• Explicating the microfoundation of SME pro-environmental operations: The role of top-managers

      Zhao, Li; He, Qile; Shanghai Lixin University of Accounting and Finance, China; University of Derby (Emerald Publishing Limited, 2022-03-01)
      By recognizing the decisive role of top-managers (TMs) of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), this study attempts to explicate the microfoundation of pro-environmental operations of SMEs by examining the influence of institutional pressure on managerial cognition and subsequent SME pro-environmental operations. This study highlights the personal ethics of TMs, so as to examine the moderating effect of TMs’ place attachment on SMEs’ pro-environmental operations. Empirical data is collected from a questionnaire survey of 509 SMEs in China. Hierarchical regression results are subject to cross-validation using secondary public data. This study demonstrates that coercive and mimetic pressures have inverted U-shaped effects, whilst normative pressure has a U-shaped effect on the threat cognition of TMs. The results also show that TMs’ threat cognition (as opposed to opportunity cognition) positively influence SMEs’ pro-environmental operations. Moreover, both the emotional (place identity) and functional (place dependence) dimensions of place attachment have positive moderating effects on the relationship between threat cognition and SMEs’ pro-environmental operations. Practical implications – Findings of this study lead to important implications for practitioners such as regulators, policy makers and trade associations. Enabling better understanding of the nature of SMEs’ pro-environmental operations, they allow for more targeted development and the provision of optimal institutional tools to promote such operations. This study allows some important factors that differentiate SMEs from large firms to surface. These factors (i.e., institutional pressures, managerial cognition and place attachment) and the interactions between them form important constituents of the microfoundations of SMEs’ pro-environmental operations.
    • Sustainability-driven co-opetition in supply chains as strategic capabilities: Drivers, facilitators, and barriers

      Mirzabeiki, Vahid; He, Qile; Sarpong, David; University of Surrey; University of Derby; Brunel University London (Taylor & Francis, 2022-02-27)
      Co-opetition is gaining increasing attention as a potentially useful form of inter-organizational collaboration model to improve firms’ sustainable performance. However, limited previous studies have provided a clear substantive theory or offered empirical evidence for the process of sustainability-driven co-opetition. This paper explores how competing companies can collaborate in their supply chains (SCs) to achieve a higher level of sustainability performance by identifying drivers, facilitators and barriers of co-opetition. Based on two explorative case studies of co-opetition in the UK, the findings of this paper lead to a number of propositions and a theoretical framework for sustainability-driven co-opetition in SCs. This study contributes to the literature by providing a more in-depth understanding of co-opetition as a strategic capability for firms. This paper also proves the feasibility of a combined use of Resource-Based View and Network Theory perspectives in explaining a paradoxical inter-organizational relationship like co-opetition. A road map for sustainability-driven co-opetition in SCs is also provided as a heuristic decision model for practitioners.
    • COVID-19 pandemic, stock returns, and volatility: the role of the vaccination program in Canada

      Apergis, Nicholas; mustafa, Ghulam; Malik, Shafaq; University of Piraeus, Piraeus, Greece; University of Derby; Queen Mary University of London, London (Taylor & Francis, 2022-02-09)
      This paper examines how stock returns and volatility in the Canadian stock market have been affected by both the COVID-19 pandemic and the associated vaccination program. The empirical analysis is based on the generalized autoregressive conditionally heteroskedastic model which explicitly allows the inclusion of information on the COVID-19 pandemic and the vaccination program. The analysis uses daily Canadian equity returns and volatility, spanning the period 27 January 2020, to 31 August 2021. The findings provide evidence that the COVID-19 pandemic exerts a significant negative impact on the mean of Canadian stock returns and a positive impact on their volatility. In contrast, the findings provide novel evidence that the vaccination program in Canada has reversed these detrimental effects.
    • Lauterborn's 4Cs

