• Elite coaches’ use and engagement with performance analysis within Olympic and Paralympic sport

      Nicholls, Scott; James, Nic; Bryant, Elizabeth; Wells, Julia; Middlesex University, London; Manchester Institute of Health and Performance (Informa UK Limited, 2018-09-12)
      The use and implementation of performance analysis and feedback by 18 elite Olympic/Paralympic coaches (coaching experience 16.1 ± 7.4; experience using performance analysis 8.3 ± 4.8 years) was explored via an online questionnaire (mean time to complete = 29 minutes). Likert scales were used to facilitate cross-sport comparison. Comment boxes were included to enable additional information to be provided if deemed necessary. Training goals, athlete discussion and coaching philosophy were the most prominent features influencing analysis direction. Time available had the greatest impact upon feedback provision. The main analysis techniques used were video, performance reports, and trend analysis. Coaches with greater experience delivered significantly more feedback sessions within 1-hour of performance. Feedback sessions were < 20-minutes in duration and delivered in a balanced (experienced) or mostly positive (inexperienced) approach. Feedback was delivered consistently according to a preferred schedule, face-to-face, and within an individual format. Sessions were usually coach led, however considerable value in a combined or analyst led approach was demonstrated. The findings have begun to illustrate practice within elite sport from the perspective of a key user of performance analysis, i.e. the coach, and have clear implications for practitioners by identifying the key areas coaches’ value from performance analysis.
    • The implementation of performance analysis and feedback within Olympic sport: The performance analyst's perspective

      Nicholls, Scott; James, Nic; Bryant, Elizabeth; Wells, Julia; Middlesex University, London; Manchester Institute of Health and Performance (SAGE Publications, 2018-10-23)
      The study considered performance analysis and feedback from the perspective of the performance analyst through the investigation of the ‘what’, ‘how’ and ‘when’ of practice within a selection of Olympic sports. Twenty-three performance analysts (experience 6.4 ± 4.1 years) engaged in a structured interview (85 ± 15 min) regarding their processes within applied practice. Likert scales (All the time, Often, Sometimes, Rarely and Never) were used to facilitate cross-sport and environment comparison. The performance analysts highlighted the experience of their coaches as the most prominent feature influencing analysis direction, and time had the greatest impact upon feedback provision. The main analysis techniques used were video, profiling and performance reports. Feedback was delivered primarily either, (1) < 1-h post-performance within sessions lasting < 10-min or (2) the following day within sessions lasting 25 + min. Video feedback was usually coach led; however, data delivery was more evenly distributed between coach and analyst. Very similar processes across the participants were identified, despite a wide variety of sports and participant experience levels. The findings have begun to illustrate practice within elite sport whilst highlighting the importance and need for further practitioner-based investigation regarding the use of performance analysis and feedback within applied contexts
    • The observational analysis of elite coaches within youth soccer: The importance of performance analysis

      Nicholls, Scott; Worsfold, Paul; Middlesex University, London; Manchester Institute of Health & Performance; University of Chester (SAGE Publications, 2016-11-15)
      The study investigated the observational capabilities of experienced elite coaches whilst focusing upon soccer specific actions and playing positions within elite youth soccer. Six soccer coaches assessed the performances of 10 youth soccer players (across 8 matches) on their short/long passing, tackling, shooting, heading and dribbling. Analysis was undertaken on an overall, quality and positional grouping basis. Mean observational accuracy was 38.8%, with successful shooting (78.6%) and passing (29.9%) illustrating the range. The limited effective observation of dribbling (37.2%), often considered a separating factor within talent identification, highlights the need for objective measures to aid such processes. Positional grouping analysis elicited ∼20% more effective observation for unsuccessful compared with successful actions. The poor level of observational accuracy identified herein has significant implications on talent identification assessments devoid of post-performance analyses. The findings reinforce the importance of performance analysis in the provision of highly accurate and comprehensive augmented feedback within the coaching process.
    • Physical activity and sedentary behavior in people with spinal cord injury: Mitigation strategies during COVID-19 on behalf of ACSM-EIM and HL-PIVOT

