Now showing items 1-20 of 427

    • The 24-h Movement Compositions in Weekday, Weekend Day or Four-Day Periods Differentially Associate with Fundamental Movement Skills

      Roscoe, Clare M. P.; Duncan, Michael, J; Clark, Cain, C. T; University of Derby; Coventry University (MDPI AG, 2021-09-22)
      The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between weekday, weekend day and four-day physical activity (PA) behaviours and fundamental movement skills (FMS) in British preschool children from a low socio-economic status background using compositional data analysis (CoDA). One hundred and eighty-five preschool children aged 3–4 years provided objectively assessed PA and sedentary behaviour (SB) data (GENEActiv accelerometer) and FMS (TGMD-2). The association of 24-h movement behaviours with FMS was explored using CoDA and isotemporal substitution (R Core Team, 3.6.1). When data were considered compositionally (SB, light PA (LPA), moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA)) and adjusted for age, BMI and sex, the weekday-derived composition predicted total motor competence (r2 = 0.07), locomotor (r2 = 0.08) and object control skills (r2 = 0.09); the weekend day-derived composition predicted total motor competence (r2 = 0.03) and object control skills (r2 = 0.03), the 4-day-derived composition predicted total motor competence (r2 = 0.07), locomotor (r2 = 0.07) and object control skills (r2 = 0.06) (all p < 0.05). Reallocation of 5 min of LPA at the expense of any behaviour was associated with significant improvements in total motor competence, locomotor and object control skills; for weekend-derived behaviours, MVPA was preferential. Considering movement behaviours over different time periods is required to better understand the effect of the 24-h movement composition on FMS in preschool children.
    • Particulate and drug-induced toxicity assessed in novel quadruple cell human primary hepatic disease models of steatosis and pre-fibrotic NASH.

      Kermanizadeh, Ali; Valli, Jessica; Sanchez, Katarzyna; Hutter, Simon; Pawlowska, Agnieszka; Whyte, Graeme; Moritz, Wolfgang; Stone, Vicki; University of Derby; Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh; et al. (Springer, 2021-10-20)
      In an effort to replace, reduce and refine animal experimentation, there is an unmet need to advance current in vitro models that offer features with physiological relevance and enhanced predictivity of in vivo toxicological output. Hepatic toxicology is key following chemical, drug and nanomaterials (NMs) exposure, as the liver is vital in metabolic detoxification of chemicals as well as being a major site of xenobiotic accumulation (i.e., low solubility particulates). With the ever-increasing production of NMs, there is a necessity to evaluate the probability of consequential adverse effects, not only in health but also in clinically asymptomatic liver, as part of risk stratification strategies. In this study, two unique disease initiation and maintenance protocols were developed and utilised to mimic steatosis and pre-fibrotic NASH in scaffold-free 3D liver microtissues (MT) composed of primary human hepatocytes, hepatic stellate cells, Kupffer cells and sinusoidal endothelial cells. The characterized diseased MT were utilized for the toxicological assessment of a panel of xenobiotics. Highlights from the study included: 1. Clear experimental evidence for the pre-existing liver disease is important in the augmentation of xenobiotic-induced hepatotoxicity and 2. NMs are able to activate stellate cells. The data demonstrated that pre-existing disease is vital in the intensification of xenobiotic-induced liver damage. Therefore, it is imperative that all stages of the wide spectrum of liver disease are incorporated in risk assessment strategies. This is of significant consequence, as a substantial number of the general population suffer from sub-clinical liver injury without any apparent or diagnosed manifestations.
    • Onset of Weight Gain and Health Concerns for Men: Findings from the TAP Programme

      Cortnage, Mark; Pringle, Andy; Anglia Ruskin University; University of Derby (MDPI, 2022-01-05)
      With shown reticence by men to engage with dietary interventions for weight loss, inves tigations that provide detail on men’s perceptions for the causes of weight gain and subsequent concerns over health and image are important. Such discoveries have potential to make a valuable contribution to male gendered programme design aimed at tackling weight gain and promoting good health. Connecting to men to health using their hobbies and interests, this study deployed semi structured interviews of eight male participants (age > 35 years) enrolled on The Alpha Programme (TAP). TAP is a 12-week football and weight management intervention delivered in local community venues. Results captured men’s lived experiences and feelings of being overweight, their attempts at dietary modification, health and causes of weight gain. Results signify externalized attribution for weight gain, entrenched habitual intake practices, despondency related to weight stigmatization, self-objectification and low self-worth. Moreover, this study outlines the processes for capturing this information using a male friendly approach and setting. Outcomes have potential for shaping bespoke men’s weight management and health improvement interventions in the future.
    • Cardiopulmonary exercise testing as a vital sign in patients recovering from COVID-19.

