• Access to bank finance for UK SMEs in the wake of the recent financial crisis

      Cowling, M; Liu, W; Zhang, N.; University of Brighton (Emerald, 05/09/2016)
      The purpose of this paper is to investigate how entrepreneurs demand for external finance changed as the economy continued to be mired in its third and fourth years of the global financial crisis (GFC) and whether or not external finance has become more difficult to access as the recession progressed. Using a large-scale survey data on over 30,000 UK small- and medium-sized enterprises between July 2011 and March 2013, the authors estimate a series of conditional probit models to empirically test the determinants of the supply of, and demand for external finance. Older firms and those with a higher risk rating, and a record of financial delinquency, were more likely to have a demand for external finance. The opposite was true for women-led businesses and firms with positive profits. In general finance was more readily available to older firms post-GFC, but banks were very unwilling to advance money to firms with a high-risk rating or a record of any financial delinquency. It is estimated that a maximum of 42,000 smaller firms were denied credit, which was significantly lower than the peak of 119,000 during the financial crisis. This paper provides timely evidence that adds to the general understanding of what really happens in the market for small business financing three to five years into an economic downturn and in the early post-GFC period, from both a demand and supply perspective. This will enable the authors to consider what the potential impacts of credit rationing on the small business sector are and also identify areas where government action might be appropriate.
    • Access to finance for innovative SMEs since the financial crisis

      Lee, N; Sameen, H; Cowling, M; University of Brighton (Elsevier, 7/11/2014)
      In the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, there has been increased focus on access to finance for small firms. Research from before the crisis suggested that it was harder for innovative firms to access finance. Yet no research has considered the differential effect of the crisis on innovative firms. This paper addresses this gap using a dataset of over 10,000 UK SME employers. We find that innovative firms are more likely to be turned down for finance than other firms, and this worsened significantly in the crisis. However, regressions controlling for a host of firm characteristics show that the worsening in general credit conditions has been more pronounced for non-innovative firms with the exception of absolute credit rationing which still remains more severe for innovative firms. The results suggest that there are two issues in the financial system. The first is a structural problem which restricts access to finance for innovative firms. The second is a cyclical problem has been caused by the financial crisis and has impacted relatively more severely on non-innovative firms.
    • Accessible tourism futures: the world we dream to live in and the opportunities we hope to have

      Michopoulou, Eleni; Ambrose, Ivor; Darcy, Simon; Buhalis, Dimitrios; University of Derby; University of Technology Sydney; Bournemouth University (2015-09-14)
      Purpose Accessible tourism is evolving as a field of academic research and industry practice, set within a dynamic social context. The field is interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary. The purpose of this paper is to examine key concepts and global initiatives that will shape accessible tourism futures. Design/methodology/approach Three of the authors have extensive academic experience in the area and the fourth author is the Managing Director of the pre-eminent European Network for Accessible Tourism. In taking a limited Delphi approach to canvassing key areas likely to shape accessible tourism futures, the following concepts and policy initiatives were examined: motivations, dreams and aspirations of people with disability; demography; UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; destination competitiveness; universal design (UD); and the UN Sustainable Development Goals for 2030. Findings A discussion of each of the above areas was placed in context to accessible tourism futures and to contextualise the papers that were selected for the special issue. The latter part of the paper outlines the contribution of each empirical paper to the issue discussing the approach, findings and implications. Stakeholder collaboration was identified as the key common theme of the papers and the factor for developing accessible tourism solutions, recognising the value of the market and capitalising on it. A collaborative approach is required to recognise the complementary nature of the different paradigms; to re-shape and transform the future of the accessible tourism industry. To assist in the development of accessible tourism futures, UD principles should provide a foundation to enhance the future competitiveness of tourism destinations and organisations. Originality/value The paper’s examination of the concepts and global policy considerations provides a strong academic and practitioner foundation for considering accessible tourism futures. In doing so, accessible tourism futures are shown to be affected by key concepts related to core tourism considerations and major policy initiatives on accessibility and sustainability. Yet, accessible tourism futures also have the potential to create their own momentum and contribute unique learnings on the diversity of tourism markets that will shape tourism concepts and global policy initiatives in their own right.
    • Accessible Tourism Marketing Aspects

      Michopoulou, Eleni; Buhalis, Dimitrios; University of Derby (IV International Congress of Tourism for All, 26-28 June 2013, Avila, Spain, 2013-06-26)
    • Accessible Tourism Stakeholder Analysis

      Michopoulou, Eleni; Buhalis, Dimitrios; University of Derby (Channel View Publications, 2010-12)
    • Accountability of transnational corporations in the developing world: The case for an enforceable international mechanism.