      Bates, Lauren; Conners, Ryan; Zieff, Gabriel; Adams, Nathan, T.; Edgar, Kyle, M.; Stevens, Sandra; Faghy, Mark; Arena, Ross; Vermeesch, Amber; Rodney, Joseph, P.; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-07-24)
      People with spinal cord injury (SCI) face unique challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic, including greater risk of poor COVID-19-related outcomes, increased social isolation, and restricted access to important services. Furthermore, COVID-19 related restrictions have decreased already low levels of physical activity (PA) in this population. Therefore, the purpose of this commentary is to: 1) address the impact of COVID-19 on PA and sedentary behavior (SB) in people with SCI; 2) provide potential SB reduction strategies to guide future research; and 3) provide recommendations to increase PA and reduce SB on behalf of the American College of Sports Medicine Exercise is Medicine (ACSM-EIM) and Healthy Living for Pandemic Event Protection (HL-PIVOT) using a social-ecological model targeting the individual-, social environment-, physical environment-, and policy-level determinants of behavior in people with SCI.
    • “A gentle balance of pushing, pulling and sitting with”: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of psychological therapists’ experiences of working with goals in adult pluralistic private practice

      Lloyd, Christopher E. M.; Antonino, Raffaello; University of Derby; London Metropolitan University (Taylor and Francis/ Informa UK, 2021-07-27)
      Evidence suggests that working with goals, or goal-based practice (GBP) which is fundamental to several contemporary psychotherapies, can enhance the content, process and outcome of psychotherapeutic work. At present, no qualitative research has explored how psychological therapists experience GBP with their clients. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was selected to explore how eight psychological therapists working in adult pluralistic private practice experienced GBP. Three superordinate themes were constructed during the analysis process. “A pathway through the jungle” highlighted how GBP was variously experienced as aiding the therapeutic partnership by monitoring progress, providing focus and increasing positive affect. “Invalidating the therapeutic journey,” where GBP was felt to potentially detract from the client’s frame of reference, to jeopardise the therapeutic containment of sessions and increase the client’s feeling of failure. Finally, “Maintaining the client-led story,” which resembled an antidote to what was experienced as non-humanistic GBP. This involved practitioners preserving time to reflect on their own goals and agendas for their clients and the ways their own psychological processes might be influencing the use of GBP within the therapeutic relationship. Of particular pertinence was therapists’ acknowledgement that GBP may function to shield therapists from feelings of failure or frustration, and may be used consciously or otherwise. We argue that approaches to GBP that attempt to determine helpful or unhelpful aspects of GBP in isolation are likely to overlook therapeutic processes which are vital to ensuring that GBP is collaborative and meaningful for the client. Results are discussed regarding wider literature and suggestions for further research are made.
    • The perception of biopsychosocial impacts of COVID-19 during lockdown restrictionsover time in the UK –a mixed methods study

      Grimwood, Samuel; Stuart, Kaz; Browning, Ruth; Winn-Reed, Thea; Bidmead, Elaine; University of Derby; University of Cumbria (Journal of Ideas in Health, 2021-07-20)
      The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly impacted the health of individuals physically, mentally, and socially. This study aims to gain a deeper understanding of this impact across the pandemic from a biopsychosocial stance. A survey created by the research team was employed between November 2020 and February 2021 across social media, relevant organizations, and networks. The survey incorporated 5-time points across the different stages of the pandemic, covering biological, psychological, and social. There were 5 items for each survey (Very Positive affect to Very Negative affect), and analysis was undertaken using SPSS version 16. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric Friedman and Wilcoxon Tests, as well as correlations between the three domains, were implemented. This study included 164 participants (77.0% female and 35.0% male) across 24 out of 38 counties in the UK. The impact of COVID-19 on biological domain was significant across the five data points χ2(4) = 63.99, p < 0.001, psychological χ2(4) = 118.939, p <0.001 and socially χ2(4) = 186.43, p <0.001. Between the 5 data points, 4 out of 5 had a negative impact, however between the first stage of lockdown and the easing of restrictions, findings for biological (Z=-2.35, p <0.05), psychological (Z=-6.61, p < 0.001), and socially (Z = -8.61, p <0.001) were positive. Negative correlations between the three domains across the pandemic are apparent, but in later stages, the biological domain had a positive correlation r = 0.52, p < 0.001. The data shows a negative impact from the self-reported perception of wellbeing from a biopsychosocial stance over time, as well as perceiving the three domains to interact negatively. To address these biopsychosocial issues, the research implies a place-based integrated recovery effort is needed, addressing biological, psychological, and social issues simultaneously. Further research should investigate biopsychosocial health among a more generalizable population.
    • Multi-Component Physical Activity Interventions in the UK Must Consider Determinants of Activity to Increase Effectiveness.