      Arena, Ross; Faghy, Mark A; University of Illinois at Chicago; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis Online, 2021-10-24)
    • HRV patterns associated with different affect regulation systems: Sex differences in adolescents

      Sousa, Rúben; Petrocchi, Nicola; Gilbert, Paul; Rijo, Daniel; University of Coimbra, Portugal; John Cabot University, Rome, Italy; University of Derby (Elsevier BV, 2021-10-19)
      Evolutionary perspectives of human behavior propose the existence of three emotion regulation systems (i.e., threat, drive and soothing systems). An unbalanced functioning of the systems represents greater risk for emotion dysregulation and psychopathology. In recent years, heart rate variability (HRV) has been reported as an accurate index of emotion regulation, and although adolescence is characterized by multiple neurophysiological, psychological and social changes, there is no study exploring the HRV patterns of each emotion regulation system in this developmental stage. In Study 1, a standardized procedure (SP) aiming to elicit the three different systems was developed and validated by experts (n = 14) and community adolescents (n = 31). In study 2, differences in HRV patterns across the three emotion regulation systems and across sex, were investigated in a sample of community adolescents (n = 155; 70 males), aged between 14 and 18 years old. Results showed that the threat and drive systems were associated with decreases in HRV, while the soothing system was associated with decreased heart rate. Sex differences were found for the activation of the threat system: while males maintained a decreasing trend in HRV indexes, from resting to recovery, females did not show a decrease in HRV during the activation of this system. Overall, physiological correlates of each specific emotion regulation system corroborate the theoretical assumptions. Moreover, a SP able to trigger each system independently while measuring physiological data is now available and can be used in future research.
    • An integrative epi-transcriptomic approach identifies the human cartilage chitinase 3-like protein 2 (CHI3L2) as a potential mediator of B12 deficiency in adipocytes

      Ogunkolade, B. William; Adaikalakoteswari, Antonysunil; Cardoso, Shirleny Romualdo; Lowe, Rob; Patel, Nisha; Rakyan, Vardhman; Finer, Sarah; Wabitsch, Martin; Saravanan, Ponnusamy; Tripathi, Gyanendra; et al. (Informa UK Limited, 2021-11-25)
      Vitamin B12 has multiple biochemical functions including in the one-carbon cycle generating a methyl group for DNA methylation, and metabolism of fatty acids and amino acids to generate energy via the citric acid cycle. The aim of our study was to use a combined epigenomic and transcriptomic approach to identify novel genes mediating the effect of B12 on adipogenesis. Human pre-adipocytes (CHUB-S7) were treated with a range of B12 (0–500 nM) concentrations from the day of cell seeding until harvesting in discovery and validation experiments prior to genome-wide methylation analysis using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450Beadchip. For transcriptomic analysis, RNA-seq libraries were run on the Illumina HiSeq 2500. To further investigate the expression of any genes on human adipogenesis, a second human preadipocyte strain was studied (SGBS) by real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). A combined epigenetic and transcriptomic approach in differentiated human pre-adipocyte cell line, CHUB-S7, identified that the Human cartilage chitinase 3-like protein 2 (CHI3L2) gene was hypo-methylated and had increased expression in low B12 conditions. Furthermore, there was an approximately 1000-fold increase in CHI3L2 expression in the early days of adipocyte differentiation, which paralleled an increase of lipid droplets in differentiated SGBS cells and an increased expression level of markers of mature adipocytes. In summary, we have identified a potential role of the human cartilage chitinase 3-like protein 2 (CHI3L2) in adipocyte function in the presence of low B12 levels.
    • Parenting Styles, Parenting Stress and Hours Spent Online as Predictors of Child Internet Addiction Among Children with Autism

