• Understanding the quality of life of family carers of people with dementia: Development of a new conceptual framework

      Daley, Stephanie; Murray, Joanna; Farina, Nicolas; Page, Thomas E.; Brown, Anna; Basset, Thurstine; Livingston, Gill; Bowling, Ann; Knapp, Martin; Banerjee, Sube; et al. (Wiley, 2018-09-25)
      Dementia is a major global health and social care challenge, and family carers are a vital determinant of positive outcomes for people with dementia. This study's aim was to develop a conceptual framework for the Quality of Life (QOL) of family carers of people with dementia. We studied family carers of people with dementia and staff working in dementia services iteratively using in‐depth individual qualitative interviews and focus groups discussions. Analysis used constant comparison techniques underpinned by a collaborative approach with a study‐specific advisory group of family carers. We completed 41 individual interviews with 32 family carers and nine staff and two focus groups with six family carers and five staff. From the analysis, we identified 12 themes that influenced carer QOL. These were organised into three categories focussing on person with dementia, carer, and external environment. For carers of people with dementia, the QOL construct was found to include condition‐specific domains which are not routinely considered in generic assessment of QOL. This has implications for researchers, policy makers, and service providers in addressing and measuring QOL in family carers of people with dementia.
    • The relationship between empathy and prison bullying in a sample of Croatian prisoners

      Sekol, Ivana; University of Osijek (2018)
      This paper examined the relationship between empathy and bullying amongst Croatian prisoners. Four hundred and ninety-three prisoners from 11 Croatian prisons filled in a battery of questionnaires including the Basic Empathy Scale (Jolliffe and Farrington, 2005) and Direct and Indirect Prisoner Behaviour Checklist- Revised (Ireland, 2002). The results demonstrated that empathy was unrelated to bullying amongst prisoners. However, lower affective empathy was found amongst prisoners who: a) served their first prison sentence at a younger age ; b) spent time in psychiatric hospitals prior to their imprisonment ; c) had substance abuse problems before entering the prison ; and d) spent time in solitary confinement during their imprisonment. Prisoners who scored high on affective empathy have had more regular contact with their friends and family during their imprisonment, but were also more likely to attempt suicide prior to their incarceration. The results are discussed in light of previous research on the relationship between empathy and behavioural outcomes amongst prisoners. It is concluded that empathy might better distinguish between behavioural outcomes of various groups of prisoners prior to their incarceration, while prisoners’ behaviour within the prison setting might be more determined by contextual factors. More research is, however, needed to examine this hypothesis.
    • The factor and conceptual structure of the ‘measuring the quality of prison life’ (MQPL) in Croatian prisons

      Sekol, Ivana; Vidranski, Tihomir; University of Osijek (University of Zagreb, 2017-05)
      Measuring the Quality of Prison Life’ (MQPL) is a widely used 126-item scale designed at the Prison Research Centre, Institute of Criminology, University of Cambridge. The scale measures 21 dimensions of prison life, which could be classified into five broad categories: 1) harmony dimensions ; 2) professionalism dimensions ; 3) security dimensions ; 4) conditions and family contact dimensions ; and 5) well-being and development dimensions (Lieblieng, Hulley & Crewe, 2011). This paper aims to assess the structure of the MQPL when applied to Croatian prisons. Four hundred and ninety-three prisoners from 11 Croatian prisons filled in the MQPL. The results demonstrated that virtually all of the 21 original dimensions were reliable in the Croatian sample, providing a good conceptual fit of the scale (i.e. 16 out of the 21 dimensions had Cronbach’s alpha higher than 0.70). The factor structure of the scale differed somewhat from the original scale dimensions, but some factors nevertheless made conceptual sense. It is concluded that the conceptual structure of the MQPL is retained in the sample of Croatian prisoners and that the current translation of the original MQPL scale could be used for future prison research in Croatia
    • Mixing quantitative and qualitative research approach in social sciences - mixing methods or methodology?

