• Disassembly and deconstruction analytics system (D-DAS) for construction in a circular economy

      Akanbi, Lukman A.; Oyedele, Lukumon O.; Omoteso, Kamil; Bilal, Muhammad; Akinade, Olugbenga O.; Ajayi, Anuoluwapo O.; Davila Delgado, Juan Manuel; Owolabi, Hakeem A.; Coventry University (Elsevier, 2019-03-15)
      Despite the relevance of building information modelling for simulating building performance at various life cycle stages, Its use for assessing the end-of-life impacts is not a common practice. Even though the global sustainability and circular economy agendas require that buildings must have minimal impact on the environment across the entire lifecycle. In this study therefore, a disassembly and deconstruction analytics system is developed to provide buildings’ end-of-life performance assessment from the design stage. The system architecture builds on the existing building information modelling capabilities in managing building design and construction process. The architecture is made up of four different layers namely (i) Data storage layer, (ii) Semantic layer, (iii) Analytics and functional models layer and (iv) Application layer. The four layers are logically connected to function as a single system. Three key functionalities of the disassembly and deconstruction analytics system namely (i) Building Whole Life Performance Analytics (ii) Building Element Deconstruction Analytics and (iii) Design for Deconstruction Advisor are implemented as plug-in in Revit 2017. Three scenarios of a case study building design were used to test and evaluate the performance of the system. The results show that building information modelling software capabilities can be extended to provide a platform for assessing the performance of building designs in respect of the circular economy principle of keeping the embodied energy of materials perpetually in an economy. The disassembly and deconstruction analytics system would ensure that buildings are designed with design for disassembly and deconstruction principles that guarantee efficient materials recovery in mind. The disassembly and deconstruction analytics tool could also serve as a decision support platform that government and planners can use to evaluate the level of compliance of building designs to circular economy and sustainability requirements.
    • Executive functioning as a predictive measure of offending behaviour.

      Spenser, Karin A.; Bull, Ray; Betts, Lucy; Winder, Belinda; Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK.; University of Derby, Derby, UK; University of Derby, Derby, UK; Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK; Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK (Emerald Group Publishing Limited., 2019-01-04)
      Prosociality is considered important in the study of offenders and associated cognitive skills: theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning, are said to enable self-control and reduce the risk of offending behaviours. Previous research has made associations between these skills and executive functioning; however, research into a link between them, in an offending population, is limited. The paper aims to discuss this issue. To further understand the practicalities of this, the present study considered the predictive abilities of the constructs believed to underpin executive functioning: working memory, cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control, in relation to theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning. In total, 200 male and female offenders completed measures in all six constructs. Using path analysis working memory was demonstrated to be predictive of theory of mind and empathic understanding, cognitive flexibility was found to be predictive of theory of mind, and inhibitory control was found to be predictive of theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning. The study focussed on offenders serving a custodial sentence of six months or less and did not differentiate between crime categories or take into consideration the socio-environmental backgrounds or ethnicity. Therefore, considering these things could further establish the generalisability of the current findings. It is noted that the more focused the intervention is to the specific needs of an offender, the greater the impact will be. Therefore, pre-screening tests for the constructs discussed may be able to more accurately assess an offenders’ suitability for a programme, or indeed tailor it to meet the specific needs of that person. These findings may enable practitioners to more accurately assess offenders’ suitability for interventions aimed at reducing offending behaviours by improving levels of prosociality and develop more focused programmes to meet the specific needs of individual offenders to reduce re-offending. As recommended in the study, a more tailored approach to offender rehabilitation may be a potential aid to reducing levels of recidivism. The present study adds to the literature as it is the first to consider whether the constructs of executive functioning can predict levels of theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning and so provide a more accurate method in assessing the cognitive abilities of offenders prior to participation in rehabilitative interventions.
    • An odd “foreign policy couple”? Syria and Saudi Arabia 1970-1989

