• Gender, employment and careers in Pakistan

      Javed, S.; Syed, J.; Turner, Royce; University of Huddersfield (Edward Elgar, 2018)
      This chapter looks at women’s labour market position in Pakistan, and examines the religio-cultural, economic and legal factors that determine and affect their career progress. The context is a long-established tradition of a lack of female participation in formal, paid employment (though many do work in a vast ‘informal sector’); a clear division in the economic sectors in which men and women are active; and a stark contrast between men and women in the labour market hierarchy. It is noted, however, that economic necessity, technological change and a trend to delay marriages are militating to promote female participation in economic activity, and that women’s empowerment schemes, examined in the chapter, will also contribute to this. Undoubtedly, these factors and interventions will make a difference to many individual women’s lives, but whether they are sufficient to promote wider change in the economic structure remains in question.
    • Colonialism and dilemmas of transitional justice in Nigeria.

      Yusuf, Hakeem O.; University of Birmingham (Oxford University Press, 2018-03-27)
      Adoption of the colonial template of governance by successive postcolonial governments in Nigeria has limited the ambit of transitional justice, rendering it incapable of addressing the root causes of systematic abuses and conflict in the country. Pathologies of colonial injustice and violence were transmitted into governance in the postcolony and this structural continuity has locked down the prospect of justice and reforms as an integral part of the governance complex. Critical analysis of the Nigerian experience calls attention to the need for transitional justice theory and praxis to engage with the colonial legacy in nonsettler, postcolonial societies. Understanding and engaging with the colonial legacy is critical to the prospects of successful transitional justice in postcolonial polities.
    • The UN Committee of 24’s dogmatic philosophy of recognition: toward a Sui Generis approach to decolonization.

      Yusuf, Hakeem O.; University of Birmingham (2019)
      The time is ripe for the United Nations Special Committee on Decolonization (‘the Committee of 24’) to accept sui generis categories that enable it to achieve its aim of ‘finishing the job’ of decolonization. This would mean a departure from the Committee of 24’s rigid adherence to the three forms of decolonization currently recognised by it - independence, integration and free association. This article adopts Gilles Deleuze’s critiques of the ‘dogmatic philosophy of recognition’ and how this can be overcome through his articulation of ‘the Encounter’ to interrogate the philosophical basis of the Committee of 24’s inability to recognise sui generis forms of decolonization. It is through the Encounter that the rigid adherence to the categories is challenged such that sui generis categories are created in furtherance of the Committee’s stated aim. In applying this theoretical analysis, the article uses Gibraltar as a nascent example of what a sui generis category of decolonization could look like.
    • Syrian foreign policy. The alliances of a regional power.

      Belcastro, Francesco; University of Derby (Routledge, 2019-07-01)
      Syrian Foreign Policy analyses the pivotal alliances of Damascus using a theoretical framework based on neoclassical realism, an approach which incorporates domestic factors succh as the role of ideology within a realist perspective. Covering Syria’s relations with Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Iran and the Soviet Union, it asks the question: what led to the formation of each alliance and what has caused either its break up or its continuation? Belcastro seeks to answer this questions, but also reflects on the country’s foreign policy today and its broader implications for Syria and the whole region.
    • Tourism, health, wellbeing and protected areas.

      Azara, Iride; Michopoulou, Eleni; Niccolini, Federico; Taff, B. Derrick; University of Derby (CABI, 2018-05-01)
      Around the world, there is mounting evidence that parks and protected areas contribute to a healthy civil society, thus increasing the economic importance of cultural and nature-based tourism. Operating at the intersection of business and the environment, tourism can improve human health and wellbeing as well as serve as a catalyst for increasing appreciation and stewardship of the natural world. While the revenues from nature-based activities help to make the case for investing in park and protected area management; the impacts they have need to be carefully managed, so that visitors do not destroy the natural wonders that attracted them to a destination in the first place. This book features contributions from tourism and recreation researchers and practitioners exploring the relationship between tourism, hospitality, protected areas, livelihoods and both physical and emotional human wellbeing. The book includes sections focused on theory, policy and practice, and case studies, to inform and guide industry decisions to address real-world problems and proactively plan for a sustainable and healthy future.
    • Transitional justice in the Middle East and North Africa – taking account of Islam.

