• Defining contextual advantage: exploring the contextual relation between effectuation and entrepreneurial marketing for creating new markets effectually

      Amoncar, Nihar; Deacon, Jonathan; Stephens, Paula; University of South Wales (Asia Pacific Institute of Advanced Research, 2016-01-12)
      The paper explores the behaviour of the Entrepreneur and the Effectual use of available resources mainly social capital in new market creation. The study dwells on creating a unique ‘Context’ by leveraging these resources to increase the Entrepreneurial orientation of a firm. The paper further attempts to explore whether the Contextual link between Effectuation and Entrepreneurial Marketing helps develop a ‘Contextual Advantage’, which can be used as a mean of developing a unique business model which differentiates the firm in the market. The paper hence explores contemporary theories of Entrepreneurship and Marketing namely Entrepreneurial Marketing, Effectuation and Contextual Marketing by studying their inter-relation. The nature of these theories is under-explored according to the authors and requires further investigation to evolve the field of Marketing and Entrepreneurship.
    • The emerging conditions of meta-modernism: an observation-based interpretivist perspective on the curious case of Royal Enfield

      Amoncar, Nihar; Deacon, Jonathan; University of South Wales (Academy of Marketing, 2016-07-07)
      The paper aims to propose the emerging conditions Meta-modernism through an observation based, interpretivist perspective on Royal Enfield, an erstwhile iconic British motorcycle manufacturer from Redditch, England. The company went out of business in the UK, however, what remained of the company was a single functioning manufacturing plant in India, which was established in 1955. The company was saved from disappearing all together in 1994 by Eicher Group (a diverse automotive firm, better known as the manufacturer for Eicher Mitsubishi trucks in India). Fast-forward to 2015, at a time when the entire motorcycle industry in India is struggling (overall motorcycle sales in India were down 4.06 per cent during April to September 2015), Royal Enfield defied the trend by posting over 50 per cent sales growth during the April-September 2015 period (Doval, 2015; economictimes.indiatimes.com, 2015). This paper explores the authors’ perspective over some of the Marketing methods that attempts to propose possible reasons behind Royal Enfield, today, boasting a ‘niche’ bike manufacturer image not just in its home market of India but again: globally. Market segmentation is to understate the cult following the company has in terms of fans and enthusiasts of the brand and the product. Hence the paper unashamedly and in line with the meta-modernist view, revisits the concepts of post-modernism and tribe and seeks to gain insight into phenomena through this lens, attempting to explain and justify the use of culture, heritage, tribes and a disruptive marketing ‘campaign’ by a company which was on the brink of collapse, but has recently raced past Harley Davidson in terms of global sales.
    • Entrepreneurial marketing and digital political communication – a citizen-led perspective on the role of social media in political discourse

      Amoncar, Nihar; University of Derby (Emerald, 2020-10-14)
      The paper intends to explore the role and function of citizen-led social media forums in the marketing of political discourse. Using the Entrepreneurial marketing perspective of ‘co-creation of value’, this paper explores the manner in which consumers of political communications in a specific region have created user generated value via setting up Facebook forums to manage the risk created by fake news and the trust deficit between citizens and mainstream media. The paper adopts a ‘netnographic’ approach to investigation and the data is analysed manual coding (Kozinets, 2015). Facebook groups form the virtual research field in in the context of this study. This approach is adopted because in a social media environment, netnography capitalizes over a growing virtual and online communities and allows researchers to study the richness of these online communities (Mkono and Markwell, 2014). The study provides insights on how administrators and moderators of Facebook groups create value for other users by identifying and communicating the risks emerging from Social media based political communication. The study finds that such citizen-led initiatives act as online social aggregators. The value that such groups offer its users/members resides within a well-bound, controlled and moderated online medium that encourages users to counter fake news and misinformation - thereby solving a key problem within the user market i.e. citizen-media trust deficit. The study utilizes a qualitative, netnographic approach and the emerging insights cannot be generalised. The emergent findings are specific to the context of this study and researchers are encouraged to further test the propositions emerging from this research in varied contexts. The study extends the application of Entrepreneurial marketing in political contexts using the seven dimensions of Entrepreneurial marketing which will provide impetus for future political campaigns in terms of unique value creation for publics. The paper also emerges with the role citizen-initiated forums can play in the effective dissemination of digital political communication as user generated content is aiding political debate. The paper takes initiative in investigating the use of Social media in Politics from the citizens perspective, which is comparatively marginalised against the number of studies taking place which investigate the Political party end use of Social media for Political marketing.
    • Keeping it in the family: exploring Igbo ethnic entrepreneurial behaviour in Nigeria