      Omoteso, Kamil; Yusuf, Hakeem; Coventry University; University of Birmingham (2017-03-06)
      Purpose: This paper contends that the dominant voluntarism approach to the accountability of Transnational Corporations (TNCs) is inadequate and not fit-for-purpose. It argues for the establishment of an international legal mechanism for securing the accountability of TNCs particularly in the context of developing countries with notoriously weak governance mechanisms to protect all relevant stakeholders. Design/methodology/approach: The study adopts insights from the fields of management and international law to draw out synergies from particular understandings of corporate governance, corporate social responsibility and international human rights. The governance challenges in developing countries with regard to securing the accountability of TNCs is illustrated with the Nigerian experience of oil-industry legislation reform. Findings: The specific context of the experiences of developing countries in Africa on the operations of TNCs particularly commends the need and expedience to create an international legal regime for ensuring the accountability of TNCs. Originality/value: Mainstream research in this area has focused mainly on self and voluntary models of regulation and accountability that have privileged the legal fiction of the corporate status of TNCs. This article departs from that model to argue for an enforceable model of TNC accountability based on an international mechanism.
    • Accountability of transnational corporations in the developing world: The case for an enforceable international mechanism.

      Yusuf, Hakeem O.; Omoteso, Kamil; University of Birmingham; Coventry University (Emerald, 2017)
      Purpose: This paper contends that the dominant voluntarism approach to the accountability of Transnational Corporations (TNCs) is inadequate and not fit-for-purpose. It argues for the establishment of an international legal mechanism for securing the accountability of TNCs particularly in the context of developing countries with notoriously weak governance mechanisms to protect all relevant stakeholders. Design/methodology/approach: The study adopts insights from the fields of management and international law to draw out synergies from particular understandings of corporate governance, corporate social responsibility and international human rights. The governance challenges in developing countries with regard to securing the accountability of TNCs is illustrated with the Nigerian experience of oil-industry legislation reform. Findings: The specific context of the experiences of developing countries in Africa on the operations of TNCs particularly commends the need and expedience to create an international legal regime for ensuring the accountability of TNCs. Originality/value: Mainstream research in this area has focused mainly on self and voluntary models of regulation and accountability that have privileged the legal fiction of the corporate status of TNCs. This article departs from that model to argue for an enforceable model of TNC accountability based on an international mechanism.
    • Achieving data completeness in electronic medical records: A conceptual model and hypotheses development.

      Liu, Caihua; Zowghi, Didar; Talaei-Khoei, Amir; Daniel, Jay; University of Technology Sydney; University of Nevada (University of Hawaii, 2018-01-03)
      This paper aims at proposing a conceptual model of achieving data completeness in electronic medical records (EMR). For this to happen, firstly, we draw on the model of factors influencing data quality management to construct our conceptual model. Secondly, we develop hypotheses of relationships between influencing factors for data completeness and mediators for achieving data completeness in EMR based on the literature. Our conceptual model extends the prior model for factors influencing data quality management by adding a new factor and exploring the relationships between the influencing factors within the context of data completeness in EMR. The proposed conceptual model and the presented hypotheses once empirically validated will be the basis for the development of tools and techniques for achieving data completeness in EMR.
    • Adaptation and developments in Western Buddhism: Socially engaged Buddhism in the UK