      Yusuf, Hakeem O.; University of Birmingham (De Gruyter, 2017-07-26)
      The core of the argument of this article is that the integration of Islamic notions of justice into transitional justice mechanisms in the MENA makes for a more viable and sustainable transitional justice process in the region. This would mean a critical cultural value in the MENA is given a place in dealing with the past and mapping out a sustainable future in the region. The argument here is premised on the logic that a social transformation-focused enterprise like transitional justice ought to engage with Islam for sustainable outcomes in societies in the MENA where Islam is very influential. Given the significant role and influence of Islam on cultural, socio-political and legal institutions in the MENA, a process of transitional justice that takes account of Islamic values and practices is important for negotiating justice and institutionalising reforms in societies in the region.
    • 'High value' migration and complicity in underdevelopment and corruption in the global south : receiving from the attic.

      Yusuf, Hakeem O.; University of Strathclyde (Taylor & Francis, 2012-04-25)
      Through a focus on the ‘High Value Migrants’ programme of the United Kingdom, this article directs attention to how commercial migration laws and policies of developed countries could impact negatively on the global south. Drawing mainly on insights from criminology and development studies, it investigates how the commercial migration laws and policies, specifically the aspects that deal with encouraging or attracting ‘high-value’ foreign entrepreneurs and investors hold out the state as potentially complicit in corruption and underdevelopment in the global south. There is an important need to address the implicated migration laws and policies as a critical and integral part of the international efforts to combat corruption and promote peace and development in the global south. Reform of the implicated laws and policies is in the long term interest of all stakeholders.
    • Harvest of violence: the neglect of basic rights and the Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria.

      Yusuf, Hakeem O.; University of Strathclyde (Taylor & Francis, 2013-09-26)
      Drawing on the core commitments of Critical Terrorism Studies, and mostly, the ethic of emancipation, this article focuses on the Boko Haram insurgency to investigate recurring violent conflict in Nigeria. It identifies a governance gap not adverted to in the official narrative which has led to gross discontent at the lower levels of the society. The governance gap has created fertile breeding grounds for the recruitment of disillusioned youths who are easily mobilised to violence and lately, insurgency. There are normative and pragmatic reasons to adopt and prioritise social welfare through the implementation of economic, social and cultural obligations and due-process rights as a viable approach to at least reducing the spate of violence in the country. The discussion has relevance for resolving situations of violence and conflict in sub-Sahara Africa in particular and elsewhere in the developing world.
    • S.A.S v France : supporting 'living together' or forced assimilation?

      Yusuf, Hakeem O.; University of Strathclyde (Brill Academic Publishers, 2014-11-19)
      The Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights has upheld the French law which prohibits the concealment of one’s face in public places. The law is directed principally at prohibiting Muslim women covering their faces in public spaces in France. The decision of the Strasbourg Court is premised on the French notion of ‘le vivre ensemble’; ‘living together.’ This critical analysis of the judgment contends that the decision is flawed and retrogressive for women’s rights in particular and undermines the socio-cultural rights and freedoms of individuals who belong to minority groups in general. On wider implications of the decision, it is worrisome that the decision appears to pander to dangerous political leanings currently growing in many parts of Europe and beyond. The Court risks promoting forced assimilation policies against minorities in various parts of the world. To illustrate its implications, the article highlights the experience of the Uyghurs, a Turkic ethnic group in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China.
    • Accountability of transnational corporations in the developing world: The case for an enforceable international mechanism.