      Igwe, Paul Agu; Newbery, Robert; Amoncar, Nihar; White, Gareth R.T.; Madichie, Nnamdi O.; University of Lincoln; Newcastle Unviersity; University of South Wales; London School of Business and Management (Emerald, 2018-09-24)
      The purpose of this paper is to examine the attributes of the Igbos in Eastern Nigeria and the underlying factors influencing their entrepreneurial behaviour. More specifically, the study highlights the links between family, culture, institution and entrepreneurial behaviour in the African context. This paper is based on a qualitative research method by interviewing 50 entrepreneurs and community leaders of the Igbo nation. Igbos have been described as “naturally enterprising and ingenious” and can be found throughout Nigeria and West Africa. Understanding the vagaries of ethnic entrepreneurship can arguably only be achieved through research that is undertaken within these socio-historically rich, traditional and cultural contexts. Linked to the social learning theory, Igbo families provide an entrepreneurial leadership platform which influences youths through role models, providing mastery experiences and socialisation. The extended family provides a safe environment for risk taking, creativity and innovation. Also, an informal apprenticeship system provides entrepreneurial learning that prepares the younger generation to take to business as a way of life. The study is based on a relatively small sample size of 50 respondents, which makes it difficult to generalise the findings despite the benefits of the research methods adopted in the study. Also, there are limitations to the extension of the findings to a generalised Igbo population comprising individuals who may, or may not, behave entrepreneurially. There are significant practical implications, both nationally and internationally, for policy makers that are concerned with developing jobs for the growing population of unemployed youths and inclusive entrepreneurship in Nigeria. The research has three main contributions. First, it valorises indigenous knowledge of family and institutional entrepreneurial behaviour in an African context. Second, it highlights the importance of the linked institutions of the extended family and the informal apprenticeship system in Igbo culture. Finally, it provides a model and an explanation of how the Igbo culture nurtures and develops transgenerational entrepreneurial behaviour.
    • The notion of growth: A research agenda for SMEs and entrepreneurs

      Deacon, Jonathan; Amoncar, Nihar; University of South Wales (AMED and ISBE, 2016-07-15)
      Academics within the Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise (SME) sector have been working towards identifying the factors that are impediments to the growth and development of SMEs around the world. This article attempts to understand the ‘notion of growth’ as experienced by SMEs in Wales and East India (particularly West Bengal), by exploring the narratives of entrepreneurs within those regions (see images 1 and 2 below). Our research is primarily qualitative in nature and is based on a semi-structured interview approach in Wales, and on narrative inquiry in India. We believe that such a methodology is critical in understanding the notion of growth, and our method involved interviewing established entrepreneurs in order to ascertain their multiple perspectives on growth. We assert the importance in Government policy formulation of understanding and using the language of growth as defined by the ‘context’ of the entrepreneurs. Our research approach: briefly, our research involved the collection and interpretation of both qualitative and quantitative data. In Wales, we worked with six gender-balanced focus groups, each consisting of eight business-owners who represent a range of MSMEs across the regions. Group discussions were augmented by in-depth 1:1 interviews. We also conducted a comprehensive, questionnaire-based pan-Wales telephone survey. In West Bengal, we engaged in a narrative inquiry, derived from 1:1 conversations and field notes, with a group of eight male entrepreneurs. Requests for confidentiality were a particular issue here. We selected the West Bengal Chamber of Commerce and CREDAI – (the Bengal branch of the Confederation of Real Estate Developers Association of India), as well as other forums that we mention throughout this article, according to their relevance to thematic analysis of the data we collected. If you would like a more detailed account of our sampling and research methods, please feel free to contact Nihar Amoncar.
    • The pursuit of economic prosperity – exploring the entrepreneurial philosophy and approach of the Marwari Business community in India

      Amoncar, Nihar; Deacon, Jonathan; Stephens, Paula; University of South Wales (Academy of Marketing, 2017-07-06)
      The Marwari business community has evolved from being one of merely shopkeepers to controlling majority of India’s inland trade by the First World War. Moving from trading and money lending in the 19th century, the Marwaris owned majority of India’s private industrial assets by the 1970’s. From controlling much of India's industrial enterprise throughout the twentieth century, they now account for a quarter of the Indian names on the Forbes billionaire list (Timberg, 2014). Despite their prominence, surprisingly little research has attempted to explore the reasons for their success. This study addresses that gap by undertaking an examination of Marwari entrepreneurs operating in Kolkata, India. The paper leads an exploratory study into the Marwari approach to Entrepreneurship by conducting a narrative based research among Marwari entrepreneurs. The study presents evidence of the Marwaris’ unique approach to Entrepreneurship and argues for further research into the community in view of the research questions emerging out of this exploratory study.
    • Role of culture in effectuation: exploring the Marwari cultural philosophy and entrepreneurial approach

