Recent Submissions

  • The adoption of IPSAS (accrual accounting) in Indonesian local government: a neo-institutional perspective

    Boolaky, Pran; Mirosea, Nitri; Omoteso, Kamil; Griffith University; University of Derby (Routledge, 2019-10-02)
    This study investigates the speed and drivers of IPSAS adoption in Indonesia. Using data from 205 local government entities, the results show while the interaction between auditors and representatives of opposition on the council has more impact on the speed of adoption than with the councillors representing the government, the timing of the council meeting has delayed the adoption of IPSAS accrual. Government grant, Supreme Audit Office, councillors and religious beliefs are the isomorphic drivers of IPSAS adoption. Our results support the hypotheses that the three institutional pressures (coercive, mimetic and normative) influence the speed of IPSAS adoption.
  • Mr Cameron's new language initiative for Muslim women: lessons in policy implementation

    Turner, Royce; Wigfield, Andrea; University of Huddersfield (Wiley-Blackwell, 2016-05-19)
    As the government announces a programme to teach Muslim women to speak English, this article examines how such a policy can be implemented successfully, arguing that lessons can be drawn from both academic research, especially that carried out with Muslim women themselves, and previous successful policy application. It focuses on two projects carried out in the recent past for the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) and Jobcentre Plus, and outlines the key factors that led to their success. The LSC project involved one of the largest in‐depth surveys of Muslim women's attitudes towards work, and their views on life in Britain, that has ever been undertaken. The Jobcentre Plus project was a highly successful and innovative employment training initiative for ethnic minority women piloted in Sheffield, the very kind of ‘targeted’ approach that Mr Cameron has claimed his government's new language initiative will be.
  • Alternative research methods: introducing marketing sensing, a qualitative and interpretive perspective on research

    Longbottom, David; Lawson, Alison; University of Derby (Routledge, 2018-12-07)
    This chapter examines research from an interpretive perspective where qualitative methods are predominantly used. We present that qualitative methods may be used by researchers seeking to gain deeper insights and understanding of underlying issues particularly in the context of social science studies which often involve people and organisations in a social setting. We will argue that such methods can be used within an interpretive philosophy, or may be combined with quantitative methods in a pragmatic and mixed methods approach. Whilst the chapter considers traditional methods associated with qualitative research, such as depth interview and focus group, it also introduces several alternative methods and techniques which may be used by researchers seeking to gain creativity in their research design and presentation and provide deeper understanding to build their analysis and research conclusions. The chapter is arranged in two parts. In part one, we examine issues of context, philosophy, approach and strategy. In part two, we examine issues of strategy and methods, planning, data collection, and data presentation.
  • Cultural Connections: the role of the arts and humanities in Competitiveness and Local Development

    Turner, Royce; Hughes, Alan; Kitson, Michael; Bullock, A.; Milner, I.; University of Cambridge (Centre for Business Research, University of Cambridge, 2014-03-07)
    Cultural institutions are a prominent part of UK society – and many have a rich and long heritage. The impact of such institutions has often been evaluated in terms of engagement and participation or on the direct economic impact of cultural institutions. This study primarily focuses on the wider role of cultural institutions in their local economies; their innovative activities; how they connect to other local organisations such as universities; and how they collaborate with academics from the arts and humanities.
  • Two decades of European self-employment: Is the answer to who becomes self-employed different over time and countries?

    Millán, José María; Yue, Wei; Cowling, M; University of Derby; University of Huelva; University of Brighton (Elsevier, 2019-10-01)
  • The application of big data and AI in the upstream supply chain

    Hanson-New, Colin; Daniel, Jay; University of Derby (Logistics Research Network, 2019-09)
    The use of Big Data has grown in popularity in organisations to exploit the purpose of their primary data to enhance their competitiveness. In conjunction with the increased use of Big Data, there has also been a growth in the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to analyse the vast amounts of data generated and provide a mechanism for locating and constructing useable patterns that organisations can incorporate in their supply chain strategy programme. As these organisations embrace the use of technology and embed this in their supply chain strategy, there are questions as to how this may affect their upstream supply chains especially with regards to how SME’s may be able to cope with the potential changes. There exists the opportunity to conduct further research into this area, mainly focusing on three key industry sectors of aerospace, rail and automotive supply chains.
  • Differential market valuations of board busyness across alternative banking models

