• Access to finance for innovative SMEs since the financial crisis

      Lee, N; Sameen, H; Cowling, M; University of Brighton (Elsevier, 7/11/2014)
      In the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, there has been increased focus on access to finance for small firms. Research from before the crisis suggested that it was harder for innovative firms to access finance. Yet no research has considered the differential effect of the crisis on innovative firms. This paper addresses this gap using a dataset of over 10,000 UK SME employers. We find that innovative firms are more likely to be turned down for finance than other firms, and this worsened significantly in the crisis. However, regressions controlling for a host of firm characteristics show that the worsening in general credit conditions has been more pronounced for non-innovative firms with the exception of absolute credit rationing which still remains more severe for innovative firms. The results suggest that there are two issues in the financial system. The first is a structural problem which restricts access to finance for innovative firms. The second is a cyclical problem has been caused by the financial crisis and has impacted relatively more severely on non-innovative firms.
    • The role of loan commitment terms in credit allocation on the UK small firms loan guarantee scheme

      Cowling, M; Matthews, C; Liu, W.; University of Brighton (Senate Hall Academic Publishing, 31/03/2017)
      In this paper we provide empirical evidence concerning the nature of loan commitment contracts as reflected by individual loan contract parameters in influencing the size of bank commitments. Specifically, we consider how the quantitative allocation of credit, the loan amount, is affected or altered by changes to other components of the total loan package. By doing so we shed some more light on the types of real world trade-offs that credit constrained firms might face when approaching banks for funds, using the UK governments loan guarantee programme. Our results point at the importance of relationship lending in the UK.
    • How Influencing Behaviours Can Accelerate the Transition to a Water Sensitive City.

      Ramkissoon, H; Smith, L. D. G; Kneebone, S. C; Monash University (CRC for Water Sensitive Cities, 31/01/2015)
      his Behaviour Assessment Database has been compiled as part of the CRC Water for Sensitive Cities project on 'Accelerating to Water Sensitive Cities by Influencing Behaviour' (Project A2.2). The overarching goal of this research project is to develop and test interventions that seek to change desirable behaviours, primarily in residents, to assist a movement toward water sensitive cities.
    • The innovation debt penalty: Cost of debt, loan default, and the effects of a public loan guarantee on high-tech firms

      Cowling, M; Ughetto, E; Lee, N.; University of Brighton (Elsevier, 28/06/2017)
      High-technology firms per se are perceived to be more risky than other, more conventional, firms. It follows that financial institutions will take this into account when designing loan contracts, and that this will manifest itself in more costly debt. In this paper we empirically test whether the provision of a government loan guarantee fundamentally changes the way lenders price debt to high-tech firms. Further, we also examine whether there are differential loan price effects of a public guarantee depending on the nature of the firms themselves and the nature of the economic and innovation environment that surrounds them. Using a large UK dataset of 29,266 guarantee backed loans we find that there is a high-tech risk premium which is justified by higher default, but, in general, that this premium is altered significantly when a public guarantee is provided for all firms. Further, all these loan price effects differ on precise spatial economic and innovation attributes.
    • The World is your Oyster: The Effects of Knowledge, Human Capital, Technology and Entry Timing on International Growth

      Cowling, M; Liu, W; Zhang, N.; University of Brighton (Senate Hall Academic Publishing, 27/06/2016)
      We draw on elements of several established theories of internationalization to provide a framework for exploring international market entry and scale of entry measured by number of foreign markets entered for a sample of young, high-tech, firms from the UK and Germany. We find that founding team human capital is associated with more extensive internationalization, as is intensity of R&D, early internationalization and early stage venture capital. We also find that internationalizing firms who choose the US as their first international market entry are also those most likely to develop more extensive international market presence. Degree of asset specificity, in contrast, is associated with less extensive internationalization.
    • Visitors' experience, place attachment and sustainable behaviour at cultural heritage sites: a conceptual framework

      Buonincontri, P; Marasco, A; Ramkissoon, H; Monash University (MDPI, 26/06/2017)
      Sustainable tourism research has attracted wide interest from scholars and practitioners. While several heritage sites are mandated to provide optimum visitor satisfaction with increasing competition in the market, managers of heritage sites face growing challenges in striking a balance between consumption and conservation. This calls for promoting more sustainable behaviours among consumers of heritage. This study proposes a conceptualization of sustainable behaviour for heritage consumers. Using the attitude–behaviour relationship underpinned by the Theory of Reasoned Action, it develops and proposes a conceptual framework that integrates visitors’ heritage experiences, their attachment to heritage sites, and their general and site-specific sustainable heritage behaviour and presents their interrelationships as proposed hypotheses. Theoretical contributions and practical implications for heritage site managers are discussed.
    • Multiple disadvantage and wage growth: The effect of merit pay on pay gaps

