta as pressure. Our findings confirm that at times wasta grants individuals unfair access to employment that is beyond their qualifications, skills, knowledge and/ or abilities. However, organisational context is relevant. In banking, not all roles are open to wasta. Where the possible negative impact on the organisation poses too great a risk HR managers feel able to resist even strong wasta. Context also emerges as being of key importance with regards to the background and business model of an organisation. Family businesses tend to operate wasta more frequently and extensively using tribal connections, religious networks and geographical area based networks as a key source in hiring. Despite globalisation and international nature of banking, wasta and tribalism feature strongly in daily business conduct in Jordan. Our paper illuminates the positive effects of wasta, e.g.as a method to transfer information, together with discussion on the dangers of ‘cloning’, a (lack of diversity), and the dangers of an incompetent workforce
    • Use of social networks by women in the Jordanian banking sector for career development

      Ali, Sa'ad; Ross, Catharine; Risheg, Layla; University of Worcester (2019)