      Henry, Philip M.; University of Derby (Bloomsbury Academic, 2015)
      In recent years, there has been a growing academic acknowledgment around the world of a contemporary Buddhist phenomenon described as Engaged, or Socially Engaged Buddhism (SEB). It is a contested phenomenon variously associated with finding Buddhist solutions for social, political and ecological problems. The debate about its origins, practice and legitimacy has stirred academics and practitioners alike. Firstly, does such an approach to Buddhist practice constitute a departure with the past, in which case a new expression of an ancient practice is being experienced all around us? Or is this really a continuity of practice, adapted to inform current understanding given that some would describe Buddhism as always having been engaged? Adaptation and Developments in Western Buddhism examines the UK Socially Engaged Buddhist experience captured through a series of five case studies of Buddhist groups and a survey undertaken over two years in the field. The volume is a ground-breaking and benchmark analysis of Socially Engaged Buddhism in the UK, drawing for the first time on evidence from practitioner's experiences with which to characterise the previously dichotomous academic debate. Ultimately, the volume locates Socially Engaged Buddhism in the UK and places it within the broader and global context of an emerging “Western Buddhism”, characterising the phenomenon and its relationships to the wider Buddhist world.
    • Addressing religious discrimination and Islamophobia: Muslims and liberal democracies, the case of the United Kingdom

      Weller, Paul; University of Derby (2011-12-06)
      The article examines contemporary claims of Islamophobia and religious discrimination against Muslims in the United Kingdom in the context of the broader dynamics of religious discrimination in British history. How the ‘struggle for existence’ of religious groups who were initially concerned with ‘establishing an identity of their own’ became ‘ the struggle for equality’ among both nonconformist religious minority groups in the nineteenth century as well as among twentieth century Muslim UK citizens of predominantly migrant and minority ethnic origin is examined. The identification of ‘Islamophobia’ as a specific form of discrimination and hatred of ‘the other’ is located in the rise of a late twentieth century ‘politics of identity’ as it emerges from the impact of ‘globalization’. The relationship between the distinctive features of the Muslim experience of discrimination on the basis of religion and that of other groups is explored by reference to the findings of the UK Government Home Office commissioned Religious Discrimination in England and Wales Research Project conducted during 1999–2001, as well as by reference to Orientalist and Islamophobic imagery. This article considers strategies for combating religious discrimination and hatred, from public education through to legal instruments, such as the Human Rights Act 1998 and the Employment Equality (Religion of Belief) Regulations 2003. The visceral and deeply embedded nature of ‘Islamophobia’ is illuminated by reference to the deep-seated and multi-layered admixture of religion and politics in Northern Irish ‘sectarianism’. The article concludes by advocating that it is the responsibility of all groups, of good governance in society, and in the ultimate interests of all, to tackle the phenomenon of religious discrimination and hatred under whatever guise it appears.
    • Adolescents’ involvement in cyber bullying and perceptions of school: The importance of perceived peer acceptance for female adolescents.

      Betts, Lucy R.; Spenser, Karin A.; Gardner, Sarah E.; Nottingham Trent University (Springer, 2017-03-15)
      Young people are spending increasing amounts of time using digital technology and, as such, are at great risk of being involved in cyber bullying as a victim, bully, or bully/victim. Despite cyber bullying typically occurring outside the school environment, the impact of being involved in cyber bullying is likely to spill over to school. Fully 285 11- to 15-year-olds (125 male and 160 female, M age = 12.19 years, SD = 1.03) completed measures of cyber bullying involvement, self-esteem, trust, perceived peer acceptance, and perceptions of the value of learning and the importance of school. For young women, involvement in cyber bullying as a victim, bully, or bully/victim negatively predicted perceptions of learning and school, and perceived peer acceptance mediated this relationship. The results indicated that involvement in cyber bullying negatively predicted perceived peer acceptance which, in turn, positively predicted perceptions of learning and school. For young men, fulfilling the bully/victim role negatively predicted perceptions of learning and school. Consequently, for young women in particular, involvement in cyber bullying spills over to impact perceptions of learning. The findings of the current study highlight how stressors external to the school environment can adversely impact young women’s perceptions of school and also have implications for the development of interventions designed to ameliorate the effects of cyber bullying.
    • Adoption of blockchain technology in supply chain transparency: Australian manufacturer case study