      Sekol, Ivana; Maurović, Ivana; University of Osijek; University of Zagreb (2017-01-01)
      While in the western world the mixed-methods approach in social sciences is becoming more popular, in Croatian social sciences mixed methods research is still scarce. This is probably due to the complexity of mixed-methods research and numerous questions related to it. The most common questions that researchers need to answer prior to conducting a mixed methods study are: 1) will my research mix methods or methodologies?, 2) if it will mix methodologies, and not only methods, which paradigm(s) and research design will I use?, and 3) is it at all possible to combine inherently different paradigms? The main aim of this paper is to examine whether there is a strategy to simplify the way the existing literature describes numerous possibilities of combining qualitative and quantitative research - especially in terms of the type of mix-method research and whether each type mixes methods or methodologies. Following a literature review on the characteristics of mixed-- methods approach, types of mix-method design and paradigmatic challenges, this paper proposes a simplified model of the existing possibilities for combining qualitative and quantitative research. The model argues that, depending on their research questions, all mixed-methods attempts can be divided into one of the two main categories: one that mixes methods, and the other that mixes methodologies. The proposed model offers a straightforward tool for planning a mixed-methods research.
    • Psychological and background correlates of bullying in adolescent residential care

      Sekol, Ivana; Farrington, David P; University of Osijek; University of Cambridge (SAGE Publications, 2015-04-24)
      This research examined psychological and background correlates of bullying in adolescent residential care. Young people aged 11–21 (N = 601) from 22 residential institutions in Croatia completed an anonymous self-reported bullying questionnaire, the Basic Empathy Scale, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the Big Five Personality Inventory. The results demonstrated that both male and female bullies tend to be disagreeable, careless, neurotic, likely to hold attitudes approving of bullying, and likely to bully others in school. Male bullies also tend to be extraverted, lacking in affective empathy, tend to have a history of bullying during their earlier placements, and tend to have been institutionalised for problematic behaviour. It is concluded that bullying is more persistent for males and that psychological and personality factors play a greater role in male bullying than in female bullying. However, both male and female bullies had commonly been school bullies. Bullying in care might be mitigated by: a) avoiding accommodating residents who are prone to victimisation together with older, more experienced residents who manifest antisocial behaviour; b) programmes aimed at changing attitudes approving of bullying; c) techniques for controlling the impulsivity of bullies; and d) empathy enhancement programmes. However, longitudinal research on bullying is needed.
    • Absence of aggressive and violent defining characteristics in the descriptions of successful and ideal teachers

      Rački, Željko; Sablić, Marija; Sekol, Ivana; University of Osijek (Faculty of Philosophy in Split, 2014)
      Violence in the educational system arises not only from peer relations, but also from the relationship between students and teachers. Teachers who are aggressive towards their students (e.g. who are rough, cold, who yell, insult, ridicule, discriminate, favorize, underestimate, exclude, gossip or spread fear), actually demonstrate aggressive or violent behavior directed against the current and long-term well-being of students. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of teachers’ aggressive behaviors in describing and defi ning characteristics of both successful/ideal teachers and unsuccessful/aggressive teachers. The participants were students of pedagogical-psychological and didactic-methodical training of teachers in Osijek, Slavonski Brod and Koprivnica (N = 119), and third year students of Teacher Studies in Slavonski Brod (N = 41). Participants were asked to recall three good, successful or ‘ideal’ teachers from their previous education as well as to think of three teachers of poor quality they previously had. With an overall frequency of 1120 positive descriptions, 145 unique positive defining characteristics were found. Out of overall frequency of 770 negative descriptions, 174 unique negative defining characteristics were found. Two frames of data analysis were used: a) consensually agreed upon thematic areas of teacher defining characteristics (methodical performance or teaching competence, intelligence and creativity, character and morality, and emotional competence), and b) Croatian bipolar markers of a five-factor model of personality. The results demonstrated an absence of aggressive or violent behaviors in the descriptions of ideal teachers, and the presence of aggressive behaviors in unsuccessful teachers of poor quality. The results were interpreted in accordance with professional requirements and conformity of personality constellation of teachers (friendly and open, methodically and emotionally competent, and moral) with methodical performance or teaching competence and an optimal achievement of educational objectives, as well as the protection of the students.
    • The arts of desistance: Evaluation of the Koestler trust arts mentoring programme for former prisoners

      Sekol, Ivana; Cheliotis, L; Jordanoska, A; University of Osijek (The Koestler Trust, 2014)
      This report presents and discusses the findings of an evaluation of an arts-based mentoring scheme that aims to prolong and enhance crime desistance through providing former prisoners with opportunities to continue engaging with the arts after release. The evaluation focused both on the implementation and effectiveness of the scheme as the former influenced the latter. Different yet complementary research techniques (observation of mentoring sessions, interviews with mentors and mentees, analysis of mentor reports, and survey-based quasi-experimental design incorporating control groups) were employed to enhance the validity of the data and improve their interpretation.
    • Online tourism information and tourist behavior: a structural equation modeling analysis based on a self-administered survey