      Yusuf, Hakeem O.; Omoteso, Kamil; University of Birmingham; Coventry University (Emerald, 2017)
      Purpose: This paper contends that the dominant voluntarism approach to the accountability of Transnational Corporations (TNCs) is inadequate and not fit-for-purpose. It argues for the establishment of an international legal mechanism for securing the accountability of TNCs particularly in the context of developing countries with notoriously weak governance mechanisms to protect all relevant stakeholders. Design/methodology/approach: The study adopts insights from the fields of management and international law to draw out synergies from particular understandings of corporate governance, corporate social responsibility and international human rights. The governance challenges in developing countries with regard to securing the accountability of TNCs is illustrated with the Nigerian experience of oil-industry legislation reform. Findings: The specific context of the experiences of developing countries in Africa on the operations of TNCs particularly commends the need and expedience to create an international legal regime for ensuring the accountability of TNCs. Originality/value: Mainstream research in this area has focused mainly on self and voluntary models of regulation and accountability that have privileged the legal fiction of the corporate status of TNCs. This article departs from that model to argue for an enforceable model of TNC accountability based on an international mechanism.
    • Stock market returns and the content of annual report narratives.

      Yekini, Liafisu Sina; Wisniewski, Tomasz; Coventry University; University of Leicester (Taylor & Francis, 2015-12-01)
      This paper uses the tools of computational linguistics to analyze the qualitative part of the annual reports of UK listed companies. More specifically, the frequency of words associated with different language indicators is measured and used to forecast future stock returns. We find that two of these indicators, capturing ‘activity’ and ‘realism’, predict subsequent price increases, even after controlling for a wide range of factors. Elevated values of these two linguistic variables, however, are not symptomatic of exacerbated risk. Consequently, investors are advised to peruse the annual report narratives, as they contains valuable information that may still not have been discounted in the prices.
    • Against all odds: Embedding new knowledge for event continuity and community well-being.

      Azara, Iride; Wiltshier, Peter; Greatorex, Jamie; University of Derby (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2018-02-01)
      Ashbourne Royal Shrovetide Football (ARSF) is a sporting event that occurs yearly on Shrove Tuesday and Ash Wednesday in the market town of Ashbourne, in Derbyshire. Sometimes referred to as "mob football," Shrovetide can arguably be perceived as the quintessential sensorial and fully immersive event, being played out across town and involving the entire community. The event is also a unique tourism spectacle and a tool for tourism destination positioning. This article presents some of the results of a larger study that looks at challenges in the matter of events safety and the impacts that this has on event survival and the sustainable development of local communities. Findings highlight the need to support communities to learn from events in order to preserve them as they are essential for the maintenance of a unique and inimitable community identity.
    • Combating environmental irresponsibility of transnational corporations in Africa: an empirical analysis.

      Yusuf, Hakeem O.; Omoteso, Kamil; University of Birmingham; Coventry University (Taylor & Francis, 2015-12-15)
      Environmental irresponsibility is one of the most prominent issues confronting host communities of transnational corporations (TNCs) engaged in the production of economic goods and, sometimes, services. Drawing mainly on stakeholder theory, combined with legitimacy theory, this article addresses how host communities in Africa combat the challenge of environmental irresponsibility of TNCs. To illustrate the dimensions and dynamics of the challenge, this paper examines the experience of despoliation of Ogoniland by the oil giant Shell in Nigeria. The analysis draws attention to the significance of the role of individuals and civil society groups in securing accountability of one of the most formidable fronts of economic globalisation. The analysis is particularly relevant to the experience of environmental irresponsibility in the context of weak governance structures.
    • Robes on Tight Ropes: The Judicialisation of Politics in Nigeria