      Belcastro, Francesco; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2019)
      This paper analyses the alliance between Syria and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the years 1970-1989. The relations between the two Arab powers were characterized by cooperation and support amid ideological and ‘structural’ differences. This was a stark contrast with the conflictual relations of the previous decade. The change was driven mainly by a reshaping in Syria’s regional policy. The new ‘realist’ foreign policy imposed by Hafiz Al-Assad created an overlapping of interests between Syria and the KSA. Riyadh valued Syria’s role in the region and used its support of Damascus vis-à-vis Israel as a tool to obtain domestic and regional legitimacy. On the other hand Syria benefited from the KSA’s generous economic and diplomatic help. This study will use an approach based on neoclassical realism to show how domestic and international factors led to these changes.
    • Crime, bandits, and community: how public panic shaped the social control of territory in the Ottoman Empire

      Cayli, Baris; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2018-12-15)
      This study explores the role of crime, bandits, and public panic in in the nineteenth century Ottoman society by using archival documents and employing a comparative perspective. In addition to the social bandit concept of Eric Hobsbawm, there is an introduction of two new banditry forms in this study—opportunist bandits and imagined bandits. The comparison of different bandit forms clarifies that social bandits and opportunist bandits aggravated public panic and produced imagined bandits. Hence, public panic and the dissent of local people unveiled through rumors about the imagined bandits. The exploration of different forms of bandits in the Ottoman Empire is a response to the vexed issue concerning the challenges in the social control of territories in a multiethnic and multi-religious empire. This study provides new conceptual tools to rethink about the spatial dimensions in the emergence of bandits. This article shows that spatial factors in the social control of territory can be influenced by the reaction of local people from bottom-to-top and, in doing so, can determine the response of state authority. The present study, therefore, unveils the power relationship in the social control of territory whether it is manifested by physical force or public panic.
    • Understanding key motivations for using a hotel gamified application.

      Parapanos, Demos; Michopoulou, Elina; University of Derby (Springer., 2018-12-15)
      While hospitality has been one of the industries that have been keen to adopt and use various technologies, the proliferation of gamification application is still to materialise. It is therefore very interesting to investigate the potential benefits of gamified applications for both demand and supply in the area of the hospitality industry by identifying the motives of individuals’ when they use a hotel-gamified application. Since fun has become the requirement to ensure continuous demands for many products or services, companies and organizations feel the need to involve fun in their offerings to secure continuity in consumption and use. Hence, this study aims to understand the meaning of fun for individuals when they will use a hotel-gamified application. Visual material was prepared so the interviewees would have an idea of how a hotel-gamified application would look if it were in existence today based on the current definitions of gamification.
    • Do employment services need to be neoliberal

      Nunn, Alex; University of Derby (Routledge, 2018-12)
      There is a divide in the literature on labour market governance between that which sees ‘workfare’ policies as part of a process of neoliberalisation and a more practice-oriented literature that is concerned with the effectiveness and outcomes of ‘active labour market policies’. This chapter engages with these separate but related literatures to make the argument that the trajectory of policy and practice reform in employment services has been inherently neoliberalising over recent decades, and that there is scope to repurpose some of the processes and tools that have been involved in this to more inclusive ends. The chapter proposes that the materialist feminist concept of social reproduction offers one lens through which a more inclusive approach to employment service delivery and management can be viewed. The discussion is tailored to the ways that both national policymakers, local and lower-level implementers and progressive activists may promote a more inclusive form of employment service through their ‘policy work’.
    • Empowering women for positive action in an era of social injustice and gender inequality.

      Jegede, Francis; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2018-11-22)
      Empowering women for positive action in an era of social injustice and gender inequality
    • The political economy of public employment services: measurement and disempowered empowerment?

      Nunn, Alex; Morgan, Jamie; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2018-11-21)
      Active labour market policies (ALMPs) and Public Employment Services are related components of European Union and member state labour market policy. Typically, PES are analysed in terms of a narrow concern with efficiency and effectiveness of service. In this paper we argue that PES are constituents in broader processes. They are not just means to facilitate employment, they are also part of transmission mechanisms for a political economy of competitiveness. They play a particular role in governance processes, and so serve to produce and reproduce power relations that are intrinsic to those processes. We argue that the technical ways that PES have been managed over recent decades has contributed to broader processes of disempowering labour, through depoliticised management practices. We argue that attempts at even limited re-empowerment of labour would require a repoliticisation of these management practices.
    • International licensing agreements: IP, technology transfer and competition law.