      Woodhams, C; Lupton, B; Perkins, G; Cowling, M; University of Brighton (Wiley, 24/02/2015)
      This article concerns rates of wage growth among women and minority groups and their impact on pay gaps. Specifically, it focuses on the pay progression of people with more than one disadvantaged identity, and on the impact of merit pay. Recent research indicates that pay gaps for people in more than one disadvantaged identity category are wider than those with a single‐disadvantaged identity. It is not known whether these gaps are closing, at what rate, and whether all groups are affected equally; nor is it known whether merit pay alleviates or exacerbates existing pay gaps. In addressing these issues, the analysis draws on longitudinal payroll data from a large UK‐based organization. Results show that pay gaps are closing; however, the rate of convergence is slow relative to the size of existing pay disparities, and slowest of all for people with disabilities. When the effect of merit pay is isolated, it is found to have a small positive effect in reducing pay gaps, and this effect is generally larger for dual/multiple‐disadvantaged groups. These findings run counter to the well‐established critique of merit pay in relation to equality outcomes. The implications of this are discussed, and an agenda for research and practice is set out. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    • Samadhi spa & wellness retreat

      Ramkissoon, H; Monash University (Kendall/Hunt Publishing, 23/08/2013)
    • The satisfaction-place attachment relationship: Potential mediators and moderators.

      Ramkissoon, H; Mavondo, F. T; Monash University (Elsevier, 23/05/2015)
      Researchers use place satisfaction as a dependent variable extensively since place has implications for a range of performance measures. This study reverses the relationships suggesting place satisfaction as a useful antecedent to place attachment. Place satisfaction, measured as visitors' summative evaluation of their experience is likely to be more positively associated with place dependence, identity, affect, and social bonding. The findings of this study support this contention and establish that one of the principal mechanisms linking place satisfaction to place attachment is pro-environmental behavioral intention (PEB). The study further finds that gender moderates the relationship between PEB and place attachment. The conditional indirect effect of place satisfaction on place attachment is significant only for male visitors. The article closes with implications of the study for academics and practitioners.
    • Proenvironmental behavior: critical link between satisfaction and place attachment in Australia and Canada

      Ramkissoon, H; Mavondo, F. T.; Monash University (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 23/03/2017)
      This study explores issues of scale equivalence and generalizability in national parks. Visitors' place satisfaction, proenvironmental behavior, and place attachment are measured across two qualitatively distinct populations in Australia and Canada. Techniques employed in this cross-country study bring an important contribution to tourism research. The primary focus is to establish measure equivalence before undertaking hypothesis testing using structural equation modeling on a sample of 339 repeat visitors at the Dandenong Ranges National Park, Australia, and 296 repeat visitors at the Bruce Peninsula National Park, Canada. Results from both samples indicate (a) there is measure equivalence between the Australian and Canadian samples allowing comparability of findings, (b) a positive and significant effect of visitor place satisfaction on proenvironmental behavioral intentions, (c) a significant and positive influence of proenvironmental behavioral intention on place attachment (place identity, place dependence, place social bonding, place affect), and (d) a significant and negative effect of visitor place satisfaction on place social bonding. The main finding relates to the promotion of proenvironmental behaviors among national park users that—in addition to individual benefits—provides environmental sustainability as well as practical benefits for park managers and society.
    • On the productive efficiency of Australian businesses: firm size and age class effects

      Cowling, M; Tanewski, G.; University of Brighton (Elsevier, 22/06/2018)
      After 26 years of growth, the Australian economy is beginning to show signs of stress and declining productivity. In this paper, we consider aspects of productive efficiency using an Australian business population data set. Using a production function approach, several key findings are uncovered. Firstly, decreasing returns to scale are identified as a significant feature of the Australian business sector. This implies that not all firm growth will lead to productivity gains. Secondly, there are significant differences in the way value added is created between small and large firms. In the largest 25% of firms, the capital contribution to value added is four times that of the smallest 25% of firms. Thirdly, efficiency follows an inverted ‘U’ shaped in firm age with the youngest (0–2 years) and oldest (> 9 years) firms being less productive than the middle 50% of firms. Fourthly, there are also huge industry sector variations in productivity. In particular, financial services appears to be the most productively efficient sector in the Australian economy and mining the least efficient.
    • Role of ethnic cultural events to build an authentic destination image

