• Foresee the glory and train better: Narcissism, goal-setting and athlete training

      Zhang, Shuge; Roberts, Ross; Woodman, Tim; Pitkethly, Amanda; English, Cedric; Nightingale, David; University of Derby; Bangor University; Edinburgh Napier University (American Psychological Association, 2021-03)
      Grandiose narcissism may be debilitative to athlete training because the opportunity for self-enhancement that motivates narcissists to strive is normally absent in training environments. However, this view ignores the divergent influences of the self-inflated (reflecting over-confidence) and dominant (reflecting willingness for dominance) facets of grandiose narcissism. We expected that self-inflated narcissism would undermine athlete training, but only when dominant narcissism was low. This is because dominant narcissism may serve as the catalyst that drives those with self-inflated narcissism to train well. We further considered goal-setting as a practical means of alleviating the negative influence of self-inflated narcissism in training. Goal-setting provides athletes with an exciting vision of the future and thus can be an important self-enhancement strategy to engage narcissistic athletes in training. In the present study, 321 athletes completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI-40) and the goal-setting subscale in the Test of Performance Strategies-3 (TOPS-3). Coaches of these athletes assessed training behaviors using the Quality of Training Inventory (QTI). Self-inflated narcissism predicted higher levels of (coach-rated) distractibility and poorer quality of preparation only when both dominant narcissism and goal-setting were low (and not when either was high). The findings suggest that dominant narcissism and goal-setting protect against the adverse influences of self-inflated narcissism on athlete training. The work underscores the importance of considering grandiose narcissism as a multidimensional construct and supports goal-setting as a useful self-enhancement strategy.
    • Current activities centered on healthy living and recommendations for the future: a position statement from the HL-PIVOT network

      Arena, Ross; Kaminsky, Leonard A.; Williams, Mark; Sabbahi, Ahmad; Popovic, Dejana; Axtell, Robert; Faghy, Mark; Hills, Andrew P.; Olivares Olivares, Silvia Lizett; Lopez, Mildred; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-02-27)
      We continue to increase our cognizance and recognition of the importance of healthy living (HL) behaviors and HL medicine (HLM) to prevent and treat chronic disease. The continually unfolding events precipitated by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have further highlighted the importance of HL behaviors, as indicated by the characteristics of those who have been hospitalized and died from this viral infection. There has already been recognition that leading a healthy lifestyle, prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, may have a substantial protective effect in those who become infected with the virus. Now more than ever, HL behaviors and HLM are essential and must be promoted with a renewed vigor across the globe. In response to the rapidly evolving world since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the clear need to change lifestyle behaviors to promote human resilience and quality of life, the Healthy Living for Pandemic Event Protection (HL-PIVOT) network was established. The four major areas of focus for the network are: 1) knowledge discovery and dissemination; 2) education; 3) policy; 4) implementation. This HL-PIVOT network position statement provides a current synopsis of the major focus areas of the network, including leading research in the field of HL behaviors and HLM, examples of best practices in education, policy, and implementation, and recommendations for the future.
    • The feasibility and tolerability of using inspiratory muscle training with adults discharged from the hospital with community-acquired pneumonia