      Amoncar, Nihar; Deacon, Jonathan; Stephens, Paula; University of South Wales (Institute of Small Business and Entrepreneurship Conference 2016: Institutional voids, 2016-10-28)
      Social constructivist research within Entrepreneurship has gained momentum in recent years and this paper fits within this category. The paper explores the Marwari Business community from India which according to Timberg (2014, pp. 12), starting out as mere shopkeepers, the Marwaris controlled much of India’s inland trade by the time of the First World War. From trading and money-lending in the early 19th century, they gradually entered industrial entrepreneurship and by the 1970’s owned most of India’s private industrial assets. They now account for a quarter of the Indian names on the Forbes billionaires list (Timberg, 2014, pp. 12). The sustainable success of the Marwaris resulted in the authors of this paper leading an exploration on the history of the business community in India. This exploration led the authors of the paper into exploring the Hindu cultural philosophy based on the Vedantic school of thought to understand the roots of the Marwari community. The paper explores in detail the accounts of the limited empirical data available on the community through the works of Timberg (2014) and Damodaran (2008). This exploration resulted in identifying examples of entrepreneurial practice, which closely resemble what Sarasvathy (2001) terms as Effectuation. Effectuation theory has gained traction as growing number of researchers acknowledge that todays entrepreneurs tend to work within an uncertain environment wherein it is not possible to predict the future (Morrish, 2009, pp. 35). But according to Chandler (2011, pp. 387), there is need to explore more antecedents or determinants of Effectuation than simply uncertainty. The paper hence explores whether culture may emerge as an antecedent or determinant of Effectuation by presenting literature on the relationship between Effectuation, Entrepreneurial Orientation and Culture. The research questions emerging are as follows: RQ1) Do certain socio-cultural conditions positively impact Effectual behavior in Entrepreneurship? RQ2) Can culture be positioned as an antecedent to Effectuation in a collectivist society? This paper is based on the literature being explored as a part of PhD research. The research is in its early stage and the approach involves interpretive deductive analysis of the existing literature on Marwaris, Hindu Philosophy, Entrepreneurial Orientation and Effectuation, which results in the conceptual framework. The second stage of the PhD research will involve thematic analysis of narratives gathered from prominent members of the Marwari community from Calcutta and Jharkhand in India, which is aimed at inducting contemporary empirical evidence of Marwari entrepreneurial philosophy and potentially addressing not only the conceptual framework, but also the questions and discussions arising from the interpretive deductive analysis of the literature presented within this paper. The paper begins with the Methodology chapter in order to a) present an early clarity on the flow of literature within the paper and b) to avoid a break in flow of the ‘story’, a manner in which the literature and arguments are presented thereafter. This is followed by review of literature on Effectuation, community entrepreneurship, role of culture within entrepreneurship, Indian Hindu cultural philosophy and finally, a case account of Marwaris through review on limited existing empirical data on the community.
    • Social media in politics – simple aggregator or the emerging Ministry of truth

      Amoncar, Nihar; Deacon, Jonathan; University of South Wales (Academy of Marketing, 2017-07-06)
      Ravi and Vasundara (2015) posit that Social Networking Sites (SNS) like Twitter and Facebook have become great tools for the reluctant young Indians to actively engage in discussions concerning Political, Economic and Social issues. Within the last decade, authors have identified the competitive advantage SNS can offer in shaping Political discourse in a country as Simba (2009) highlights that beside Obama’s ability of public speaking and inspiring people, his use of Social media and Internet to engage voters provided him with the support that most of other candidates never saw. On the other hand, confronted by an increasingly cynical and distrustful electorate (Whiteley et al., 2016), political parties and candidates have now started to adopt digital communication tools as a means to engage with publics. Consistent with Whiteley’s assertion, several international publications earmarked the 2014 Indian general elections as “India’s first social media elections” (Pandey, 2015). Over 500 million voters turned up to exercise their right in the world’s largest democracy which also recorded a record voter turnout of 66.38% beating the previous record on 1984 polls, results showed that the BJP won the biggest victory by any party for 30 years (BBCnews.com, 2014). Authors such as Sambandan (2014) and Ravi and Vasundara (2015) have explored and discussed the approach of Indian Prime Minister Modi and his party i.e. Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) in the use of social media for communication, these studies highlight the communication initiated from the Political party/Government end. However, this paper explores the role of Citizen initiated discussion forum on Facebook and the role they play within the national Political dialogue. The paper hence presents literature that explains how the factors that have caused social media to emerge as a tool of choice in political dialogue between Government/Party and the citizens; but more importantly the paper explores the role of region-centric Facebook based discussion forum in the political dialogue in order to gain clarity over ‘why’ social media is emerging as an alternate medium of political dialogue to Mainstream Media (MSM), what is the rationale behind social media forums like Goa+ emerging? The paper conducts a netnographic study using Administrators and Moderators of Goa+, a Facebook based Political discussion forum originating in Goa, India and consisting of over 76, 680 members.
    • Transgenerational business legacies and intergenerational succession among the Igbos (Nigeria)

      Igwe, Paul; Madichie, Nnamdi; Amoncar, Nihar; University of Lincoln; Abertay University Dundee; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2020-04-17)
      The main purpose of this study is to highlight the entrepreneurial exploits of an ethnic group within the African context. The research context is the Igbos in Eastern Nigeria who have been celebrated as the pinnacle of African entrepreneurship. The study also draws on the narratives of 25 experienced business owners, and the emerging data thematically analysed to identify key variables associated with transgenerational business legacies and succession. Additional insight on salient cultural and community nuances like the role of Di-okpara (first son), Umunna (sons of the land), Ikwu (members of a Kindred) and Umuada (daughters of the land) were unravelled through interview transcripts and validated by respondents. These insights inform a contribution to the discourse of ethnic or indigenous entrepreneurship, which has both theoretical and policy implications.