      Meiselles, Michala; Wharton, Hugo; University of Derby (Wolters Kluwer, 2018-10-16)
      About this book: A guide to the complex world of international licensing agreements grouping together all the essential materials needed when considering cross-border licensing agreements. What’s in this book: As a step-by-step guide to drafting international licensing agreements, this book ensures that the needs of each contracting party are addressed. This expert guide covers the following: business models that may be used by the contracting parties; standard provisions encountered in an array of international licensing agreements; analysis of the key clauses in various international licensing agreements inter alia trademark, software, franchise and technology licences with provisions as affected by jurisdiction; effect of competition law in a variety of jurisdictions; ensuring trademark protection at both national and international levels; clear explanation of key franchising terminology and disclosure rules; and effect of international dispute resolution rules in a range of jurisdictions. Alongside contract analysis, this book details numerous case studies from an array of industries that ensure the accommodation of sector-specific issues. For practitioners operating within or representing medium to large firms who normally have to prepare or provide advice on international licence arrangements. The book’s thorough incorporation of detailed contract analysis will also be welcomed by professionals working for universities, industry, interest groups, government departments and international organisations.
    • Whatever happened to repeat victimisation?

      Pease, Ken; Ignatans, Dainis; Batty, Lauren; University of Derby (Springer Link, 2018-10-04)
      Crime is concentrated at the individual level (hot dots) as well as at area level (hot spots). Research on repeat victimisation affords rich prevention opportunities but has been increasingly marginalised by policy makers and implementers despite repeat victims accounting for increasing proportions of total crime. The present paper seeks to trigger a resurgence of interest in research and initiatives based on the prevention of repeat victimisation.
    • Crime concentrations: Hot dots, hot spots and hot flushes.

      Ignatans, Dainis; Pease, Ken; University of Huddersfield; University College London (Oxford University Press, 2018-09-14)
      None
    • Mapping repeated interviews

      Waterhouse, Genevieve F.; Ridley, Anne M.; Bull, Ray; La Rooy, David; Wilcock, Rachel; University of Derby; University of Winchester; London South Bank University; University of London (Springer, 2018-09-14)
      The present study introduces an adaptation of the Griffiths Question Map (GQM; Griffiths & Milne, 2006) which extends the chronological, visual map of question types used in an investigative interview to include child interviewee’s responses (through the addition of the Interview Answer Grid, IAG). Furthermore, it provides a rare evaluation of repeated interviews with children. From a sample of transcripts of Scottish repeated interviews with child victims, two ‘good’ and two ‘poor’ first interviews were chosen based on interviewer question types. First and second investigative interviews of these four children were mapped using the GQM and IAG in order to examine across the two interviews the similarity of interviewer and interviewee behaviours and the consistency and investigative-relevance of information provided. Both ‘good’ and ‘poor’ interviews were found to include practices discouraged by interviewing guidelines, which would not have been identified by examining question proportions alone. Furthermore, ‘good’ first interviews were followed by second interviews which began with poor question types, suggesting a possible impact of confirmation bias. Social support was also assessed and found to be used infrequently, mainly in response to the child being informative rather than pre-emptively by interviewers in an attempt to encourage this. Children were also found to disclose throughout their second interviews, suggesting that rapport-maintenance is vital for single and multiple interviews. The use of the GQM and IAG are encouraged as techniques for determining interview quality.
    • A typology of environmental capabilities of SMEs: uncovering capabilities for a transition towards sustainability.

      Baranova, Polina; University of Derby (British Academy of Management, 2018-09-05)
      The transition to a low carbon economy demands new business strategies for maintaining competitiveness, benefiting from and contributing towards the ‘clean’ growth. An ongoing study of the regional SMEs operating in the East Midlands reveals the patterns in which SMEs approach capability building towards sustainability. This developmental paper presents a conceptual view of how these patterns can be theorised and empirically tested further. The paper outlines a theoretical avenue aiming to further our understanding about environmental capabilities. The paper concludes with a number of practical recommendations towards developing environmental capabilities of SMEs in the context of a transition towards sustainability.
    • Remote working in academia: a site of contested identities.