      Akbar, M. Bilal; Lawson, Alison; Turner, Nick; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University (Palgrave/ Springer, 2022-02-03)
      Lauterborn (1990) wrote in Advertising Age that it was ‘time to retire McCarthy’s 4Ps’ (p.26). With extensive experience in marketing communications and corporate advertising as well as experience as a senior academic, Lauterborn felt that the 4Ps marketing mix had had their day. McCarthy’s marketing planning model (1960) focused on the organisation’s point of view: · The product that was on offer, its features and benefits, what the organization could produce · The price the organization wanted to charge for the product · The place the organization would make the product available so that customers would see it · The way the organization planned to promote the product and the mix of communications methods they would use. Lauterborn’s 4Cs, in contrast, focused on the consumer’s point of view, turning round the 4Ps and repurposing them for a new age. Times had changed since the birth of the 4Ps – consumers had more choice than ever, had more ways of buying, more places to buy from, more ways of communicating. He felt this new focus would lead to more successful marketing planning, as the consumer was at the heart of the model.
    • Cheating behaviour among OPEC member-states and oil price fairness and stability: an empirical analysis

      Ibrahim, Masud; Omoteso, Kamil; Coventry University; University of Derby (Inderscience, 2022-02-03)
      Within the context of a target oil price band regime, this paper posits that cheating behaviour in OPEC has ethical and accountability implications for the organisation. It also impacts on its reputation and ability to ensure stable and fair oil prices in the oil markets. Based on datasets covering the period from 2000 to 2012 (i.e. production quota era), analysed using the vector autoregression/vector error correction (VAR-VEC) framework, the study’s results indicate that OPEC cheating, mainly instigated by the amount of spare production capacity available to OPEC members, does not seem to have a significant direct effect on international oil prices. However, the degree of cheating by OPEC member-states might disrupt its ability to maintain surplus capacity enough to reduce price speculation in the oil markets. Should cheating behaviour in OPEC continue unabated, this could jeopardise an effective energy regulatory framework and market transparency. The paper, therefore, recommends a policy action in OPEC to support the redesigning of the existing quota system that is fair and just to its members and capable of controlling any cheating behaviour.
    • Exploring Entrepreneurial Diversity: A Fascination or Frustration?

      Aluthgama-Baduge, Chinthaka Jayananda; Rajasinghe, Duminda; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University (Springer, 2022-01-01)
      This chapter critically discusses the importance of acknowledging diversity within entrepreneurship and some strategies to facilitate the richness of the phenomenon. It helps researchers and practitioners to understand the importance and benefits of having different but equally valid world views about the phenomenon, which is vital for entrepreneurship research to progress further. We acknowledge that there are already some established arguments to support inclusiveness within the current context of entrepreneurship research. Aim here is to strengthen these arguments with a brief literature rationale, which is informed by our research experience. One of the key advantages of acknowledging heterogeneity is that it can help scholars to convert any frustrations that is caused by not having common understanding to a fascination to embrace the wholeness of the phenomenon. Our understanding of how to appreciate diversity and inclusion is limited, as a solution, we encourage critical debates among multiple actors of entrepreneurship and urge to widen research adopting more innovative and creative approaches.
    • Are Environmental Taxes effective in curbing Air Pollution? Evidence from the United Kingdom

      Basu Roy, Sharanya; Ghosh Dastidar, Sayantan; University of Derby (Economic Issues Education Trust, 2021-09)
      There is mounting evidence that emissions of greenhouse gases trigger harmful environmental changes which, in turn, exert immense pressure on the governments to reduce environmental damage without impeding the rate of economic growth. Consequently, the governments have been employing a variety of instruments, including taxes, at their disposal. In this context, the study examines the empirical relationship between environmental taxes and air pollution for the UK during 1997-2017 by employing Vector Autoregression method and Granger causality tests. The econometric findings indicate that only energy taxes have been successful in curbing air pollution whereas the other environmental taxes, such as, transport and pollution and resource taxes have failed to exert any significant impact on air quality. We argue that factors, such as, ineffectiveness of the landfill tax, lack of efficient waste management practices and shortcomings in the motor vehicle tax system are offsetting the impacts of the pollution and transport taxes.
    • Decarbonising supply chain operations