      Faghy, Mark; Armstrong-Booth, Kirsty E; Staples, Vicki; Duncan, Micheal J; Roscoe, Clare M P; University of Derby; Coventry University (MDPI, 2021-06-23)
      Interventions to increase physical activity in children have adopted broad approaches and achieved varying success. There is a need to adopt approaches underpinned with a theoretical basis. Accordingly, the aim here was to implement and evaluate a 12-week intervention designed using the concepts of the COM-B model to determine the effect this has on physical activity levels. One hundred and forty-seven school-age children (mean age 8.9 ± 1.3 years) took part in a 12-week program delivered in a school setting. Topics included physical activity, healthy eating, sleep quality and reducing screen time/sedentary activities when not in school. A sample of participants wore a wrist-worn accelerometer for seven days pre-and post-intervention (N = 11). The physical activity frequency was unchanged (2.9 ± 1.0 AU) when compared with post-intervention values (3.1 ± 0.8 AU, mean increase 6.8 ± 3.7%, p > 0.05). Changes were observed in the daily consumption of fruit and vegetables (pre-intervention 44.6% vs. post-intervention 60.2%, p < 0.05). Sedentary time, light activity, moderate activity and vigorous activity were unchanged post-intervention (p > 0.05). There is a need to adopt a broader approach that incorporates a theoretical basis and considers the complex ways by which physical activity behaviours are influenced.
    • COVID-19 infection and cardiometabolic complications: short- and long-term treatment and management considerations

      Stoner, Lee; Faghy, Mark; Conners, Ryan; University of Derby (IMR Press, 2021-06-30)
    • Mapping Stories of Cause and Cure Using Story Stem Completion: Mental Distress in the Evangelical Christian Community. A Study Protocol

      Lloyd, Christopher E. M.; University of Derby (Concurrent Disorders Society, 2021-07-11)
      Recent qualitative evidence suggests Christian communities can hold specific religious and cultural beliefs regarding mental illness, which can influence how psychological illness is experienced, perceived and managed on both an idiographic and community level. There are, however, no studies which explore the implicit wider social discourses and narratives Christians may draw upon when making sense of mental illness. Objective: This study protocol paper presents a novel pilot study, which aims to collect qualitative data using story completion. Study design: Story completion is an innovative qualitative method which presents participants with a fictional story stem, or cue, and asks participants to continue the story in their own words. This study will explore evangelical Christians perceptions, representations and views of depression (story stem 1) and self-harm (story stem 2), as well as, the wider social, religious and cultural narratives they utilise. Analysis: A critical realist informed thematic analysis will be carried out on the data. Ethical considerations and dissemination plans are examined, with specific cognisance towards characteristics of the target sample.
    • Shelter from the cytokine storm: Healthy living is a vital preventative strategy in the COVID-19 era