    Elnahas, Marwa; Omoteso, Kamil; Salama, Aly; Trinh, Vu Quang; Newcastle University; University of Derby (Springer, 2019-09-03)
    This study comparatively assesses the influence of board busyness (i.e., multiple directorships of outside directors) on stock market valuations of both Islamic and conventional banks. For a sample of listed banks from 11 countries for the period 2010-2015, results show that board busyness is differentially priced by investors depending on the bank type. In conventional banks, board busyness is significantly and positively valued by the stock market. This result suggests that investors perceive some reputational benefits arising from a busy board (e.g., extended industry knowledge, established external networks or facilitation of external market sources). In contrast, we find no supporting evidence on the market valuations of board busyness in Islamic banks. This result might be attributed to, both, the complex governance structure and the uniqueness of the business model which require additional effective monitoring, relative to that employed in conventional banking. Our results also show that investors provide significantly low market valuations for busy Shari’ah advisory board which acts as an additional layer of governance in Islamic banks. Findings in this study offer important policy implications to international banking studies and regulations governing countries with dual-banking systems.
  • Adoption of blockchain technology in supply chain transparency: Australian manufacturer case study

    Maroun, Elias A.; Daniel, Jay; Fynes, Brian; University of Derby; University of Technology Sydney; University College Dublin (European Decision Sciences Institute (EDSI), 2019-06)
    The arrival and capabilities of Blockchain is set to change traditional supply chain activities. Consumers are increasingly demanding details about the products they purchase, the sources of the manufactured product and manufacturing details. Organisations are declaring that they strive to improve labour practices and minimise the environmental effect of manufacturing goods however consumers still have a limited view of supply chains. The increasing development of the digital economy, the internet of things (IOT) and the growing use of sensors providing information in supply chains is providing Blockchain leverage to streamline and create an efficient supply chain track and trace of all types of transactions more transparently and securely. This paper explores the adoption of Blockchain technology in supply chain transparency. Specifically, we examine whether Blockchain technology is a good fit for use in an Australian manufacturer supply chain. Blockchain allows us to have permissioned or permission-less distributed ledgers where stakeholders can interact with each other. We describe in detail how Blockchain works and the mechanism of hash algorithms, which allows for greater security of information. Using a single case study, we focus on the intricacies of this technology and present a summary of adoption for Blockchain technology. The adoption for using Blockchain technology has the potential to bring greater transparency, validity across the supply chain, and improvement of communication between all stakeholders involved.
  • An investigation of supply chain operational improvements for small and medium enterprises (SMEs): A UK manufacturing case study

    Sawe, Fredrick; Daniel, Jay; University of Derby (IEOM Society, 2019-07)
    In an increasingly turbulent business environment and intensive market competition and globalisation, manufacturing organisations of the 21st century have been forced to continuously seek improvements in their supply chain operations to increase productivity and quality. Therefore, making competition no longer between organisations but rather among its supply chains by seeking to reduce costs and improve quality as an alternative to gain higher market share. This paper investigates different aspects of operations and supply chain improvement of a small and medium manufacturing organisation in UK. The main objective of this paper is to help SMEs to identify deficiencies in their operations and take necessary steps to correct them to enhance performance and productivity in their supply chain operations. For this to happen, the current study has implemented lean approach as a method to improve the organisation’s supply chain, enhancing the quality of processes and products. By conducting interviews and observations together with gathering company internal records, it remarks some potential problems of the manufacturing company. Finally, several recommendations (such as introducing ERP system) are made for future improvements.
  • Market consolidation, market growth, or new market development? Owner, firm, and competitive determinants

    Weixi, Liu; Wei, Yue; Hang, Do; Cowling, M; University of Brighton; Bath Management School; Kingston Business School (Seante Hall Academic Publishing, 2019-03-31)
    Market entry decisions are complex and involve high sunk costs with uncertain or risky outcomes. In this study we explore how owner, firm, and competitive pressures shape this decision. Using a large UK data set of SMEs, we find that the preferred form of growth, and growth is not always desired, is expansion in existing markets. Key determinants of the decision to pursue a new market entry strategy are formal education, and large firm based market competition. Further, these decisions are made simultaneously not sequentially.
  • Investigating performance indicators disclosure in sustainability reports of large mining companies in Ghana

    Clement, A; Wu, J; Yago, M; Zhang, J; University of Cape Coast (Emerald, 07/08/2017)
    The purpose of this study is to examine the degree, contents and trend development of Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) performance indicators disclosed in sustainability reports of large mining companies in Ghana. Content analysis methods are used to analyse 50 sustainability reports of ten large-scale mining companies in Ghana, covering the period 2008-2012. The study finds that there has been a widening and increasing trend in the disclosure of performance indicators in sustainability reports of the large mining companies in Ghana, in accordance with GRI guidelines. The findings suggest that good progress in the strategic sector has been made in the voluntary adoption of the GRI guidelines to increase transparency, credibility and comparability in sustainability reporting. The findings also indicate areas to be improved. The Government of Ghana and the Ghana Chamber of Mines could learn from the findings about the current status of this matter in order for them to formulate policies and regulations which would encourage the mining sector in moving forward in the adoption of international reporting standards.This paper initializes investigation into the degree, contents and trends of performance indicators in sustainability reports of large mining companies in Ghana using content analysis.
  • Corporate social responsibility and performance: A case study of mining companies in Ghana