      Daniel, Jay; Dissanayake, C. Kalpani; University of derby; Pennsylvania State University (IEOM Society International, 2021-08)
      The United Nations (UN) developed sustainable development goals (SDGs) in 2015 to end poverty as a global agenda for the future to protect the planet, create peace and prosperity for its population. The UN emphasises the development should be balancing environmental, economic, and social sustainability. Also, nowadays governments, customers, and stakeholders’ pressure to remark environmental and social footprints have been increased. Decarbonising and sustainability of the supply chain is one of such novel ideas involving all the business value-adding operations. This includes purchasing, upstream, and downstream supply chains, distribution and collaboration with suppliers and patrons in a way that has the least negative environmental and social effects. To minimise energy consumption and carbon emissions in the supply chain operations we need to integrate carbon efficiency in suppliers, transportation, plants, distribution centers/warehouses all the way to the market. The main objective of this study is to investigate measuring eco-efficiency of suppliers in the supply chain with data envelopment analysis (DEA). It has the potential to minimise carbon footprints in the supply chain and to address the UN sustainability goals relating to creating a sustainable supply chain in measuring technical (operational), environmental and eco-efficiency of suppliers. In this paper, we model the necessity of simultaneous application of worst and best practice DEA in measuring eco-efficiency of suppliers to minimise carbon footprint in the supply chain. This model would help organisations to balance environmental, economic, and social sustainability in the supply chain in response to the UN sustainable development goals. It is found that this proposed model can provide a more reliable evaluation and selection of right suppliers considering their environmental and other traditional criteria. We also develop an integrated approach through DEA models for measuring technical (operational), environmental and ecoefficiency of suppliers. The proposed models are applied to evaluate the eco-efficiency of a manufacturing company in an automotive industry.
    • How to Improve Data Quality in Supply Chain? A Literature Survey

      Daniel, Jay; Satpleton, Drew; University of Derby; University of Wisconsin La Crosse (IEOM Society International, 2021-08)
      Data quality in supply chains is getting greater attention from both industries and researchers. As poor data quality could cost a fortune for supply chain partners, the quality of the data is becoming an important research topic within the supply chain management literature. There are many benefits in having good data quality in supply chains such as cutting costs and improving responsibility and accuracy along the chain. Increasingly customers are demanding details for transactional data and the source of the manufactured products, including raw materials, suppliers, etc. Having good data quality helps create efficient supply chains with greater accuracy and transparency. As there exists limited literature surveys in the supply chains and data quality contexts, this study explores data quality in supply chains through literature survey and bibliometric review. The bibliometric analysis for data quality has been proceeded employing a visualization software to elucidate the prominent keywords, publication trends, authors and their cooperation and active countries in this field. The study reveals some interesting findings about the direction and trends of data quality in supply chains and emerging research themes, leading countries, key authors and emerging research topics in this field.
    • Do Pandemic Related Datasets with High Artificial Control Still Follow the Benford’s Law?

      Dissanayake, C. Kalpani; Daniel, Jay; Pennsylvania State University; University of Derby (IEOM Society International, 2021-08)
      Benford’s Law (BL) is being used extensively in research for several purposes including for the detection of potential manipulations of the data to detect fraud since datasets tend to follow the Benford’s distribution when they occur naturally without artificial control. The COVID-19 pandemic has heavily impacted business and non-businessrelated activities. Datasets related to the pandemic are being used in many different analyses to arrive at different conclusions. However, the credibility of the results and conclusions depend heavily on the accuracy of the datasets. The COVID-19 related datasets are obvious results of intense human intervention and artificial control efforts; therefore, the question arises as to whether Benford’s analysis can still be used to detect anomalous datasets among them? This research uses several publicly available datasets and uses predictive analytics to perform the Benford’s analysis. The applicability of BL is first verified using a regular dataset occurred prior to the pandemic, and then applied on COVID-19 related datasets to test the research hypothesis. The results demonstrate that even the datasets with sufficiently large sample sizes with considerable human intervention and artificial control follow the Benford’s distribution and that Benford’s analysis can still detect the anomalous datasets. The findings are anticipated to be useful for the data analysts and researchers and adds to the current literature gap. This paper may also serve as a class case study for the academia teaching data analytics.
    • Blockchain Technology for Businesses: Trends and Research Themes