      Yusuf, Hakeem O.; University of Glasgow (De Gruyter, 2008-06-09)
      This account of judicialised politics in the Nigerian transition experience examines the regulation of the judiciary of the political space, through the resolution of intergovernmental contestations in a dysfunctional federation. It analyses the judicialisation of elite power disputes which have resonance for due process and the rule of law in particular and governance in general. A study of the role of the judiciary in stabilising the country, itself a pivot in the West Africa region in particular and Africa in general, is important. This is especially in view of its classification as a weak state, despite its enormous human and natural resources. The analyses here suggest the Supreme Court has taken a strategic position in the task of democratic institutional building and the reinstitution of the rule of law in the country. This strategic measure has received the acclaim of the public. However, the account also discloses that the judiciary, in the course of its numerous interventions, has been drawn into overly political disputes that overreach its jurisprudential preferences. Of even more significance, it demonstrates that the judiciary is itself still challenged by institutional dysfunctions constituting part of the legacies of the authoritarian era. The situation leads back to the need for closer scrutiny of the judicial function in transitional societies.
    • Calling the judiciary to account for the past : transitional justice and judicial accountability in Nigeria.

      Yusuf, Hakeem O.; University of Glasgow (2008-03-19)
      Institutional and individual accountability is an important feature of societies in transition from conflict or authoritarian rule. The imperative of accountability has both normative and transformational underpinnings in the context of restoration of the rule of law and democracy. This article argues a case for extending the purview of truth-telling processes to the judiciary in postauthoritarian contexts. The driving force behind the inquiry is the proposition that the judiciary as the third arm of government at all times participates in governance. To contextualize the argument, I focus on judicial governance and accountability within the paradigm of Nigeria’s transition to democracy after decades of authoritarian military rule.
    • The judiciary and constitutionalism in transitions : a critique.

      Yusuf, Hakeem O.; University of Glasgow (De Gruyter, 2007-12-28)
      The article critically analyses the role of the Nigerian courts in mediating resultant tensions in the post-authoritarian transition period. In doing this, I examine jurisprudence emanating from the courts on some serious inter-governmental disputes, as well as decisions bordering on individual and group rights, particularly those connected to the transition process. The dynamics of democratic transition in Nigeria after decades of military rule dictates the inevitability of these disputes. The military left a legacy of systemic distortion and institutional dysfunctions which constitute formidable challenges to the transitioning society. The article argues a case for a purposive jurisprudential approach to resolving the ensuing tensions which typically threaten the viability of the transition.
    • The judiciary and political change in Africa: Developing transitional jurisprudence in Nigeria.

      Yusuf, Hakeem O.; Queen's University Belfast (Oxford University Press, 2009-10-08)
      At a time of increased evaluations of law, human rights, and the rise of judicial power all over the globe, the work of most African judiciaries and the principles of the jurisprudence they espouse in promoting social justice remain an unlikely focus of comparative legal scholarship. This ought not to be so in view of the considerable activities of the courts on the continent in the dawn of the third wave of democratization. This article explores the work of the Nigerian Supreme Court in the political transition to democracy since 1999. Utilizing insights from the work of Ruti Teitel, it attempts to outline some of the major constitutional and extraconstitutional principles adopted by the Court in mediating intergovernmental contestations in the turbulent transition away from almost three decades of authoritarian military rule. It emerges that the task of fostering social transformation through the “weakest” branch seriously tasks the institutional integrity of the judiciary.
    • Democratic transition, judicial accountability and judicialisation of politics in Africa: The Nigerian experience.

      Yusuf, Hakeem O.; University of Glasgow (Emerald, 2008-10)
      Purpose – This paper aims to examine the growing incidence of judicialisation of politics in Nigeria’s democratisation experience against the backdrop of questionable judicial accountability. Design/methodology/approach – The article draws on legal and political theory as well as comparative law perspectives. Findings – The judiciary faces a daunting task in deepening democracy and (re) instituting the rule of law. The formidable challenges derive in part from structural problems within the judiciary, deficient accountability credentials and the complexities of a troubled transition. Practical implications – Effective judicial mediation of political transition requires a transformed and accountable judiciary. Originality/value – The article calls attention to the need for judicial accountability as a cardinal and integral part of political transitions.