      Lee, Amanda; University of Derby (British Academy of Management, 2018-09-01)
      This development paper discusses the affects and impact of formalised remote (location-independent) working on notions and construction of academic identity. Data is drawn from a six year longitudinal ethnographic study exploring the lived experiences of location-independent and office-based academics. Findings suggest academic identities are being dynamically recreated, with a more or less conscious awareness of how this is being done. The organisational decision to formalise location-independent working (LIW) led to a distinct group of academics identifying themselves as ‘LIW’ and office-based academics identifying themselves as distinct from their LIW colleagues. The dynamic interplay between LIW and office-based academics resulted in contested identities between these two groups. Despite these manufactured and socially constructed divisions, both groups identified strongly with the notion of an overarching academic identity. As such, the notion of academic identity was not contested, but it was seen as threatened and, potentially weakened, by the prevailing managerialist culture.
    • Is it just a guessing game? The application of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) to predict burglary.

      Monchuk, Leanne; Pease, Ken; Armitage, Rachel; University of Huddersfield; University College London; Applied Criminology & Policing Centre, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, UK; UCL Jill Dando Institute of Security and Crime Science, London, UK; Applied Criminology & Policing Centre, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, UK (Taylor and Francis, 2018-08-27)
      Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) aims to reduce crime through the design of the built environment. Designing out crime officers (DOCOs) are responsible for the delivery of CPTED by assessing planning applications, identifying criminogenic design features and offering remedial advice. Twenty-eight experienced DOCOs from across England and Wales assessed the site plan for one residential development (which had been built a decade earlier) and identified crime risk locations. Predictions of likely locations were compared with 4 years’ police recorded crime data. DOCOs are, to varying extents, able to identify locations which experienced higher levels of crime and disorder. However, they varied widely in the number of locations in which they anticipated burglary would occur.
    • Students’ learning experience in flipped classes using social media.

      Talaei-Khoei, Amir; Daniel, Jay; Dokhanchi, Mohsen; University of Nevada; University of Derby; University of Queensland (Association for Information Systems, 2018-08-16)
      The current work aims at deploying Facebook as a social media site to improve students’ learning experience with the flipped learning materials through implementation of a socially enabled peer and selflearning environment. Provided the body of literature on poor students’ experience in flipped classes, the paper implements an experiment comparing the online quizzes and Facebook to improve students’ experience with the online materials in flipped classes. The study looks at the students’ perceptions. The paper provides recommendations to the instructors on how to use Facebook to improve students’ experience with the flipped materials. This study also motivates teaching practitioners in Information Systems to improve flipped learning by using social networking sites in their courses.
    • Political socialization, worry about crime and antisocial behaviour: an analysis of age, period and cohort effects.

      Gray, Emily; Grasso, Maria; Farrall, Stephen; Jennings, Will; Hay, Colin; University of Sheffield; Centre for Criminological Research, School of Law, University of Sheffield, Winter Street, Sheffield, UK; Department of Politics, University of Sheffield, Northumberland Road, Sheffield, UK; Centre for Criminological Research, School of Law, University of Sheffield, Winter Street, Sheffield, UK; Department of Politics and International Relations, University of Southampton, University Road, Southampton, UK; Centre d’Études Européennes, Sciences Po, Paris, France (Oxford University Presss, 2018-08-07)
      Fear of crime occupies a substantial area of research and theorizing in criminology. Yet, it has not been examined within a longitudinal framework of political socialization. Using insights from generational modelling, we explore how political cohorts influence the fear of crime and perceptions of antisocial behaviour. This ‘age, period and cohort’ (APC) approach recognizes the distinct temporal processes of (1) individual ageing, (2) current contexts and (3) generational membership and is crucial to understanding the origins and shape of social change. We employ repeated cross-sectional data from the British Crime Survey in an APC analysis to explore how worry about crime and perceptions of antisocial behaviour were impacted by the sociopolitical environment in which respondents spent their ‘formative years’. Our results underline the theoretical significance of political socialization and the methodological consequence of longitudinal analyses when exploring public perceptions of crime. We find that political socialization can have a distinctive and enduring impression on public perceptions of crime from childhood into middle age.
    • Jail inmates’ perspectives on police interrogation.