      Daniel, Jay; University of Derby (EDSI, 2021-06)
      Blockchain, a recent transformative innovation, is increasingly becoming interesting to practitioner, academics, and regulators across several industries. Since the Bitcoin introduced by Nakamoto (2008), the blockchain concept emerged as the platform technology of the cryptocurrency Bitcoin. Blockchain has potential benefits such as transparency, distributed ledger, immutability of records, etc. (Iansiti & Lakhani, 2017), which are attractive for businesses. These advantages have the potential capabilities in transforming the end-to-end supply chain activities in businesses. The blockchain technology would resolve the problem of immutable ledgers distributed to many businesses in the supply chain (Maroun et al., 2019). Currently, customers are demanding details for transactions and the source of the manufactured products, including raw materials, suppliers, etc. Track and trace of all kinds of transactions would create efficient supply chain for businesses with more transparency and security (Francisco & Swanson, 2018; Notheisen et al., 2017). As most blockchain initiatives are yet at the first outset, this paper investigates blockchain technology through literature review using bibliometric. The bibliometric analysis for blockchain technology has been proceeded applying a visualization software to find out the prominent keywords, publication trend, authors and their cooperation and active countries in this field. The research uncovers some interesting findings of the direction and trends of blockchain technology and emerging research themes, leading countries, key authors, and new emerging topics. Keywords: Blockchain, Supply Chain Management, Distributed Ledger, Transparency, Literature Review
    • Supply Chain Mapping and Visualisation of UK Rail Sector

      Rajeev, Rohit; Daniel, Jay; University of Derby (British Academy of Management, 2021-09)
      The UK government in 2018 announced a rail sector deal in conjunction with the UK Rail Industry and identified four key pillars to double export performance by 2025 (HM Government, 2018) as follows. 1. Digital transformation 2. Innovate intelligent mobility 3. Create sustainability in UK rail sector 4. Improve exports and investment The area of research in this developmental paper is creation of a UK rail supply chain map to identify strengths and weaknesses to improve exports and investments thereby meeting objectives three and four. Authors involved in this project liaise with different stakeholders from Unipart Rail, Department for International Trade, Railway Industry Association, Department for Transport, Depart for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. This paper consists of a brief rationale for the project undertaking followed by an initial literature review to understand the historical importance of using big data analytics and visualisation in the rail industry in UK and globally. This paper will investigate and conduct data analytics methods to create a comprehensive supply chain visualisation through Microsoft Power BI. Outcome of supply chain mapping will aid towards improving the export capability of the UK Rail sector by enabling the stakeholders to identify strengths and weaknesses of suppliers in different geographic clusters. Keyword: Rail Supply Chain, Big Data, Visualisation, UK Rail Sector
    • Sustainable-business waste management a case the Emirate of Ajman – UAE

      AlHosani, Khaled; Liravi, Pouria; University of Derby (Springer, 2022)
      Waste is an unavoidable product of society, and it is a challenge to realise how to manage significant quantities of different types of waste in a way that has benefits for society, the economy and the environment and governments are facing a formidable challenge in trying to find solutions. Due to the continuous increase in population and the standard of life as well as industrial development, the UAE Government, like others, has the challenge to manage large quantities of different types of waste. Besides, there exists a lack of waste management correlated with business opportunities policies and practices in the UAE. This paper discusses the fact that these challenges can be overcome, resulting in benefits for the society, the economy, and the environment when introducing well-designed waste associated business models to the local and national markets, new waste management model framework correlated with business. Empowering industries to manage waste have been argued as the most innovative and practical approach to waste management strategy set to get businesses to place sustainability at the top of their priority list. This does not only help extend producer responsibility but creates a circular economy that retains the value of materials within the economy. Renowned benefits, therefore, exist for the Emirate of Ajman if industries are empowered to manage waste; these benefits go beyond the reduced level of waste sent to the landfills and incineration sites but have leveraged benefits to the economy as a whole, it is also concluded that the primary factors and practices that possibly can enable the business sectors to recycle and reuse maximum quantity of the total waste produced from the Emirates of Ajman by introducing a comprehensive business development model.
    • Predicting future default on the Covid-19 bounce back loan scheme: The 46.5 billion question