      Maroun, Elias A.; Daniel, Jay; Fynes, Brian; University of Derby; University of Technology Sydney; University College Dublin (European Decision Sciences Institute (EDSI), 2019-06)
      The arrival and capabilities of Blockchain is set to change traditional supply chain activities. Consumers are increasingly demanding details about the products they purchase, the sources of the manufactured product and manufacturing details. Organisations are declaring that they strive to improve labour practices and minimise the environmental effect of manufacturing goods however consumers still have a limited view of supply chains. The increasing development of the digital economy, the internet of things (IOT) and the growing use of sensors providing information in supply chains is providing Blockchain leverage to streamline and create an efficient supply chain track and trace of all types of transactions more transparently and securely. This paper explores the adoption of Blockchain technology in supply chain transparency. Specifically, we examine whether Blockchain technology is a good fit for use in an Australian manufacturer supply chain. Blockchain allows us to have permissioned or permission-less distributed ledgers where stakeholders can interact with each other. We describe in detail how Blockchain works and the mechanism of hash algorithms, which allows for greater security of information. Using a single case study, we focus on the intricacies of this technology and present a summary of adoption for Blockchain technology. The adoption for using Blockchain technology has the potential to bring greater transparency, validity across the supply chain, and improvement of communication between all stakeholders involved.
    • The adoption of IPSAS (accrual accounting) in Indonesian local government: a neo-institutional perspective

      Boolaky, Pran; Mirosea, Nitri; Omoteso, Kamil; Griffith University; University of Derby (Routledge, 2019-10-02)
      This study investigates the speed and drivers of IPSAS adoption in Indonesia. Using data from 205 local government entities, the results show while the interaction between auditors and representatives of opposition on the council has more impact on the speed of adoption than with the councillors representing the government, the timing of the council meeting has delayed the adoption of IPSAS accrual. Government grant, Supreme Audit Office, councillors and religious beliefs are the isomorphic drivers of IPSAS adoption. Our results support the hypotheses that the three institutional pressures (coercive, mimetic and normative) influence the speed of IPSAS adoption.
    • Against all odds: Embedding new knowledge for event continuity and community well-being.

      Azara, Iride; Wiltshier, Peter; Greatorex, Jamie; University of Derby (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2018-02-01)
      Ashbourne Royal Shrovetide Football (ARSF) is a sporting event that occurs yearly on Shrove Tuesday and Ash Wednesday in the market town of Ashbourne, in Derbyshire. Sometimes referred to as "mob football," Shrovetide can arguably be perceived as the quintessential sensorial and fully immersive event, being played out across town and involving the entire community. The event is also a unique tourism spectacle and a tool for tourism destination positioning. This article presents some of the results of a larger study that looks at challenges in the matter of events safety and the impacts that this has on event survival and the sustainable development of local communities. Findings highlight the need to support communities to learn from events in order to preserve them as they are essential for the maintenance of a unique and inimitable community identity.
    • Against all odds: Embedding new knowledge for event continuity and community well-being.

      Azara, Iride; Wiltshier, Peter; Greatorex, Jamie; University of Derby (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2018-02-01)
      Ashbourne Royal Shrovetide Football (ARSF) is a sporting event that occurs yearly on Shrove Tuesday and Ash Wednesday in the market town of Ashbourne, in Derbyshire. Sometimes referred to as "mob football," Shrovetide can arguably be perceived as the quintessential sensorial and fully immersive event, being played out across town and involving the entire community. The event is also a unique tourism spectacle and a tool for tourism destination positioning. This article presents some of the results of a larger study that looks at challenges in the matter of events safety and the impacts that this has on event survival and the sustainable development of local communities. Findings highlight the need to support communities to learn from events in order to preserve them as they are essential for the maintenance of a unique and inimitable community identity.
    • Alternative research methods: introducing marketing sensing, a qualitative and interpretive perspective on research

      Longbottom, David; Lawson, Alison; University of Derby (Routledge, 2018-12-07)
      This chapter examines research from an interpretive perspective where qualitative methods are predominantly used. We present that qualitative methods may be used by researchers seeking to gain deeper insights and understanding of underlying issues particularly in the context of social science studies which often involve people and organisations in a social setting. We will argue that such methods can be used within an interpretive philosophy, or may be combined with quantitative methods in a pragmatic and mixed methods approach. Whilst the chapter considers traditional methods associated with qualitative research, such as depth interview and focus group, it also introduces several alternative methods and techniques which may be used by researchers seeking to gain creativity in their research design and presentation and provide deeper understanding to build their analysis and research conclusions. The chapter is arranged in two parts. In part one, we examine issues of context, philosophy, approach and strategy. In part two, we examine issues of strategy and methods, planning, data collection, and data presentation.
    • America: The great prison nation