      Bond, Samantha; Calvo, Isabel Romero; Lebowicz, Leah; Ozemek, Cemal; Severin, Richard; Laddu, Deepika; Faghy, Mark; Lavie, Carl J.; Carbone, Salvatore; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2021-06-18)
      Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to have a devastating effect on a global scale. COVID-19 variants continue to arise and counteract vaccination efficacy. As such, preventative health measures, such as social distancing and stay at home mandates, will continue for the foreseeable future. Evidence on those at greatest risk for poor outcomes if infected with COVID-19 has rapidly come to light. It has become clear that those with unhealthy lifestyle characteristics, chronic disease risk factors and/or a confirmed diagnosis of one or more chronic conditions are at greatest risk for hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation, and death if infected with COVID-19. The cytokine storm is a phenomenon that has been posited as a pathophysiologic response to COVID-19 infection that leads to poor outcomes. The current graphical review illustrates the association between unhealthy lifestyle characteristics and increased vulnerability to the cytokine storm as well as the physiologic mechanisms healthy living behaviors elicit and decrease risk for the cytokine storm. Through this graphical review, we will demonstrate unhealthy lifestyle characteristics, chronic disease risk factors and diagnoses, and COVID-19 outcomes are intricately linked, creating a new global syndemic. It is also clear that a primary way to uncouple this syndemic is through increasing healthy living behaviors, as illustrated in this graphical review. Moving forward, healthy living medicine should be practiced with renewed vigor to improve human resiliency to health threats posed by both chronic disease and viral infections.
    • Are spousal partner perceptions of continuity and discontinuity within the relationship linked to the symptoms of acquired brain injury?

      Yasmin, Natasha; Riley, Gerard; University of Birmingham; University of Derby (Tylor & Francis, 2021-03-18)
      Some partners experience their relationship with a person with brain injury as the continuation of a loving pre-injury relationship (continuity), but others feel that the pre-injury relationship has been lost and replaced with something very different (discontinuity). This study provided a quantitative test of claims arising from qualitative research that certain symptoms of the injury might contribute to the experience of discontinuity – specifically, lack of emotional warmth, reduced social interaction and aggression. Fifty-three partners providing care to someone with brain injury completed questionnaires assessing continuity/discontinuity and a range of symptoms (emotional warmth, conversational ability, aggression, depression, somatic complaints, cognition, communication, aggression, and phys- ical disability). Discontinuity was significantly correlated with all symptom variables except physical disability but, in a multiple regression, only the measures of emotional warmth, conversation, aggression, and depression made a significant unique contribution. Discontinuity has been linked with relationship dissatisfaction and dysfunction, greater bur- den and distress, and a less person-centred approach to the provision of care. Identifying which symp- toms contribute to discontinuity may enable partners to be more effectively supported in terms of how they make sense of and react to those symptoms, so that a greater sense of continuity may be retained.
    • An Evolving Approach to Assessing Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Muscle Function and Bone and Joint Health in the COVID-19 Era

      Myers, Jonathan; Ozemek, Cemal; Hall, Grenita; Severin, Richard; Laddu, Deepika; Kaminsky, Leonard A.; Stoner, Lee; Conners, Ryan T.; Faghy, Mark; University of Illinois at Chicago, USA; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-05-04)
      Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is now an established vital sign. CRF, along with muscle function and bone and joint health is related to functional independence and a higher quality of life. Wasserman and colleagues proposed a gear model illustrating the integrated role of the respiratory, cardiovascular, and skeletal muscle systems during aerobic exercise; in 2015, a revision to the original model was proposed. Our understanding of the effects and challenges associated with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are rapidly evolving. Initial evidence indicates higher levels of CRF, and muscle function protect individuals infected with COVID-19 from a complicated medical course. Moreover, for those individuals infected with COVID-19, there are initial signs of a reduction in CRF following the initial phase of recovery. We are also gaining an understanding of long COVID syndrome, where individuals who have recovered from the acute phase of viral infection present with lasting symptoms, which include but are not limited to reduced CRF, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Clearly, these individuals will require rehabilitation to restore and/or improve CRF, muscle function, bone and joint health, functional capacity (ie, the ability to perform activities of daily living), and quality of life. The importance of assessing the synergistic function of systems essential to performing activities that require physical exertion is a health care imperative. This graphical narrative provides an update to the gear model initially proposed by Wasserman and updated to a gear and circuit in 2015. External CRF, muscle function, and bone and joint health influencers and an approach to clinical assessment are also introduced.
    • Theorising Organisational Resilience for Sport Management Research and Practice