    Clement, A; Adibo; Tackie, G; University of Cape Coast (International Knowledge Sharing Platform, 2017)
    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has become very important in recent years, especially its impact on business operations. Using mining companies in Ghana as a case study, this study investigates the extent to which CSR activities engaged by companies relate to their performance.Content analysis is used in measuring the CSR activities of mining companies in Ghana. The study reveals a positive relationship between return on equity and all the CSR variables(environmental management systems, employee relations and community performance). Net profit margin relates positively with CSR activities such as environmental management system and employee relations whilst return on asset was found to have a positive relationship with only oneemployee relations. Mining companies should be engaged in CSR activities that positively impact on financial performance since this eventually translate into creating value for host communities.
  • The innovation debt penalty: Cost of debt, loan default, and the effects of a public loan guarantee on high-tech firms

    Cowling, M; Ughetto, E; Lee, N.; University of Brighton (Elsevier, 28/06/2017)
    High-technology firms per se are perceived to be more risky than other, more conventional, firms. It follows that financial institutions will take this into account when designing loan contracts, and that this will manifest itself in more costly debt. In this paper we empirically test whether the provision of a government loan guarantee fundamentally changes the way lenders price debt to high-tech firms. Further, we also examine whether there are differential loan price effects of a public guarantee depending on the nature of the firms themselves and the nature of the economic and innovation environment that surrounds them. Using a large UK dataset of 29,266 guarantee backed loans we find that there is a high-tech risk premium which is justified by higher default, but, in general, that this premium is altered significantly when a public guarantee is provided for all firms. Further, all these loan price effects differ on precise spatial economic and innovation attributes.
  • The role of loan commitment terms in credit allocation on the UK small firms loan guarantee scheme

    Cowling, M; Matthews, C; Liu, W.; University of Brighton (Senate Hall Academic Publishing, 31/03/2017)
    In this paper we provide empirical evidence concerning the nature of loan commitment contracts as reflected by individual loan contract parameters in influencing the size of bank commitments. Specifically, we consider how the quantitative allocation of credit, the loan amount, is affected or altered by changes to other components of the total loan package. By doing so we shed some more light on the types of real world trade-offs that credit constrained firms might face when approaching banks for funds, using the UK governments loan guarantee programme. Our results point at the importance of relationship lending in the UK.
  • On the productive efficiency of Australian businesses: firm size and age class effects

    Cowling, M; Tanewski, G.; University of Brighton (Elsevier, 22/06/2018)
    After 26 years of growth, the Australian economy is beginning to show signs of stress and declining productivity. In this paper, we consider aspects of productive efficiency using an Australian business population data set. Using a production function approach, several key findings are uncovered. Firstly, decreasing returns to scale are identified as a significant feature of the Australian business sector. This implies that not all firm growth will lead to productivity gains. Secondly, there are significant differences in the way value added is created between small and large firms. In the largest 25% of firms, the capital contribution to value added is four times that of the smallest 25% of firms. Thirdly, efficiency follows an inverted ‘U’ shaped in firm age with the youngest (0–2 years) and oldest (> 9 years) firms being less productive than the middle 50% of firms. Fourthly, there are also huge industry sector variations in productivity. In particular, financial services appears to be the most productively efficient sector in the Australian economy and mining the least efficient.
  • Internal financial management in smaller, entrepreneurial businesses

    Cowling, M; Matthews, C.; University of Brighton (Sage, 13/01/2018)
  • Growth processes of high-growth firms as a four-dimensional chicken and egg

    Coad, A; Cowling, M; Siepel, J.; University of Brighton (Oxford Academic, 03/10/2016)
    This article investigates whether high-growth firms grow in different ways from other firms. Specifically, we analyze how firms grow along several dimensions (growth of sales, employment, assets, and operating profits) using Structural Vector Autoregressions. Causal relations are identified by using information contained in the (non-Gaussian) growth rate distributions. For most firms, the growth process starts with employment growth, which is then followed by sales growth, then growth of operating profits, and finally growth of assets. In contrast, high growth firms put more emphasis on growth of operating profits driving other dimensions of growth, with employment growth occurring at the end.
  • Access to bank finance for UK SMEs in the wake of the recent financial crisis