      Shabnam, S; Choudhury, A; Ramkissoon, H; Monash University (Taylor and Francis, 21/12/2018)
      Local festivals are becoming increasingly important tourist attractions for the sophisticated tourist in quest of new authentic experiences (Ramkissoon and Uysal, 2014; Ramkissoon, 2015, 2016). The extent to which local festivals can grow as a point of attraction for international tourists while ful?lling their social and cultural roles at the national level is an issue of immense importance to social and cultural policymakers and destination marketers. This chapter explores the local festival of ‘Pohela Boishakh’, which is the celebration of the Bengali New Year. It is recognised by UNESCO as ‘Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity’ and identified as the largest national event of Bangladesh, a developing economy with crucial geo-political importance in the South Asian region, with substantial economic promises for the local population (UNESCO, 2016). This chapter draws on Getz et al. (2006)’s framework to explore festival stakeholder relationships, especially resource dependency issues, with a view to advancing the application of stakeholder theory to festival tourism, festival management and marketing in an integrated manner. Implications for tourism and event management along with theoretical advances are discussed with suggestions for future research in the field.
    • Leadership in destination management organisations.

      Hristov, D; Ramkissoon, H; Monash University (Elsevier, 21/09/2016)
    • Bridge over troubled waters? Model remedy to resolve cross-border legal disputes

      Meiselles, Michala; Klaff, Joel; University of Derby (Wildy & Sons, 2020)
      In this era typified by shifting national allegiances, reemergence of nationalist forces, isolationism, and disintegration of trade blocs, the stability and longevity of commercial ties have become crucial, with private law procedures (such as nachfrist) offering much needed flexibility if and when disputes arise between contracting parties. Looking at nachfrist from a critical point of view, we explore the benefits associated with this facility and argue that as a model remedy for the resolution of international commercial disputes, nachfrist enhances efficiency, saving the contracting parties and the economy at large, time, money, and resources, whilst reducing economic waste in trade.
    • The fundamentals of event design

      Antchak, Vladimir; Ramsbottom, Olivia; University of Derby (Routledge, 2019-12-20)
      The Fundamentals of Event Design aims to rethink current approaches to event design and production. The textbook explores the relationship between event design and multiple visitor experiences, as well as interactivity, motivation, sensory stimuli, and co-creative participation. structured around the key phases of event design, the book covers all the critical dimensions of event concepting, atmospherics, the application of interactive technologies, project management, team leadership, creative marketing and sustainable production. The concepts of authenticity, creativity, co-creation, Imagineering and storytelling are discussed throughout, and practical step-by-step guidance is provided on how to create and deliver unique and memorable events. The chapters include industry voices offering real life insight from leading international event practitioners and individual and/or team assignments to stimulate learners’ creativity, visualisation and problem solving.
    • The adoption of IPSAS (accrual accounting) in Indonesian local government: a neo-institutional perspective

      Boolaky, Pran; Mirosea, Nitri; Omoteso, Kamil; Griffith University; University of Derby (Routledge, 2019-10-02)
      This study investigates the speed and drivers of IPSAS adoption in Indonesia. Using data from 205 local government entities, the results show while the interaction between auditors and representatives of opposition on the council has more impact on the speed of adoption than with the councillors representing the government, the timing of the council meeting has delayed the adoption of IPSAS accrual. Government grant, Supreme Audit Office, councillors and religious beliefs are the isomorphic drivers of IPSAS adoption. Our results support the hypotheses that the three institutional pressures (coercive, mimetic and normative) influence the speed of IPSAS adoption.
    • Two decades of European self-employment: Is the answer to who becomes self-employed different over time and countries?

      Millán, José María; Yue, Wei; Cowling, M; University of Derby; University of Huelva; University of Brighton (Elsevier, 2019-10-01)
    • Small cities with big dreams: creative placemaking and branding strategies

      Antchak, Vladimir; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-09-12)
    • Event portfolio management: theory and methods for event management and tourism

      Antchak, Vladimir; Ziakas, Vassilios; Getz, Donald; University of Derby; Plymouth Marjon University; University of Calgary (Goodfellow, 2019-09-05)
      Event Portfolio Management' explores the phenomenon of the event portfolio as a policy tool for cities and destinations. Divided into two parts – ‘Theory’ and ‘Practice’ – the book critically analyses and summarises key underpinnings behind portfolio theory development and identifies key trends and issues in the event portfolio approach. It examines the processes of event portfolio development and management, leveraging, stakeholder networking and collaboration, portfolio design, risk assessment and evaluation. With a wide geographical reach, the book introduces the results of empirical research from different international case studies, including Auckland, Wellington and Dunedin in New Zealand, Canberra and Melbourne in Australia, and Manchester and Edinburgh in the UK.