      Majeed, Salman; Zhou, Zhimin; Lu, Changbao; Ramkissoon, Haywantee; Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China; Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, China; University of Derby; Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa (Frontiers in Psychology, 2020-04-21)
      This study presents the interacting phenomena of perceptions of tourist destination online content (TDOC) and tourists’ behavioral intentions with a mediating role of tourists’ satisfaction, which is as yet under-explored in hospitality and tourism research. A model based on three main constructs, namely TDOC (with sub-constructs of online information quality and user-friendly accessibility), satisfaction, and tourists’ behavioral intentions [with sub-constructs of intentions to visit a tourist destination and electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM)], is presented to determine the growth of tourism business with the internet. Data were collected via a questionnaire-based survey from 413 tourists staying at hotels in Lahore city in Pakistan. Partial least square structural equation modeling was used to statistically analyze the gathered data. The findings indicate that tourists’ perceptions of TDOC directly influence their behavioral intentions, while tourists’ satisfaction exerts a mediating influence between tourists’ perceptions of TDOC and their behavioral intentions. Taking advantage of an economical and widespread online environment, destination marketing organizations could attract more tourists by fostering confidence in TDOC and positive eWOM to remain competitive in the long run. Important theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
    • Transgenerational business legacies and intergenerational succession among the Igbos (Nigeria)

      Igwe, Paul; Madichie, Nnamdi; Amoncar, Nihar; University of Lincoln; Abertay University Dundee; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2020-04-17)
      The main purpose of this study is to highlight the entrepreneurial exploits of an ethnic group within the African context. The research context is the Igbos in Eastern Nigeria who have been celebrated as the pinnacle of African entrepreneurship. The study also draws on the narratives of 25 experienced business owners, and the emerging data thematically analysed to identify key variables associated with transgenerational business legacies and succession. Additional insight on salient cultural and community nuances like the role of Di-okpara (first son), Umunna (sons of the land), Ikwu (members of a Kindred) and Umuada (daughters of the land) were unravelled through interview transcripts and validated by respondents. These insights inform a contribution to the discourse of ethnic or indigenous entrepreneurship, which has both theoretical and policy implications.
    • Examining the association between childhood cognitive ability and psychopathic traits at age 48

      Kavish, Nick; Bergstrøm, Henriette; Narvey, Chelsey; Piquero, Alex R.; Farrington, David P.; Boutwell, Brian B.; Sam Houston University; University of Derby; The University of Texas at Dallas; The University of Texas at Dallas; et al. (American Psychological Association, 2020-03-01)
      Despite early theorists suggesting that psychopathic traits are associated with higher intelligence, meta-analytic work has found that global psychopathy scores are actually negatively related to intelligence, albeit weakly. Furthermore, it was reported in the same meta-analytic work that the various dimensions of psychopathy were differentially related to intelligence. Importantly, virtually all of the research to date has relied on cross-sectional associations. The current study examined whether intelligence scores (verbal comprehension, non-verbal IQ, and a global intelligence composite) at age 8 were associated with psychopathy scores at age 48 in a sample of white, urban males from London (analytical n = 292). Results suggested a significant, but weak, inverse association between intelligence and the affective, lifestyle, and antisocial facets of psychopathy and a nonsignificant association with the interpersonal facet, as assessed by the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version. These findings contribute to the growing body of evidence suggesting that psychopathy, as conceptualized in most modern models, is either very weakly inversely related to, or simply not a correlate of intelligence.
    • Investigating the triangular relationship between Temporary event workforce, event employment businesses and event organisers