      Cowling, Marc; Wilson, N; Nightingale, P; Kacer, M; University of Derby; University of Leeds (SAGE, 2022)
      The UK has had a commitment to loan guarantee schemes since 1981 when it introduced the Small Firms Loan Guarantee (SFLG) scheme to address access to debt finance issues for smaller firms. Over the last 40 years its’ support has been unwavering and in the Covid-19 crisis it once again turned to loan guarantees as a means of supporting smaller firms through the crisis induced slump in trading activities. Of its three core Covid-19 guarantee schemes, the Bounce Back Loan scheme was the most numerous with 1,531,095 loans issued amounting to a total of £46.5bn in lending. The BBL scheme provided a 100% capital guarantee on loans between £2,000 and £50,000, and firms were allowed to borrow up to 25% of their trading income, with a fixed interest rate of 2.5% of which the first years interest was paid by the government to the lending bank. Our findings suggest that the government losses may range between £7bn and £12bn depending on the underlying assumptions. But we estimate Covid-19 guarantee schemes may have protected 118,639 businesses and 1,117,849 jobs. Looking to the future we suggest that a new loan guarantee is justified which is more like the former SFLG than the restrictive EFG as more than 1 million small businesses will be heavily indebted and unable to borrow to invest in future growth opportunities. This would support the 'levelling-up' agenda and help prevent a post-Covid-19 low investment - low growth scenario.
    • Has previous loan rejection scarred firms from applying for loans during Covid-19?

      Cowling, Marc; Calabrese, Raffaella; Liu, Weixi; University of Derby; University of Edinburgh; University of Bath (Springer, 2021-12-18)
      The concept of the ‘discouraged’ borrower is well documented. In this paper we consider whether smaller firms in the UK who have been previously rejected for bank loans have been scarred by the experience so badly that even in the presence of two exceptionally generous Covid-19 loan guarantee schemes they still refuse to make an application. Further, we also consider what happens when they do. As banks have either zero or minimal loss exposure, do they still maintain their normal strict lending protocols or do they relax their standards to fulfil the governments’ objective of supporting struggling businesses through the crisis? Our findings show that 72% of previously rejected borrowers are reluctant to request loans. We find some evidence that previously scarred firms faced such severe liquidity problems that they relaxed their distrust of banks during the Covid-19 crisis. However, their share of the governments guaranteed loan portfolio was slightly lower suggesting that banks were treating each new loan application on its merits.
    • Understanding the Dynamics of UK Covid-19 SME Financing

      Calabrese, Raffaella; Cowling, Marc; Liu, Weixi; University of Edinburgh; University of Derby; University of Bath (Wiley, 2021-12-14)
      The scale of the UK government’s response to the Covid-19 crisis after the first lockdown in March 2020 was unprecedented. For the business sector two financing schemes were particularly relevant, the Coronavirus Business Interruption Loan (CBILS) and the Bounce Back Loan (BBLS). Both were designed to support the capitalisation of businesses through this difficult trading period. In this paper we use data covering the first two quarters of the Covid-19 crisis to explore the dynamics of SME financing and in particular the role of government support schemes. Our findings show that 92.1% of all debt funds provided in this period were backed by the UK government which compares to less than 5% under normal circumstances. We find that the demand, supply, and government share of SME lending increased from Covid-19 quarter 1 (April to June 2020) to quarter 2 (July to September 2020), that micro and small businesses had the highest demand for loans, and that better-performing firms were more likely to receive loans. Further, in a world where more loan requests than ever were granted the government share of this pool of loans had a different risk profile than the small pool of non-government backed loans.
    • The Impact of Enterprise and Entrepreneurship Education on Regional Development