    Cowling, M; Liu, W; Zhang, N.; University of Brighton (Emerald, 05/09/2016)
    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how entrepreneurs demand for external finance changed as the economy continued to be mired in its third and fourth years of the global financial crisis (GFC) and whether or not external finance has become more difficult to access as the recession progressed. Using a large-scale survey data on over 30,000 UK small- and medium-sized enterprises between July 2011 and March 2013, the authors estimate a series of conditional probit models to empirically test the determinants of the supply of, and demand for external finance. Older firms and those with a higher risk rating, and a record of financial delinquency, were more likely to have a demand for external finance. The opposite was true for women-led businesses and firms with positive profits. In general finance was more readily available to older firms post-GFC, but banks were very unwilling to advance money to firms with a high-risk rating or a record of any financial delinquency. It is estimated that a maximum of 42,000 smaller firms were denied credit, which was significantly lower than the peak of 119,000 during the financial crisis. This paper provides timely evidence that adds to the general understanding of what really happens in the market for small business financing three to five years into an economic downturn and in the early post-GFC period, from both a demand and supply perspective. This will enable the authors to consider what the potential impacts of credit rationing on the small business sector are and also identify areas where government action might be appropriate.
  • Non-founder human capital and the long-run growth and survival of high-tech ventures

    Siepel, J; Cowling, M; Coad, A.; University of Brighton (Elsevier, 16/11/2016)
    This paper considers the impact of non-founder human capital on high-tech firms' long-run growth and survival. Drawing upon threshold theory, we explore how lack of access to complementary skills at different points in the life course impacts founders' thresholds for exit. We examine these factors using a unique longitudinal dataset tracking the performance and survival of a sample of UK high-tech firms over thirteen years as the firms move from youth into maturity. We find that firms that survive but do not grow are characterized by difficulty in accessing complementary managerial skills in youth, while firms that grow but subsequently exit are characterized by shortfalls of specialized complementary skills during adolescence. Firms that grow and survive do not report skills shortfalls. We discuss the implications of these resource constraints for entrepreneurs’ decisions to persist or exit through the life course.
  • How entrepreneurship, culture and universities influence the geographical distribution of UK talent and city growth

    Cowling, M; Lee, N.; University of Brighton (Emerald, 06/03/2017)
    The creation and distribution of human capital, often termed talent, has been recognised in economic geography as an important factor in the locational decisions of firms (Florida, 2002), and at a more general level as a key driver of economic growth (Romer, 1990). The purpose of this paper is to consider how talent is created and distributed across the cities of the UK and the key factors which are driving this spatial distribution. They also consider what the economic outcomes of these disparities are for cities. The multivariate models can estimate the dynamic inter-relationships between human capital (talent), innovative capacity, and economic value added. These can be estimated, using talent as an example, in the form: human capital measurei =α0i+α1i innovative capacity +α2i quality of life + α3i labour market indicators + α4i economic indicators + α5i HEI indicators + β6i population demographics + β7i population + υi. The first finding is that talent is unequally distributed across cities, with some having three times more highly educated workers than others. Talent concentration at the city level is associated with entrepreneurial activity, culture, the presence of a university, and to a lesser degree the housing market. This feeds into more knowledge-based industry, which is associated with higher gross value added. The research is limited in a practical sense by the fact that UK data at this level have only become available quite recently. Thus, it is only possible to capture talent flows and city growth in a relatively small window. But the prospects going forward will allow more detailed analysis at the city level of the relationship between talent flows and local economic growth. And additional insights could be considered relating to the on-going changes in the UK university system. The question of whether universities are simply producers of talent or play a much broader and deeper role in the socio-economic landscape and outcomes of cities is an open one. This research has identified what the key drivers of city level economic growth and knowledge creation are, and sought to explain why some cities are capable of attracting and harnessing three times more talent than other cities. This has significant implications for the future development of UK cities and for those seeking to address these imbalances. Universities are a major economic agent in their own right, but they are increasingly being asked to play a wider role in local economic development. The authors’ evidence suggests that universities do play a wider role in the growth and development of cities, but that there are large discrepancies in the subsequent spatial distribution of the talent they create. And this has significant implications for those seeking to address these imbalances and promote a broader and less unequal economic landscape. The authors explore how cities create economic value via a process whereby talent is attracted and then this stimulates knowledge-based industry activity. The originality relates to several key aspects of the work. First, the authors look at the stock of talent, and then the authors explore how “new” talent from universities is attracted by looking at graduate flows around the cities of the UK, differentiating between top-level graduates and less talented graduates. The authors then allow a wide variety of economic, cultural, and population factors to influence the locational decision of talented people. The results highlight the complexity of this decision

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