      Michopoulou, Eleni; Azara, Iride; Russell, Anna; University of Derby (Emerald Publishing, 2020-04-13)
      This study examines issues of talent management in events. Specifically, it investigates the triangular relationship that exists amongst temporary event workforces, event employment businesses and event organisers. A mixed method design was used including 1) a quantitative survey of UK Temporary Event Workers (TEW) to examine their characteristics and motivations to work at events; 2) a qualitative survey with Event organisers (EOs) to understand the reasons for using Temporary Event Workers and Event Employment Businesses and 3) interviews with Event Employment Businesses (EEBs) to understand their challenges in delivering best-fit between Temporary Event Workers and Event organisers. This study sheds light on the complex relationships amongst temporary event workforces, event organisers and event employment businesses. Findings show TEW who display high levels of affective commitment towards their employment organisation, and possess the characteristics of extraversion and contentiousness, are highly motivated to work at events. Event organisers suggest their operational restrictions (such as limited resources, time and expertise) are fuelling the need to use Event Employment Businesses to source staff with the right skills and attitudes. In turn, these recruiters demonstrate they play an active role in reconciling the often-conflicting needs of Event Organisers and Temporary Event Workers. This study extends knowledge and understanding on Talent Management (TM) in events by providing insights into the characteristics of TEW as a growing labour market segment in the event sector. Significantly, the study contributes to a better understanding of the critical role that Event Employment Businesses play in the
    • Membership of Chinese farmer specialized cooperatives and direct subsidies for farmer households: a multi-province data study

      Zhang, Jinhua; Wu, Junjie; Simpson, Jestine; Arthur, Clement Lamboi; Zhejiang University of Technology, China; Leeds Beckett University; University of Cape Coast (Taylor & Francis Group, 2019-07-29)
      The introduction of direct subsidies to farming households and the development of farmer cooperatives has provided two important approaches to China’s twenty-first century food policy challenges. However, research undertaken largely separates and focuses on subsidies or cooperatives. This neglects their interaction and complementarities. This article seeks to rectify this omission using a survey from 35 farmer specialized cooperatives (FSCs) and 561 farming households in 16 provinces, based on a two-stage treatment effect model. The findings suggest FSCs have become important organizations that improve farmers’ net income. Moreover, usage of agricultural machinery and direct subsidies also result in higher net income, though they have little impact on farmers’ machinery investment. The results provide an evidence source that contributes to debate concerning government subsidy policy. Policy may act more like an income transfer program, since it has little impact on farmers’ investment in agriculture. The study also highlights that there are complementary effects between FSCs and direct subsidies, and that China’s cooperative policy integrated with direct subsidies could be progressive.
    • The costs of choice in the New Zealand history curriculum

      Rafferty, Rachel; University of Otago (Briefing Papers, 2018-11-13)
    • “It affects me as a man’: Recognising and responding to former refugee men’s experiences of Resettlement

      Rafferty, Rachel; Ali, Nijmeh; Galloway, Megan; Kleinshmidt, Heidi; Lwin, Khin Khin; Rezaun, Mercy; University of Otago (University of Otago, 2019)
      Former refugees bring many valuable skills and attributes to the communities in which they settle. Providing tailored support to refugees in the early stages of settlement increases the opportunities for them to contribute their skills and knowledge to our communities. This support needs to take into account the fact that former refugees can experience resettlement differently, according to their gender or age (Innocenti, n.d.). However, the particular experiences of men regarding forced migration and resettlement are not often researched (Affleck, Selvadurai, & Sikora, 2018). Dunedin is a small city in the South Island of New Zealand that became a designated resettlement location for former refugees from Syria and Palestine late in 2015. By 2018, staff in some organisations that provide services to assist former refugee families to settle in Dunedin (hereafter “service providers”) had noted that former refugee men tended to be less engaged in community life in the city, compared to their wives and children. This small-scale, exploratory study was conducted by a team of consultants from the National Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies, at the University of Otago. The purpose was to understand how former refugee men have experienced settling into Dunedin, and to make suggestions for ways they could be supported to participate more fully in society. Three focus groups were conducted with 16 former refugee men, and in-depth interviews were also conducted with 14 individuals working across eight service provider organisations1. This report also refers to research studies relating to the resettlement of refugee men in other contexts, where this helps to contextualise our findings, and to make informed suggestions. However, it should be noted that our findings do not indicate how many of the other former refugee men in the city share the concerns raised in in the focus groups.
    • Navigating identities and emotions in the field: a local researcher’s strategies in Northern Ireland

      Rafferty, Rachel; University of Otago (Cesran International, 2017-04)
      Divided societies like Northern Ireland present methodological challenges for researchers due to the roles that mutually-opposing group identities play in shaping social interactions. These challenges, which are heightened for local researchers due to their status as insiders to the conflict, can be overcome to some degree through the careful development of methodological strategies based on a reflexive approach. This article presents the case of a qualitative interviewing project undertaken by a local researcher that involved different identity groups in post-violence Northern Ireland. It examines the methodological challenges encountered because of the identitied and emotional nature of the research, and it shares successful strategies both for building rapport with a wide variety of participants and for eliciting responses during the discussion of sensitive topics. A reflexive approach is shown as important in enabling local researchers in divided societies to conduct rigorous and trustworthy research.
    • Understanding the cultural dimension of intractable conflict: What are the implications for peace education practice?