      Bozward, David; Rogers-Draycott, Matthew; Smith, Kelly; Mave, Mokuba; Curtis, Vic; Aluthgama-Baduge, Chinthaka Jayananda; Moon, Rob; Adams, Nigel; Royal Agricultural University; University of Birmingham; et al. (ISBE, 2021-10-29)
      The paper explores the ways in which enterprise and entrepreneurial education (EEE), delivered by HEI’s, impacts regional development. To do this we analysed several datasets from The Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) and the Office for National Statistics (ONS) focusing on the ways in which HEI start-up activity impacts indicators including GDP and employment. This highlights where further research and investment is needed to ensure a consistent regional development policy which we believe aligns with the conference's focus on connecting practitioners and policymakers to create a genuine change in regional disparities.
    • The determinants of aggregate fluctuations: The role of firm‐borrowing channels

      Ghosh Dastidar, Sayantan; Apergis, Nicholas; University of Piraeus, Piraeus, Greece; University of Derby (Wiley, 2021-10-27)
      The paper examines the empirical relationship between firm-borrowing channels and aggregate fluctuations for the 100 largest US firms over 2000–2018. The motivation for this study originates from the general consensus in macroeconomics that microeconomic shocks to firms cannot generate significant aggregate fluctuations. The analysis extends Gabaix's 2011 baseline model by incorporating measures for “bank shocks” at the firm-level. In addition to supporting the granular hypothesis, the econometric results indicate that bank shocks have a weak impact on GDP fluctuations, whereas non-bank loans exert a strong impact on the same. The above findings survive certain robustness checks associated with the presence of oil and monetary shocks, as well as with the firms’ location factor.
    • Governance thresholds and the human capital–growth nexus

      Apergis, Nick; Mustafa, Ghulam; Khan, Muhammad; University of Piraeus, Piraeus, Greece; University of Derby; Queen Mary University of London, UK; IQRA University, Islamabad, Pakistan (Emerald, 2021-10-20)
      The literature that explores the relationship between human capital and economic growth has produced mixed results. It highlights the puzzle on the correlations between human capital and economic growth. This study contributes to this debate by offering an explanation of the puzzling effects. Using the threshold model proposed by Kremer et al. (2013), the results document that there is a threshold effect in the human capital–growth nexus. The findings illustrate that the relationship between human capital and economic growth is weakly positive up to a certain threshold level of governance; however, the relationship turns out to be positive once the threshold level has been achieved. The mixed evidence on the human capital–growth relationship can be explained through institutional quality differences. The findings recommend that better governance is complementary to contribute to the productive use of human capital in achieving higher economic growth.
    • Circular Economy in Agri-Food Sector: Food Waste Management Perspective

      Tanveer, Umair; Ishaq, Shamaila; Gough, Andrew; University of Bristol; University of Derby; University of Northampton (Springer, 2021-09-15)
      Reducing the food waste is the greatest challenge in the present times for sustainable food management systems that have significant economic, environmental and social impact on the food supply chain. The Circular Economy (CE) paradigm advocates the concept of the closed-loop economy endorsing more responsible utilization and appropriate exploitation of resources in contrast to the open-ended linear economic system of take-make-use and dispose. This chapter has explored Agri-Food waste in the context of CE, triple bottom line (TBL), and sustainability. An alignment of circular strategies with the food waste hierarchy is proposed that indicates practical application of the gradations of circularity in the food waste management that could lead to the development of sustainable food management system targeting the sustainable development goals of Zero Hunger and Responsible consumption and production. This chapter also highlights some opportunities and challenges of Agri-Food waste in the application of circular bio-economy.