      Bozoglan, Bahadir; Kumar, Suresh; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-10-13)
      The current study examined the association between hours spent online (HOS), positive parenting, negative parenting, autism parental stress and Internet addiction among Singapore based boys and girls (aged 6 to 14 years old) with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The research participants included 59 parents (41 females and 18 males) aged between 28 and 74 years old (mean age 37.95). Results indicated HOS, negative parenting and autism parenting stress predicted 54.8% of the total variance in Child Internet Addiction scores of children with ASD. Autism parental stress was the most significant predictor explaining 25.3% of the total variance with time spent online explaining another 23.5% and negative parenting predicted 6%. Positive parenting was not found to be significant. The findings reinforce the importance of according greater consideration for the role of parents when working with such children.
    • No Independent or Synergistic Effects of Carbohydrate-Caffeine Mouth Rinse on Repeated Sprint Performance During Simulated Soccer Match Play in Male Recreational Soccer Players

      Gough, Lewis A.; Faghy, Mark; Clarke, Neil; Kelly, Adam L.; Cole, Matthew; Lun Foo, Wee; Birmingham City University; University of Derby; Coventry University (Informa UK Limited, 2021-12-18)
      The study examined the synergistic and independent effects of carbohydrate-caffeine mouth rinse on repeated sprint performance during simulated soccer match play. Nine male soccer players (21 ± 3 years, 1.75 ± 0.05 m, 68.0 ± 9.0 kg) completed four trials with either 6 mg·kg−1 caffeine + 10% maltodextrin (CHO+CAFMR), 6 mg·kg−1 caffeine (CAFMR), 10% maltodextrin (CHOMR), water (PLA) in a block randomised, double-blinded, counterbalanced and crossover manner separated by minimum 96 h. All solutions were taste-matched and a carbohydrate-rich meal (2 g·kg−1body mass) was provided a minimum 2 h before each trial. Each trial consisted of a 90-min soccer specific aerobic field test (SAFT90) and two bouts of repeated sprint ability tests (RSAT; 6 x 6 s sprints with 24 s recovery) completed at 0 min and 75th min of SAFT90. A 25 ml solution of either CHO+CAFMR, CAFMR, CHOMR or PLA was rinsed immediately before the second RSAT (75 min). Mean power output, peak power output (PPO) or fatigue index (FI) was not impacted by any treatment during the 75th min RAST (p > 0.05). These results suggest that carbohydrate and/or caffeine mouth rinses do not have an ergogenic effect during simulated soccer exercise after a high carbohydrate meal.
    • From Whence Cometh My Help? Psychological Distress and Help-Seeking in the Evangelical Christian Church

      Lloyd, Christopher E. M.; Reid, Graham; Kotera, Yasuhiro; University of Derby (Frontiers Media SA, 2021-12-16)
      Seeking professional help for psychological distress is generally associated with improved outcomes and lower levels of distress. Given the saliency of religious teachings, it has been shown that aspects of Christian belief may influence adherents’ attitudes towards mental health help-seeking. Based on existing research on American Evangelicals, it was hypothesised that religious social support would positively predict attitudes towards mental health help-seeking, whilst fundamentalism, mental distress, and the belief that psychopathology is caused by immoral or sinful living would negatively predict participants’ attitudes. On a convenience sample of 252 British Evangelicals, our hypotheses were supported and these variables significantly predicted participants’ attitudes towards seeking mental health help, F(7,243) = 9.64, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.195. These findings together suggest that whilst religious support positively predicts help-seeking attitudes, Evangelical fundamentalism, in addition to beliefs that mental illness has a spiritual cause, as well as experiences of mental distress may be associated with more negative attitudes towards psychotherapeutic intervention. Thus, mental health practitioners should be aware of clients’ religious worldviews and tailor interventions appropriately, acknowledging that working with religious organisations may yield the most positive outcomes for patients.
    • Gut-Derived Endotoxin and Telomere Length Attrition in Adults with and without Type 2 Diabetes

      Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Abdi, Saba; Sabico, Shaun; Alnaami, Abdullah M.; Wani, Kaiser A.; Ansari, Mohammed G. A.; Khattak, Malak Nawaz Khan; Khan, Nasiruddin; Tripathi, Gyanendra; Chrousos, George P.; et al. (MDPI AG, 2021-11-14)
      Premature aging, as denoted by a reduced telomere length (TL), has been observed in several chronic inflammatory diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, no study to date has addressed the potential inflammatory influence of the gut-derived Gram-negative bacterial fragments lipopolysaccharide, also referred to as endotoxin, and its influence on TL in low-grade inflammatory states such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The current study therefore investigated the influence of endotoxin and inflammatory factors on telomere length (TL) in adults with (T2DM: n = 387) and without (non-diabetic (ND) controls: n = 417) obesity and T2DM. Anthropometric characteristics were taken, and fasted blood samples were used to measure biomarkers, TL, and endotoxin. The findings from this study highlighted across all participants that circulating endotoxin (r = −0.17, p = 0.01) was inversely associated with TL, noting that endotoxin and triglycerides predicted 18% of the variance perceived in TL (p < 0.001). Further stratification of the participants according to T2DM status and sex highlighted that endotoxin significantly predicted 19% of the variance denoted in TL among male T2DM participants (p = 0.007), where TL was notably influenced. The influence on TL was not observed to be impacted by anti-T2DM medications, statins, or anti-hypertensive therapies. Taken together, these results show that TL attrition was inversely associated with circulating endotoxin levels independent of the presence of T2DM and other cardiometabolic factors, suggesting that low-grade chronic inflammation may trigger premature biological aging. The findings further highlight the clinical relevance of mitigating the levels of circulating endotoxin (e.g., manipulation of gut microbiome) not only for the prevention of chronic diseases but also to promote healthy aging.
    • Promoting Junior School Students’ Anti-bullying Beliefs with the CATZ Cross-age Teaching Zone Intervention

      Boulton, Michael J.; Macaulay, Peter J. R.; Atherton, Siobhan; Boulton, Louise; Colebourne, Tracey; Davies, Melanie; Down, James; Garner, Ian; Harriss, Bethan; Kenton, Laura; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-11-09)
      In tackling the widespread problem of bullying victimisation, researchers have acknowledged the value of focusing on changing bullying-related beliefs and using peer-based interventions. In three studies (N = 419, 237 intervention and 182 controls), we tested the effectiveness of the CATZ cross-age teaching programme by inviting small groups of 11-year-olds to incorporate information supporting positive beliefs (concerning non-physical forms of bullying, the value of disclosing being bullied to adults, and helping victims) into a lesson they devised for themselves and to deliver that to small groups of 9-year-olds. Specifically, we examined if the intervention would promote that (i) non-physical forms of bullying are unacceptable (study 1), (ii) disclosing bullying to adults and getting the right kind of help have value and importance (study 2), and (iii) victims can be assisted in safe ways (study 3). Self-reports of nine specific aspects of these beliefs were collected from CATZ tutors and age-matched controls prior to and following the intervention, and at five-week follow-up in one study, using both open and closed questions. Results indicated significant positive effects of CATZ on all nine outcome variables, with mostly medium and high effect sizes. These findings support the use of CATZ to foster positive anti-bullying beliefs, and issues related to its wider uptake are discussed.
    • Mission vs. Market: Theorizing the Tensions within Community Sport Trusts

      Bostock, James; woodward, jon; bull, mike; sibley, jonathan; university of derby; Manchester Metropolitan University (Common Ground Research Networks, 2021-11-17)
      With the withdrawal of the state from local sport provision in the UK, Community Sport Trusts (CSTs) have grown significantly. The growth of CSTs is a direct outcome of neoliberal and austerity policy contexts in the UK. Research on the commodification of services delivered by hybrid social organizations suggests tensions between mission and market (internal purpose versus external control). Yet little research to date has been conducted on CSTs, with even less research that takes a critical approach. We seek to begin to consider this research gap by theorizing the problem, by looking at the tensions in hybridity, social mission, enterprise objectives, and financial sustainability of CSTs. We approach this by theory building from an examination of multidisciplinary literature; community sport, nonprofit management, social enterprise, and social accounting literature to arrive at a conceptual model. This model contributes to knowledge by identifying and drawing out the tensions at play. We call for further theoretical and empirical research on CSTs that problematizes the “social” and draws attention to the inherent tensions in these hybrid business models, which are both academically under-explored and crucial to the success of a policy context where CSTs play a significant and expanding role in community sport delivery.
    • Transcriptome profile of the sinoatrial ring reveals conserved and novel genetic programs of the zebrafish pacemaker