      Teague, Michael; Teesside University (Centre for Crime and Justice Studies, 2008)
      America leads the world in custody. The country’s 5,000 jails and prisons hold a staggering 2.24 million prisoners. Though home to just 1 in 20 of the global population, the USA incarcerates a quarter of the world’s prisoners. America’s proportional imprisonment rate of is 6–10 times greater than that of most developed, industrialised nations. In a typical year, some 13.5 million US citizens (out of a total population of 300 million) spend time in either jail or prison.This discussion outlines multiple areas of concern about the sheer scale and functioning of the US prison system, framed through the prism of UK comparisons.
    • An Evaluation of Management Perspectives of Sustainability Reporting In The Nigerian Oil Industry.

      Uzonwanne, G; Yekini, K; Yekini, Liafisu Sina; tobo, P; Coventry University (CCSE, 2014)
      This article investigates the perspectives of managers involved in sustainability reporting in the Nigerian oil industry. The article adopts a survey methodology in its approach to conduct this investigation. The survey employed a structured interview to investigate five themes built around the motivation for sustainability reporting within these organizations, hierarchical responsibility for sustainability reporting, the organizations objectives relative to the welfare of the people within the communities it operates in, policies in place to rejuvenate the damaged environment resulting from it’s operations and finally how sufficient in monetary terms is the company’s effort to wipe out its operational footprint. The data gathered was analysed qualitatively under these various themes. The general view emerging amongst the vast majority of the managers interviewed was that oil companies operating within the region have a key social responsibility and disclosure role to play but that it remains the role of the Nigerian Federal Government to provide the institutional framework around which the development of the region is to be hinged. Research Implications: More research is required in the area of CSR and CSD in developing/emerging markets to understand the link between weak institutional frameworks and voluntary CSR and CSD. This article contributes to CSR and CSD literature in broad terms and in specific terms to the literature on sustainable operations in developing/emerging markets. The originality is based on the fact that it explores manager’s perspectives in a developing/emerging market.
    • Anthropology of gastronomies

      Cseh, Leonard; University of Derby, Buxton (2013-03-27)
      “Tell me what you eat and I will tell you what you are” Savarin (1825) These defining words spoken in a time of dynamic changes within gastronomy arguably shaped the ideological consumption of food. This book chapter aims to discuss how the anthropology of gastronomies as a concept has always been of significance. It is only recently that the subject has risen from the fringe of academic inquiry to a more prominent position within the discipline, moving away from the simple listing of the constitutive aspects of the diet. (Herrmann and Gruneberg, 1993; Shimp, 1994; Sternberg and Grigorenko, 1997; Straughan and Roberts, 1999; Wagner, 2003; Wells, 1993). Furthermore, the chapter will show how food anthropology is embedded within cultures and has differing ideologies and meanings. Levi-Strauss, (1966) suggested that cognitive ability and consumption is based upon the tribal knowledge and examination on cultural habits such as behaviour and the way people think, classification patterns and their knowledge is a reflection of their collective experiences. The chapter aims to discuss the current and potential further implications of anthropology of gastronomies using 3 key themes/questions: • Can gastronomies be simply classified under an anthropological umbrella? • Is there a picture of our concern or apathy when it involves food? • If they can be proved can we truly determine anthropologies of gastronomies on a planet which now expresses personal representation and national identity with the food policy and the food it consumes? Food anthropology is not strictly limited to investigating one particular food ritual and its interaction with culture. Many studies have focused on fast foods and fast food restaurants and issues of globalization, trans-nationalism and offering of a contrived product described as authentic. Representations of gastronomies are also identified in the hermeneutics of its text (Tressider, 2011), (interpreted in several ways based on an individual’s ethnocentrism and experiences)