      Pick, H.J.; Faghy, Mark; Creswell, G; Ashton, D; Bolton, C.E.; McKeever, T; Shen Lim, W; Bewick, T; Nottingham University Hospital NHS Trust; University of Derby; et al. (Via Medica, 2021-02-17)
      Patients experience substantial morbidity following discharge from hospital and during recovery from communi-ty-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has demonstrated improved functional capacity and reduced patient-reported symptoms. To date the safety and tolerability of these methods have not been determined in CAP patients recovering following hospitalization. Accordingly, this study aimed to assess the safety and tolerability of IMT in adults discharged from hospital with CAP. Participants received an IMT device (POWERbreathe KHP2) and completed 9-weeks IMT training with weekly follow-up. Frequency (twice daily) and load (50% PImax) were fixed throughout, but training volume increased incre-mentally (2-week habituation phase, 7-week training phase). Primary outcomes of interest included IMT safety and tolerability. Twenty-two participants were recruited; 16 were male, mean age 55.2 years (range 27.9–77.3). From 1183 possible training days, side effects were reported on 15 occasions by 10 individual participants. All reported side-effects were assessed as grade 1 and did not prevent further training. Participant-reported IMT acceptability was 99.4%. Inspiratory muscle training is safe and tolerable in patients following hospitalisation for CAP. Patient satisfaction with IMT is high and it is viewed by patients as being helpful in their recovery. Distinguishing CAP-related symptoms and device-related side effects is challenging. Symptom prevalence declined during follow-up with concurrent improvements in spirometry observed. Further research is required to determine the efficacy of IMT interventions following CAP and other acute respiratory infections.
    • Creating a compassionate world: addressing the conflicts between sharing and caring versus controlling and holding evolved strategies

      Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby (Frontiers Media SA, 2021-02-10)
      For thousands of years, various spiritual traditions and social activists have appealed to humans to adopt compassionate ways of living to address the suffering of life. Yet, along with our potential for compassion and self-sacrifice, the last few thousand years of wars, slavery, tortures, and holocausts have shown humans can be extraordinarily selfish, callous, vicious, and cruel. While there has been considerable engagement with these issues, particularly in the area of moral psychology and ethics, this paper explores an evolutionary analysis relating to evolved resource-regulation strategies that can be called “care and share” versus “control and hold.” Control and hold are typical of primates that operate through intimidatory social hierarchies. Care and share are less common in non-human primates, but evolved radically in humans during our hunter-gatherer stage when our ancestors lived in relatively interdependent, small, mobile groups. In these groups, individualistic, self-focus, and self-promoting control and hold strategies (trying to secure and accumulate more than others) were shunned and shamed. These caring and sharing hunter-gatherer lifestyles also created the social contexts for the evolution of new forms of childcare and complex human competencies for language, reasoning, planning, empathy, and self-awareness. As a result of our new ‘intelligence’, our ancestors developed agriculture that reduced mobility, increased group size, resource availability and storage, and resource competition. These re-introduced competing for, rather than sharing of, resources and advantaged those who now pursue (often aggressively) control and hold strategies. Many of our most typical forms of oppressive and anti-compassionate behavior are the result of these strategies. Rather than (just) thinking about individuals competing with one another, we can also consider these different resource regulation strategies as competing within populations shaping psychophysiological patterns; both wealth and poverty change the brain. One of the challenges to creating a more compassionate society is to find ways to create the social and economic conditions that regulate control and hold strategies and promote care and share. No easy task.
    • The need for exercise sciences and an integrated response to COVID-19: A position statement from the international HL-PIVOT network

      Arena, Ross; Stoner, Lee; Haraf, Rebecca H.; Josephson, Richard; Hills, Andrew P.; Dixit, Snehil; Popovic, Dejana; Smith, Andy; Myers, Jonathan; Bacon, Simon L.; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-02-04)
      COVID-19 is one of the biggest health crises that the world has seen. Whilst measures to abate transmission and infection are ongoing, there continues to be growing numbers of patients requiring chronic support, which is already putting a strain on health care systems around the world and which may do so for years to come. A legacy of COVID-19 will be a long-term requirement to support patients with dedicated rehabilitation and support services. With many clinical settings characterized by a lack of funding and resources, the need to provide these additional services could overwhelm clinical capacity. This position statement from the Healthy Living for Pandemic Event Protection (HL-PIVOT) Network provides a collaborative blueprint focused on leading research and developing clinical guidelines, bringing together professionals with expertise in clinical services and the exercise sciences to develop the evidence base needed to improve outcomes for patients infected by COVID-19.
    • A Critical Discussion of the Clinical Management of Dietary Supplementation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