      Cleary, Hayley M. D.; Bull, Ray; Virginia Commonwealth University; University of Derby; Department of Criminal Justice, L. Douglas Wilder School of Government and Public Affairs, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA; Department of Law, Criminology, and Social Sciences, University of Derby, Derby, UK (Taylor and Francis, 2018-07-26)
      Few studies have examined police interrogation strategies from suspects’ perspectives, yet assessing suspects’ views about interviewer approaches could provide important insights regarding confession decision making. The current study is the first American survey to assess a diverse sample of adult jail inmates’ views on police interrogation tactics and approaches. The study explored US jail inmates’ (N = 418) perspectives about how police should conduct interrogations. Potential dimensionality among 26 survey items pertaining to police tactics was examined using exploratory factor analysis. Group differences according to demographic and criminological variables were also explored. Four factors emerged, conceptualized as Dominance/Control, Humanity/Integrity, Sympathy/Perspective-Taking, and Rapport. Respondents most strongly endorsed Humanity/Integrity and Rapport strategies and were unsupportive of approaches involving Dominance/Control. Gender differences emerged for Dominance/Control and Humanity/Integrity, and Black respondents were more likely to value strategies related to Sympathy/Perspective-Taking. Suspects endorsed interrogation strategies characterized by respect, dignity, voice, and a commitment to the truth; they reported aversions to the false evidence ploy and approaches involving aggression. Overall, results from this incarcerated sample suggest that interviewees may be more responsive to rapport-building, non-adversarial strategies.
    • The usefulness of psychopathy in explaining and predicting violence: discussing the utility of competing perspectives.

      Bergstrøm, Henriette; Larmour, Simon R.; Farrington, David P.; University of Derby; University of Cambridge (Elsevier, 2018-07-12)
      The current study is a review of the utility of psychopathy in violence risk assessment. Psychopathy has long been considered one of the most important factors when assessing the risk for future violence in forensic samples. Concerns about tautology have however indicated a need to critically assess the utility of psychopathy measures in risk assessment. We argue that the focus should be as much on the psychopathic personality in the explanation of violent behavior as on the psychopathic personality in the prediction of violent behavior. The main aim of this article is to contrast and discuss the utility of two different ways of conceptualizing and measuring the psychopathic personality, namely through the PCL scales and the CAPP. Existing evidence suggests that the CAPP and PCL are comparably strong predictors of violent behavior, but the CAPP is more dynamic (compared with the static PCL) and aims to measure psychopathic personality rather than past behavior. It is proposed that the CAPP is more useful in explaining violence and should be utilized more in future risk assessments for violence. Implications for future practice are discussed.
    • Should we expect exemplary integrated reporting to increase organisational ESG ratings?

      Conway, Elaine; University of Derby (Springer, 2018-07-03)
      The aim of this chapter is to assess whether firms which have been recognised for exemplary integrated reporting () should see an increase in their Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) ratings, or indeed, whether firms that rate highly for their ESG performance manage to produce exemplary integrated reports. Studying 111 firms worldwide recognised for their excellent , the number of accolades awarded was estimated against their ESG ratings over six years from 2012–2017. The reverse relationship was also explored, together with regressions using the determinants of the CSR score; environmental, social and governance. Finally a necessary condition analysis (NCA) was carried out to ascertain whether having a good ESG score is a prerequisite for producing an exemplary integrated report (and vice versa). There appears to be no correlation between companies producing exemplary  and their ESG ratings; nor indeed the reverse. However, there was some evidence that firms producing exemplary  have higher governance scores and in turn, higher governance scores appear linked to more exemplary . There were no findings for the other two determinants of ESG (environmental and social). There was also no indication that having a good ESG score is a prerequiste for producing an exemplary integrated report based on the NCA. This chapter is of interest to practitioners and academics since it is the first study to consider whether there is a link between exemplary  and highly rated ESG scores. It is also the first study to use the novel methodology of NCA in this arena to determine whether one ( or high ESG scores) is a prerequisite for the other. Given the relative low numbers of firms using  the results may lack generalisability, however the results are positive in that firms are not constrained by having to produce an exemplary integrated report in order to increase ESG ratings, should this be a corporate objective.