      Minhas, Rashid; Loeffler-Wirth, Henry; Siddiqui, Yusra H; Obrębski, Tomasz; Vashisht, Shikha; Nahia, Karim Abu; Paterek, Alexandra; Brzozowska, Angelika; Bugajski, Lukasz; Piwocka, Katarzyna; et al. (Springer Nature, 2021-10-02)
      Sinoatrial Node (SAN) is part of the cardiac conduction system, which controls the rhythmic contraction of the vertebrate heart. The SAN consists of a specialized pacemaker cell population that has the potential to generate electrical impulses. Although the SAN pacemaker has been extensively studied in mammalian and teleost models, including the zebrafish, their molecular nature remains inadequately comprehended. To characterize the molecular profile of the zebrafish sinoatrial ring (SAR) and elucidate the mechanism of pacemaker function, we utilized the transgenic line sqet33mi59BEt to isolate cells of the SAR of developing zebrafish embryos and profiled their transcriptome. Our analyses identified novel candidate genes and well-known conserved signaling pathways involved in pacemaker development. We show that, compared to the rest of the heart, the zebrafish SAR overexpresses several mammalian SAN pacemaker signature genes, which include hcn4 as well as those encoding calcium- and potassium-gated channels. Moreover, genes encoding components of the BMP and Wnt signaling pathways, as well as members of the Tbx family, which have previously been implicated in pacemaker development, were also overexpressed in the SAR. Among SAR-overexpressed genes, 24 had human homologues implicated in 104 different ClinVar phenotype entries related to various forms of congenital heart diseases, which suggest the relevance of our transcriptomics resource to studying human heart conditions. Finally, functional analyses of three SAR-overexpressed genes, pard6a, prom2, and atp1a1a.2, uncovered their novel role in heart development and physiology. Our results established conserved aspects between zebrafish and mammalian pacemaker function and revealed novel factors implicated in maintaining cardiac rhythm. The transcriptome data generated in this study represents a unique and valuable resource for the study of pacemaker function and associated heart diseases.
    • A qualitative exploration of the use of player loans to supplement the talent development process of professional footballers in the under 23 age group of English football academies

      Prendergast, Gareth; Gibson, Luke; University of Derby (Taylor Francis, 2021-10-27)
      A range of literature has contributed to talent development and career transition in professional football. Recently, attention has shifted to the under 23s age group of English football academies, highlighting limitations in the efficacy of this age group in developing professional footballers. Such limitations have led to players going on loan to football clubs in lower divisions to supplement their development; however, we have yet to develop a scholarly understanding of this approach. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of an under 23s player loan in developing professional footballers. Using a qualitative design, data were collected through the use of semi-structured interviews with nine participants. Following a process of thematic analysis, findings highlighted the potential of a loan in contributing to a player’s physical and psycho-social development. Positive performances whilst on loan were also perceived to be contributing factors in increased first team selection opportunities at the player’s parent club. However, an emphasis was also placed on the need to provide consistent pastoral support to under 23s players during their loan period. Finally, more longitudinal methodologies are required to understand the individual and temporal nature of positive and negative loan experiences of under 23s players.
    • Influence of the COVID-19 Lockdown on the Physical and Psychosocial Well-being and Work Productivity of Remote Workers: Cross-sectional Correlational Study

      Tronco Hernández, Yessica Abigail; Fabio, Parente; Faghy, Mark; Roscoe, Clare M. P.; Maratos, Frances A.; University of Derby; University of Plymouth (JMIR, 2021)
      Background: Lockdowns imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic have impacted the living and working habits of millions of people, with potentially important implications for their physical, mental, and social well-being. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on remote workers who were not directly affected by COVID-19. Methods: This was a correlational cross-sectional study (with an additional qualitative component) of 184 remote workers surveyed during the first COVID-19 lockdown in the United Kingdom. Standard measures of mental health (Kessler-6 Distress Scale), productivity (Brief Instrument to Assess Workers’ Productivity During a Working Day), and physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) were used, and respondents were further surveyed on changes to their dietary, exercise, smoking, drinking, and socialization habits to produce a well-being change index. Results: The results revealed associations between sedentary behavior and poorer mental health (τb=0.14) and between poorer mental health and low work productivity (τb=–0.39). However, both positive and negative lifestyle changes were reported; a self-reported increase in well-being (with respect to diet, exercise, smoking, alcohol consumption, and socialization) since the start of the pandemic was associated with both better mental health (τb=–0.14) and better work productivity (τb=0.14). Of note, among respondents without a mental health diagnosis (137/184, 74.4%), we observed rates of moderate (76/137, 55.5%) and severe (17/137, 12.4%) psychological distress, which were markedly higher than those reported in large prepandemic studies; moreover, 70.1% (129/184) of our respondents reported more sedentary behavior, 41% (129/168) increased their alcohol consumption, and 38.6% (71/184) increased their overall food intake. However, 46% (75/163), 44.8% (39/87) and 51.8% (57/110) of respondents reported spending more time walking and engaging in more moderate and vigorous exercise, respectively. Qualitative analysis revealed many positive adaptations to lockdowns (eg, decreased commuting expenses, flexibility) but also a number of structural obstacles to remote working (eg, lack of support and high expectations from employers, childcare duties). Conclusions: These findings may be of practical importance for policy makers and employers in a world in which work involves long-term remote or hybrid employment arrangements; strategies to promote more sustainable remote working are discussed.
    • Targeting Sedentary Behavior in Minority Populations as a Feasible Health Strategy during and beyond COVID-19: On Behalf of ACSM-EIM and HL-PIVOT