      Chatzinikolaou, Marios Dimitrios; Apeiranthitou., Vasiliki; University of Derby; University College London (ECronicon Open Access, 2021-01-30)
      Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are both classified as neurodevelopmental disorders, affecting primarily young children and adolescents, stemming from biological/genetic and environmental origins that negatively influence neurobiological structures and leading to gastrointestinal discomforts. More precisely, toxins produced by pathogenic microorganisms’ overgrowth, unnecessary employment of antibiotics, abnormalities in the activity of carbohydrate digestive enzymes and gut’s mucosal lining disruptions result in alterations in children’s neurological functioning. Central nervous system alterations adversely affect brain maturation, social interactions, and cognitive abilities. In this respect, dietary supplementations such as omega-3 and omega-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and/or vitamins can be effectuated, potentially increasing the effectiveness of pharmacological medications. However, research findings divulge an unspecified consensus concerning optimal supplementation duration, exact dosages, consistent utilization of outcome measures, adherence to supplements, and their longterm behavioral and health effects. In addition, dietary supplements do not always enable for corrections of children’s micronutrient deficiencies, contributing to excessive intake. Thus, it can be speculated that they cannot be provided solitarily since they depict developmental insensitivities in addressing all nutritional needs of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder individuals. Accordingly, each individual’s developmental needs and entire dietary patterns should be carefully considered for the elimination of comorbid health conditions. In conjunction with the development and validation of universally accepted dietary plan, this shall allow for the construction of a holistic and multidisciplinary approach to dietary treatment schemes that can fully benefit these populations and are especially adapted to their needs. Future research should further explore gluten/casein-free and other restrictive diets, along with the clarification of effective randomized controlled trials.
    • Supported progressive resistance exercise training to counter the adverse side effects of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: a randomised controlled trial.

      Ashton, Ruth E; Aning, Jonathan J; Tew, Garry A; Robson, Wendy A; Saxton, John M; University of Derby; Bristol Urological Institute, North Bristol NHS Trust, Southmead Hospital, Bristol; University of Northumbria; Freeman Hospital, Newcastle-upon-Tyne (Springer, 2021-01-23)
      To investigate the effects of a supported home-based progressive resistance exercise training (RET) programme on indices of cardiovascular health, muscular strength and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in prostate cancer (PCa) patients after treatment with robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). This study was a single-site, two-arm randomised controlled trial, with 40 participants randomised to either the intervention or control group over a 10-month period. In addition to receiving usual care, the intervention group completed three weekly RET sessions using resistance bands for 6 months. Participants performed 3 sets of 12–15 repetitions for each exercise, targeting each major muscle group. The control group received usual care only. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) was the primary outcome and assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Secondary outcomes included body weight, body fat, aerobic fitness, strength and blood-borne biomarkers associated with cardiometabolic risk. There was no significant difference between the groups in FMD at 3 or 6 months. However, there were improvements in aerobic exercise capacity (P < 0.01) and upper- (P < 0.01) and lower-limb (P = 0.01) strength in favour of the RET group at 6 months, accompanied by greater weight loss (P = 0.04) and a reduction in body fat (P = 0.02). Improvements in HRQoL were evident in the RET group at 3 and 6 months via the PCa-specific component of the FACT-P questionnaire (both P < 0.01). Five adverse events and one serious adverse event were reported throughout the trial duration. This study demonstrates that home-based RET is an effective and safe mode of exercise that elicits beneficial effects on aerobic exercise capacity, muscular strength and HR-QoL in men who have undergone RARP.
    • UK University staff experience high levels of sedentary behaviour during work and leisure time