      Rafferty, Rachel; University of Otago (2014-01)
      Societies marked by a sharp ethnic or religious cleavage are vulnerable to outbreaks of mass violence. Understanding the cultural dimension to such conflicts carries important implications for improving peace education practice in divided societies. Typical peace education practices have been criticized for being overly-naïve in ignoring the cultural environment or not doing enough to address the surrounding ‘culture of conflict’. Insights on the cultural dimension of intergroup conflict can help educators to design peace education practices that actively address the role that cultural factors play in perpetuating conflict in their societies. This paper will examine the cultural dimension to intractable conflicts and draw conclusions as to how peace education practice in divided societies can better be shaped to address this phenomenon.
    • International support for peace processes: New Zealand case study

      Rafferty, Rachel; University of Otago (Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 2017-02-28)
      Launched by Ms Frances Adamson, Secretary of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade on 7 June 2017, State Support for Peace Processes: A Multi-Country Review was produced as part of the Australian International Conflict Resolution Project at the University of Melbourne and commissioned by the Development Policy Division of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. The report explores how Canada, Malaysia, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States of America have approached supporting peace processes. It aims to identify concrete steps for Australia to consider in enhancing its approach to supporting peace and stability, including improving its capacity to support peace processes through whole of government approaches. The report was prepared by researchers at the University of Melbourne led by Prof John Langmore, Dr Tania Miletic, Dr Aran Martin and Mr Nathan Shea, and includes chapters from experts around the world who have advised on the work of their countries.
    • Rights, resources and relationships: A ‘three Rs’ framework for enhancing the resilience of refugee background youth

      Rafferty, Rachel; University of Otago (Routledge, 2019-11-08)
      This chapter argues that national education systems can reduce structural violence towards refugee background youths by acting to enhance the youths’ educational resilience. It aims to define educational resilience as the ability to overcome the significant challenges to learning and achieve positive educational outcomes. The chapter suggests for how the rights, resources, and relationships (three R) framework can be translated into educational policy and practice, and considers the case of refugee background youth within the education system of Aotearoa New Zealand, a society where decades of educational policy have been shaped by neoliberal ideology. Ecological models of resilience draw on Bronfenbrenner’s social-ecological model of human development, where the child is viewed as a social being who grows up nested within a unique ecology of social systems. The chapter outlines a number of ways that schools and education systems can translate three Rs concepts into practices that will enhance the educational resilience of refugee background students.
    • Conflict narratives, action frames, and engagement in reconciliation efforts among community activists in Northern Ireland.

      Rafferty, Rachel; University of Derby (American Psychological Association (APA), 2020-02)
      Reconciliation involves a sustained change in how groups perceive and interact with one another, at all levels of society. However, in many conflict-affected societies, only a small minority of individuals work actively toward this goal and it is not clearly understood how motivations to engage in reconciliation efforts can become more widespread. This study investigates the conflict narratives and action frames of activists in a conflict-affected society, and explores how these relate to different degrees of engagement in reconciliation efforts. In-depth interviews were conducted with 27 community activists in Northern Ireland in 2014; 14 were strongly engaged in reconciliation efforts and 13 had limited or no engagement in reconciliation efforts. Thematic analysis of the interview transcripts revealed that reconciliation activists articulated conflict narratives and action frames that differed markedly from those articulated by community activists who have little or no engagement in reconciliation efforts. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the role of interpretative processes, such as narratives and framing, in alternatively supporting or reducing individuals’ motivations to work toward social reconciliation in a conflict-affected society. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)
    • Engaging with the violent past to motivate and direct conflict resolution practice in Northern Ireland

      Rafferty, Rachel; University of Otago (Wiley, 2017-09-11)
      Collective memories can form a barrier to conflict resolution in societies affected by violent conflict. Although engaging with conflict history is an important aspect of conflict resolution practice, it is not fully understood how to achieve this in these complex and emotive environments. This article presents the case of local grassroots conflict resolution practitioners in Northern Ireland who have developed an alternative narrative about the violent past that they draw on to motivate and direct their practice. It provides insights into how conflict resolution practitioners in intractable conflicts can engage with the violent past in ways that support increased understanding between identity groups.