      Lassalle, Patricia Pagan; Meyer, Michelle L.; Conners, Ryan; Zieff, Gabriel; Rojas, Jacklyn; Faghy, Mark A.; Arena, Ross; Vermeesch, Amber; Joseph, Rodney P.; Stoner, Lee; et al. (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), 2021-08-01)
      Increased sedentary behavior has been an unintended consequence of social and physical distancing restrictions needed to limit transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19. Sedentary behavior is defined as any waking behavior characterized by an energy expenditure ≤1.5 METs while in a sitting, reclining, or lying posture. These restrictions negatively affect peoples’ cardiometabolic and mental health and disproportionately affect certain sectors of the population, including racial/ethnic minorities. In part, the higher risk for complications of COVID-19 could be the result of an increased prevalence of comorbid diseases. Further, regular participation and adherence to current physical activity guidelines, defined as at least 150 min·wk−1 of moderate-intensity physical activity or muscle strengthening activities on 2 or more days a week, is challenging for many and may be especially difficult to achieve during the COVID-19 pandemic. A practical strategy to promote health and well-being during COVID-19 is reducing sedentary behavior. Reducing sedentary behaviors (e.g., breaking up periods of prolonged sitting with light-intensity physical activity) may be more easily achieved than physical activity for all individuals, including individuals of racial/ethnic decent, as it does not require purchasing equipment nor require compromising the physical restrictions necessary to slow the spread of COVID-19. The purpose of this commentary is to argue that sedentary behavior is a feasible, independent target to modify during COVID-19, particularly in minority populations, and to address this behavior we need to consider individual, environmental, and policy-level factors.
    • Evolutionary functional analysis: The study of social mentalities, social rank and caring-compassion

      Gilbert, Paul; university of Derby (Routledge/Taylor Francis Group, 2020-09-23)
      This chapter looks back over the past 40 years of taking an evolutionary function analytical approach to mental health difficulties. One evolved motivational system that has been strongly implicated in vulnerability to mental health difficulties, especially depression, is the competitive motivational system. This gives rise to an orientation for resource control and sets cognitive systems for social comparison, self-evaluation (inferior versus superior), self-blame/criticism versus other blame/criticism and biases behavioural systems towards either submissive-withdraw or dominant-engaged seeking behaviour. Depression tends to be associated with the unwanted and fearful low rank positions whereas narcissism is associated with assuming up rank and entitled positions. Research has also shown that unwanted low rank, and competitive defeats have major impacts on range of physiological processes associated with depression. One therapeutic approach is to help clients switch out of the competitive motivational system into a caring system which utilises very different psychological and physiological processes that promote being, prosocial behaviour and affect regulation. This is the basis of compassion focused therapy.
    • What Comes First, the Behavior or the Condition? In the COVID-19 Era, It May Go Both Ways

      Arena, Ross; Lavie, Carl J; Faghy, Mark A; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2021-08-12)
      Which came first, the chicken or the egg? This causality dilemma was first proposed by the Greek biographer Plutarch in the 1st century CE. While the cause-effect relationship between lifestyle behaviors and chronic disease is not always a certainty, and genetic predisposition can independently lead to premature chronic disease, the likelihood of developing one or more chronic conditions is significantly higher in those who: (1) lead sedentary lifestyles; (2) consume unhealthy diets; (3) smoke; or (4) have excess body mass. Recently, the Royal College of General Practitioners issued an apology for the title of an online event that suggested the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a lifestyle disease. We feel that this was the correct course of action as leading an unhealthy lifestyle is certainly not the cause for an individual contracting COVID-19 (ie, effect). However, a body of evidence has demonstrated that unhealthy lifestyle behaviors and characteristics as well as being diagnosed with one or more chronic diseases does significantly increase the risk for a complicated medical course in individuals infected with COVID-19. Moreover, the cause-effect relationship between lifestyle behaviors and characteristics and COVID-19 may eventually prove to go both ways, as the pandemic may lead to a higher prevalence of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors and characteristics over the long term that eventually leads to a higher prevalence of chronic disease. As such, health living medicine must be widely practiced and prescribed to all individuals globally.
    • Incidence, severity and perceived susceptibility of COVID-19 in the UK CrossFit population