      Faghy, Mark; Roscoe, Clare MP; Pringle, Andy; Duncan, Mike; Buchanan Meharry, John; University of Derby; Coventry University (Taylor and Francis Online, 2021-01-11)
      Reducing sedentary behaviours at work is imperative. Before effective strategies can be developed there is a need to understand profiles of activity within particular roles and organisations. This study aimed to determine activity profiles of staff by job title at a UK University. Three-hundred and seventeen participants completed the short form International Physical Activity Questionnaire to determine physical activity profiles. Fifty-one participants also wore a wrist worn GENEActiv accelerometer for seven days and completed a self-report diary denoting work and leisure hours. Twenty-one per cent of respondents were categorised as inactive and achieved 298 ± 178 metabolic equivalent minutes per week (MET-min/week). Those in administrative roles were most sedentary (501 ± 161 minutes/day). Accelerometer data highlighted that sedentary time was identical between job roles (pooled mean 8746 ± 823 counts) and equated to 84 ± 9% of total time. During working hour’s management, professional and specialist job roles had the highest level of sedentary time (2066 ± 416 counts). Time spent undertaking sedentary activities during working hours contributes to reduced overall activity and can impede productivity, performance, and health. Interventions encouraging regular movement and preventing sedentary behaviours at work are therefore required.
    • Pre-competition body mass loss characteristics of Brazilian jiu-jitsu competitors in the United Kingdom

      White, Tyler; Kirk, Christopher; University of Derby (SAGE Publications, 2021-01-05)
      Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) is a grappling-based combat sport in which competitors engage in pre-competition acute ‘weight’ loss (AWL) and rapid ‘weight’ loss (RWL) to achieve the body mass (BM) required for their desired division. AWL/RWL practices of UK BJJ competitors have not previously been reported. Our aim in this study was to determine the prevalence, magnitude and stakeholder influences of AWL and RWL amongst BJJ participants in the United Kingdom (UK). A secondary aim was to explore whether there is any influence of time spent in the sport or competition frequency on AWL/RWL practices. In this study we used the rapid weight loss questionnaire (RWLQ) adapted for BJJ to determine the prevalence and magnitude of AWL/RWL in UK BJJ, the prevalence of methods used and the key stakeholder influences on these practices. As a secondary investigation we aimed to determine whether there was any effect of age starting BJJ on AWL/RWL. Of 115 completed responses, 59% stated they performed AWL/RWL before competition. Mean BM loss for this competition was 1.9 ± 3.8 kg (2.3 ± 4.6%), with 34% of participants starting BM loss 3–7 days prior and 16% starting 0–2 days prior. Methods used tend to be achieving calorie deficit via exercise and diet rather than hypohydration, with little advice from formally qualified personnel. Participants who perform AWL/RWL started training (BF10 = 199, d = .72) and competing (BF10 = 107, d = .68) in BJJ younger than those who do not perform AWL/RWL. AWL/RWL is prevalent in UK BJJ, but not at the magnitude of other combat sports or countries. Though negative effects of extreme hypohydration are unlikely, there may be a higher chance of eating disorders in BJJ, particularly due to the young age of AWL/RWL commencement.
    • LGBQ adults’ experiences of a CBT wellbeing group for anxiety and depression in an Improving Access to Psychological Therapies Service: a qualitative service evaluation

      Lloyd, Christopher E. M.; Rimes, Katharine A.; Hambrook, David G.; University of Derby (Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2021-01-05)
      Sexual minorities, including those identifying as lesbian, gay, bisexual or queer (LGBQ) are at heightened risk of experiencing mental health problems. Nationally, treatment outcomes within England’s Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services are worse for sexual minority patients than for heterosexuals. An IAPT service in London developed a cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) group specifically for sexual minority patients to provide a safe, affirmative intervention to learn skills for overcoming depression, anxiety and stress. A qualitative online survey was emailed to all 59 service users who had completed the eight-session intervention, to explore their experiences inductively. Survey data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Themes were identified in participants’ responses in order to establish which aspects of the group intervention were deemed to be helpful and unhelpful, and to explore suggestions for group improvement. Eighteen people completed the survey (response rate 30.5%). Respondents reported that they found the CBT frame of the group useful, with the LGBQ focus experienced as particularly beneficial, often enhancing engagement with CBT concepts and tools. In addition to generic elements of group therapy that some found difficult, others reported that intragroup diversity, such as generational differences, could lead to a reduced sense of connection. Several suggestions for group improvement were made, including incorporating more diverse perspectives and examples in session content and focusing more on issues relating to intersectionality. These results provide preliminary evidence that a culturally adapted CBT group intervention developed specifically for sexual minorities is acceptable and perceived as offering something unique and helpful.
    • The physiological impact of masking is insignificant and should not preclude routine use during daily activities, exercise, and rehabilitation

      Haraf, Rebecca H.; Faghy, Mark; Carlin, Brian; Josephson, Richard A.; University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, and Case Western Reserve University, School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio; Healthy Living for Pandemic Event Protection (HL-PIVOT) Network, Chicago, Illinois; University of Derby; Sleep Medicine and Lung Health Consultants, Pittsburgh Critical Care Associates, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), 2021-01)
      Masking has been employed as a strategy for reducing transmission of a variety of communicable diseases. With the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, many countries have implemented mandatory public masking. However, the perceived impact of mask use on pulmonary function has been a deterrent to public compliance with recommendations. COVID-19 has shed light on the impact that comorbid cardiac and pulmonary conditions may have on disease severity. This knowledge has led to increased primary and secondary prevention efforts for which exercise and rehabilitation are central. The importance of safe methods of exercise while mitigating risk of viral transmission is paramount to global recovery from the pandemic and prevention of future outbreaks. We constructed a focused literature review of the impact of various masks on pulmonary function at rest and with exercise. This was then incorporated into recommendations for the integration of masks with exercise and rehabilitation in the COVID-19 era. While there is a paucity of evidence, we identified the physiological effects of masking at rest and during exercise to be negligible. The perceived impact appears to be far greater than the measured impact, and increased frequency of mask use leads to a physiological and psychological adaptive response. Masking during daily activities, exercise, and rehabilitation is safe in both healthy individuals and those with underlying cardiopulmonary disease. Rehabilitation participants should be reassured that the benefits of masking during COVID-19 far outweigh the risks, and increased frequency of mask use invokes adaptive responses that make long-term masking tolerable.
    • Influence of the COVID-19 Lockdown on the Physical and Psychosocial Well-being and Work Productivity of Remote Workers: Cross-sectional Correlational Study

      Tronco Hernández, Yessica Abigail; Fabio, Parente; Faghy, Mark; Roscoe, Clare M. P.; Maratos, Frances A.; University of Derby; University of Plymouth (JMIR, 2021)
      Background: Lockdowns imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic have impacted the living and working habits of millions of people, with potentially important implications for their physical, mental, and social well-being. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on remote workers who were not directly affected by COVID-19. Methods: This was a correlational cross-sectional study (with an additional qualitative component) of 184 remote workers surveyed during the first COVID-19 lockdown in the United Kingdom. Standard measures of mental health (Kessler-6 Distress Scale), productivity (Brief Instrument to Assess Workers’ Productivity During a Working Day), and physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) were used, and respondents were further surveyed on changes to their dietary, exercise, smoking, drinking, and socialization habits to produce a well-being change index. Results: The results revealed associations between sedentary behavior and poorer mental health (τb=0.14) and between poorer mental health and low work productivity (τb=–0.39). However, both positive and negative lifestyle changes were reported; a self-reported increase in well-being (with respect to diet, exercise, smoking, alcohol consumption, and socialization) since the start of the pandemic was associated with both better mental health (τb=–0.14) and better work productivity (τb=0.14). Of note, among respondents without a mental health diagnosis (137/184, 74.4%), we observed rates of moderate (76/137, 55.5%) and severe (17/137, 12.4%) psychological distress, which were markedly higher than those reported in large prepandemic studies; moreover, 70.1% (129/184) of our respondents reported more sedentary behavior, 41% (129/168) increased their alcohol consumption, and 38.6% (71/184) increased their overall food intake. However, 46% (75/163), 44.8% (39/87) and 51.8% (57/110) of respondents reported spending more time walking and engaging in more moderate and vigorous exercise, respectively. Qualitative analysis revealed many positive adaptations to lockdowns (eg, decreased commuting expenses, flexibility) but also a number of structural obstacles to remote working (eg, lack of support and high expectations from employers, childcare duties). Conclusions: These findings may be of practical importance for policy makers and employers in a world in which work involves long-term remote or hybrid employment arrangements; strategies to promote more sustainable remote working are discussed.
    • A multilevel multidimensional finite mixture item response model to cluster respondents and countries: the forms of self-criticising/attacking and self-reassuring scale