      Redwood-Mills, Athalie; Ralston, Grant; Wilson, Jennifer; Nottingham Trent; FiiT for Life Education Ltd, Derby; University of Derby (BioMed Central, 2021-09-06)
      Contemporary literature indicates that a higher body mass index (BMI) serves as a risk factor for metabolic disease and is also correlated with greater disease severity. Subsequently, it has been linked to increased COVID-19 severity. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether regular CrossFit™ participation was associated with lower BMI, decreased COVID-19 severity and susceptibility. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1806 CrossFit™ (CF) participants. Participants were asked about their age (yrs), sex (male vs. female), ethnic group, body height (cm) and weight (kg). Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) was computed and consistent with WHO (2018) criteria. Participants self-reported their training history, health and lifestyle history, nutritional customs, present training status and suspected levels of exposure to COVID-19. Once submitted the collected data were coded, cleaned and analysed. The final model comprised of 1806 CF individuals from an online survey response rate of 2086. The participants age ranged from 18 to 65+ yrs. Self-reported mean body mass index (BMI: kg/m2) reported that < 1% were underweight, 41% were healthy, 46% overweight, 10% class I obese, 2% class II obese, and < 1% class III obese. A Kruskal–Wallis H test compared gender and self-reported probability of being infected with COVID-19 with significant differences between subgroups (x2 (4, N = 1739) = 10.86, p = 0.03). Analysis of BMI and perceived severity of COVID-19 revealed a difference however not, significant (x2 (4, N = 1739) = 9.46, p = 0.051). Results on BMI and perceived probability of COVID-19 infection revealed no significant difference (x2 (4, N = 1739) = 2.68, p = 0.61). A separate analysis on BMI and perceived COVID-19 susceptibility revealed no significant difference (x2 (4, N = 1740) = 6.02, p = 0.20). The purpose of the study was to establish whether habitual CrossFit™ participation is associated with reduced BMI, and to further investigate whether habitual participation impacted perceptions of disease. Results of the study indicate that self-reported CrossFit™ participation during the first UK lockdown, measured in minutes of exercise was indicative of a lower BMI. This has been associated with greater host immunity to disease. A history of CrossFit™ participation was not shown to impact perceptions of disease. However, our sample population reported few changes to habitual exercise during lockdown which may be due to the ‘community’ and increased adherence associated with CrossFit™.
    • A Call to Clarify the Intensity and Classification of Standing Behavior

      Kowalsky, Robert J; Stoner, Lee; Faghy, Mark A; Barone Gibbs, Bethany; Human Science Research Centre (MDPI, 2021-08-10)
      Public health guidelines for physical activity now include recommendations to break up prolonged sitting with light-intensity activities. Concurrently, interventions to increase standing have emerged, especially within the workplace in the form of sit–stand or standing workstations. Moreover, in short-duration studies, breaking up prolonged sitting with standing has been associated improved cardiometabolic outcomes. Publicly available estimates of the intensity of standing range from 1.5 to 2.3 metabolic equivalents (METs), neatly classifying standing as a light-intensity activity (>1.5 to <3.0 METs). Further delineation between ‘active’ and ‘passive’ standing has been proposed, with corresponding METs of >2.0 METs and ≤2.0 METs, respectively. However, this study reviews data suggesting that some standing (e.g., while performing deskwork) is substantially below the minimum light intensity activity threshold of 1.5 METs. These data bring into question whether standing should be universally classified as a light-intensity behavior. The objectives of this study are to (i) highlight discrepancies in classifying standing behavior in the human movement spectrum continuum, and (ii) to propose a realignment of the ‘active’ vs. ‘passive’ standing threshold to match the light intensity threshold to help provide a clearer research framework and subsequent public health messaging for the expected health benefits from standing.