      Kanovský, Martin; Halamová, Júlia; Zuroff, David C.; Troop, Nicholas A.; Gilbert, Paul; Shahar, Ben; Petrocchi, Nicola; Hermanto, Nicola; Krieger, Tobias; Kirby, James N.; et al. (Hogrefe Publishing Group, 2020-12-30)
      The aim of this study was to test the multilevel multidimensional finite mixture item response model of the Forms of Self-Criticising/Attacking and Self-Reassuring Scale (FSCRS) to cluster respondents and countries from 13 samples (N = 7,714) and from 12 countries. The practical goal was to learn how many discrete classes there are on the level of individuals (i.e., how many cut-offs are to be used) and countries (i.e., the magnitude of similarities and dissimilarities among them). We employed the multilevel multidimensional finite mixture approach which is based on an extended class of multidimensional latent class Item Response Theory (IRT) models. Individuals and countries are partitioned into discrete latent classes with different levels of self-criticism and self-reassurance, taking into account at the same time the multidimensional structure of the construct. This approach was applied to the analysis of the relationships between observed characteristics and latent trait at different levels (individuals and countries), and across different dimensions using the three-dimensional measure of the FSCRS. Results showed that respondents’ scores were dependent on unobserved (latent class) individual and country membership, the multidimensional structure of the instrument, and justified the use of a multilevel multidimensional finite mixture item response model in the comparative psychological assessment of individuals and countries. Latent class analysis of the FSCRS showed that individual participants and countries could be divided into discrete classes. Along with the previous findings that the FSCRS is psychometrically robust we can recommend using the FSCRS for measuring self-criticism.
    • Technology used to recognize activities of daily living in community-dwelling older adults

      Camp, Nicola; Lewis, Martin; Hunter, Kirsty; Johnston, Julie; Zecca, Massimiliano; Di Nuovo, Alessandro; Magistro, Daniele; Lewis, Martin G.C.; Nottingham Trent University; University of Derby; et al. (MDPI AG, 2020-12-28)
      The use of technology has been suggested as a means of allowing continued autonomous living for older adults, while reducing the burden on caregivers and aiding decision-making relating to healthcare. However, more clarity is needed relating to the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) recognised, and the types of technology included within current monitoring approaches. This review aims to identify these differences and highlight the current gaps in these systems. A scoping review was conducted in accordance with PRISMA-ScR, drawing on PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Articles and commercially available systems were selected if they focused on ADL recognition of older adults within their home environment. Thirty-nine ADL recognition systems were identified, nine of which were commercially available. One system incorporated environmental and wearable technology, two used only wearable technology, and 34 used only environmental technologies. Overall, 14 ADL were identified but there was variation in the specific ADL recognised by each system. Although the use of technology to monitor ADL of older adults is becoming more prevalent, there is a large variation in the ADL recognised, how ADL are defined, and the types of technology used within monitoring systems. Key stakeholders, such as older adults and healthcare workers, should be consulted in future work to ensure that future developments are functional and useable.
    • The Inclusion of a Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Responsive Sequence in Self-assembled Peptide-based Brain-Targeting Nanoparticles Improves the Efficiency of Nanoparticles Crossing the Blood-Brain Barrier at Elevated MMP-9 Levels

      Islam, Yamir; Ehtezazi, Parinaz; Cashmore, Andrew; Marinsalda, Elena; Leach, Andrew G.; Coxon, Christopher R.; Fatokun, Amos A.; Sexton, Darren W.; Khan, Iftikhar; Downing, James; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-12-14)
      This study investigated whether the inclusion of a matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) responsive sequence in self-assembled peptide-based brain-targeting nanoparticles (NPs) would enhance the blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration when MMP-9 levels are elevated both in the brain and blood circulation. Brain-targeting peptides were conjugated at the N-terminus to MMP-9-responsive peptides, and these were conjugated at the N-terminus to lipid moiety (cholesteryl chloroformate or palmitic acid). Two constructs did not have MMP-9-responsive peptides. NPs were characterised for size, charge, critical micelle concentration, toxicity, blood compatibility, neural cell uptake, release profiles, and in vitro BBB permeability simulating normal or elevated MMP-9 levels. The inclusion of MMP-9-sensitive sequences did not improve the release of a model drug in the presence of active MMP-9 from NPs compared to distilled water. 19F NMR studies suggested the burial of MMP-9-sensitive sequences inside the NPs making them inaccessible to MMP-9. Only cholesterol-GGGCKAPETALC (responsive to MMP-9) NPs showed <5% haemolysis, <1 pg/mL release of IL-1β at 500 μg/mL from THP1 cells, with 70.75 ± 5.78% of NPs crossing the BBB at 24 h in presence of active MMP-9. In conclusion, brain-targeting NPs showed higher transport across the BBB model when MMP-9 levels were elevated and the brain-targeting ligand was responsive to MMP-9.
    • Compassion: From its evolution to a psychotherapy

      Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby (Frontiers Media SA, 2020-12-09)
      The concept, benefits and recommendations for the cultivation of compassion have been recognized in the contemplative traditions for thousands of years. In the last 30 years or so, the study of compassion has revealed it to have major physiological and psychological effects influencing well-being, addressing mental health difficulties, and promoting prosocial behavior. This paper outlines an evolution informed biopsychosocial, multicomponent model to caring behavior and its derivative “compassion” that underpins newer approaches to psychotherapy. The paper explores the origins of caring motives and the nature and biopsychosocial functions of caring-attachment behavior. These include providing a secure base (sources of protection, validation, encouragement and guidance) and safe haven (source of soothing and comfort) for offspring along with physiological regulating functions, which are also central for compassion focused therapy. Second, it suggests that it is the way recent human cognitive competencies give rise to different types of “mind awareness” and “knowing intentionality” that transform basic caring motives into potentials for compassion. While we can care for our gardens and treasured objects, the concept of compassion is only used for sentient beings who can “suffer.” As psychotherapy addresses mental suffering, cultivating the motives and competencies of compassion to self and others can be a central focus for psychotherapy.
    • Understanding child and adolescent cyberbullying

      Steer, Oonagh L.; Macaulay, Peter; Betts, Lucy R.; Nottingham Trent University; Staffordshire University (Elsevier, 2020-11-27)
      Global development of digital technologies has provided considerable connectivity benefits. However, connectivity of this scale has presented a seemingly unmanageable number of potential risks to psychological harm especially experienced by children and adolescents; one such risk is cyberbullying. This chapter will initially address the origins of bullying, leading into an overview of cyberbullying. A review of the unique characteristics of online communication will shed light on the ongoing debate concerning cyberbullying being potentially more than an extension of traditional bullying. Current research findings encompassing prevalence, types of behavior, consequences, and the roles within cyberbullying activity will be discussed to guide future interventions to reduce the risk of vulnerability for children and adolescents. In parallel, this chapter also considers the relative and perhaps distorted risk perception that young people have of becoming a cybervictim. Finally, this chapter acknowledges current understanding to support future digital and social evolvement.
    • A qualitative study of men’s behavioural changes during weight loss maintenance

      Lozano-Sufrategui, Lorena; Pringle, Andy; Carless, David; Drew, Kevin; Leeds Beckett University; University of Derby; University of Edinburgh (Sage, 2020-11-22)
      This study aims to understand the behaviour changes men who attended a weight loss programme engage in during weight maintenance. Understanding the needs of men in the context of weight loss maintenance is important, as they are underrepresented in this body of literature. Given its focus on personal experience, this study adopted a qualitative design. Semi-structured interviews supported by participant-generated photo-elicitation techniques to explore the behavioural changes 12 men engaged in 6 months after attending a men-only weight loss programme. Data analysis was undertaken through thematic analysis and Gleeson’s polytextual thematic analysis. This study suggests that the key behaviours men engaged in to maintain weight loss can be classified into four categories: (1) ‘Small’ changes, (2) Informed decisions, (3) Monitoring of behaviours, and (4) Dealing with ambivalence. This study makes an original contribution to knowledge and can have important implications for practice in the area of men’s health, particularly with regard to the long-term impact of weight loss interventions.
    • Investigating the environmental, behavioural, and sociodemographic determinants of attendance at a city-wide public health physical activity intervention: longitudinal evidence over one year from 185,245 visits

      Hobbs, Matthew; Wicks, Claire; Pringle, Andy; Griffiths, Claire; Radley, Duncan; Zwolinsky, Stephen; University of Canterbury, Christchurch, Canterbury, New Zealand; University of Essex; University of Derby; Leeds Beckett University; et al. (Elsiever, 2020-11-20)
      Understanding the determinants of attendance at public health interventions is critical for effective policy development. Most research focuses on individual-level determinants of attendance, while less is known about environmental-level determinants. Data were obtained from the Leeds Let’s Get Active (LLGA) public health intervention in Leeds, England. Longitudinal data (April 2015 – March 2016) on attendance were obtained for 25,745 individuals (185,245 visits) with baseline data on sociodemographic determinants (e.g. age), lifestyle practices (e.g. smoking) obtained for 3,621 individuals. This resulted in a total of 744,468 days of attendance and non-attendance for analysis. Random forests were used to explore relative importance of the determinants of attendance while generalised linear models were applied to examine specific associations. The probability that a person will go more than once, the number of return visits, and the probability that a person will go on a particular day were investigated. Distance to leisure centre from home was the most influential determinant in predicting whether a person who went to the leisure centre once, returned. Age group was the most substantial determinant for the number of return visits. While distance to leisure centre was less important for predicting the number of return visits, the difference between the estimates for 300m and 10,000m was 7-10 visits per year. Finally, month was the most important determinant of daily attendance. This longitudinal study highlights the importance of both individual and environmental determinants in predicting various aspects of attendance. It has implications for strategies aiming to increase attendance at public health interventions.
    • Task-efficacy predicts perceived enjoyment and subsequently barrier-efficacy: Investigation of a psychological process underpinning schoolchildren’s physical activity

      Zhang, Shuge; Wang, Jingjing; Pitkethly, Amanda; University of Derby; China Institute of Sport Science, Beijing; Edinburgh Napier University (Taylor & Francis, 2020-11-20)
      Self-efficacy and perceived enjoyment have been recognized as important psychological correlates of children’s physical activity (PA). However, research investigating the psychological process underpinning self-efficacy and perceived enjoyment has generated “contradictory” findings – with some regarding self-efficacy as an antecedent of enjoyment while the others arguing for the reverse. To mitigate this confusion, we have embraced the largely overlooked distinction between task- and barrier-efficacy in PA research and have examined the proposal that task-efficacy enhances perceived enjoyment and, subsequently, increases barrier-efficacy and PA. In a sample of 331 eight-to-ten years old schoolchildren (169 boys), task-efficacy manifested an indirect effect on accelerometer-based measures of MVPA and total PA via perceived enjoyment and subsequently barrier-efficacy. Perceived enjoyment served as a mediator of task-efficacy on MVPA but not total PA. Barrier-efficacy appeared to be a consistent mediator underlying schoolchildren’s PA regardless of PA intensity. The findings suggest that 1) the distinction between task- and barrier-efficacy warrants consideration in children’s PA promotion and 2) the psychological drivers of more vigorous types of PA differ compared to lower intensity PA. Future research would do well to explore the key psychological factors underpinning less vigorous types of PA to inform the development of effective PA interventions for those who have difficulties engaging in MVPA.