      Bostock, James; Breese, Richard; University of Derby; Sheffield Hallam University (Taylor and Francis, 2021-05-20)
      Helping individuals and teams achieve their goals by being resilient is an established research field in sport. How sport organisations can be resilient in adversity is comparatively neglected, so the purpose is to provide firm foundations for conceptualising organisational resilience in sport management. “How can organisational resilience best be theorised for sport management research and practice?” From a critique of the resilience literature, a new Framework for Organisational Resilience Management (FfORM) is developed, based on the theory of organisational resource conversion and the separation of normative and descriptive levels. The FfORM is applied to sport management contexts, including the resilience of National Governing Bodies of Sport (NGBs) to reductions in UK Sport funding. Organisational resilience is conceptualised as a means to an end, to achieve externally generated goals, emphasising its dynamic, temporal nature. The FfORM illuminates the challenges for NGBs in developing organisational resilience because of trade-offs in the actions they take. As well as being an evaluation tool, the FfORM will be of utility to sport organisations addressing the unprecedented challenges arising from COVID-19. Development of theory on organisational resilience, for use in both sport and other contexts.
    • Exopolysaccharides from Lactobacillus acidophilus modulates the antioxidant status of 1,2–dimethyl hydrazine-induced colon cancer rat model

      Venkataraman Deepak; Arputha Sundar, William; Ram Kumar Pandian, Sureshbabu; Sivasubramaniam, Shiva D.; Hariharan, Nellaiah; Sundar, Krishnan; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-04-19)
      The aim of the current study is to ascertain the anticancer activity of exopolysaccharides (EPS) from probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus in the 1, 2 – dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) induced colon cancer rat model and to determine the antioxidant status. Rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. Group I served as control, group II served as cancer control (DMH alone administered), group III as standard drug control [Fluorouracil (5-FU) along with DMH} and group IV and V received EPS in two doses (200 mg/kg body weight and 400 mg/kg body weight along with DMH). EPS administration was found to reduce the number of polyps formed (Group IV - 8.25±1.258 & Group V - 8.50±1.732 vs Group II - 14.50±2.380) and to increase the levels of antioxidant enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and antioxidants like vitamin C (Vit. C), reduced glutathione (GSH) which was found to be reduced in colon cancer control rats. The status of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was also evaluated. All the values which were affected by the supplementation of DMH were brought to near normal levels by the treatment with EPS. The well preserved histology of colon and the biochemical evaluation also show that EPS could be a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of colon cancer.
    • Customised pressure profiles of made-to-measure sports compression garments

      Ashby, Jack; Lewis, Martin; Sanchis-Sanchis, Roberto; Sunderland, Caroline; Barrett, Laura A.; Morris, John G.; Nottingham Trent University; University of Derby; University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; Loughborough University (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-05-22)
      The purpose of this study was to make made-to-measure compression garments that elicit pressures within and below clinical standards. The study also examined whether pressures and gradients can be replicated within and between participants’ legs, and between separate compression garment conditions. Ten males volunteered to participate. Based on three-dimensional scans of the participants’ lower body, three different made-to-measure garments were manufactured: control, symmetrical and asymmetrical. Garment pressures were assessed from the malleolus to the gluteal fold using a pressure monitoring device. A root mean squared difference analysis was used to calculate the in vivo linear graduation parameters. Linear regression showed that peak pressure at the ankle in the left and right leg were: control garment, 13.5 ± 2.3 and 12.9 ± 2.6; asymmetrical garment, 12.7 ± 2.5 and 26.3 ± 3.4; symmetrical garment, 27.7 ± 2.2 and 27.5 ± 1.6 (all mmHg, mean ± standard deviation). Pressure reduction from the ankle to the gluteal fold in the left and right leg were: control, 8.9 ± 3.5 and 7.4 ± 3.0; asymmetrical, 7.8 ± 3.9 and 21.9 ± 3.2; symmetrical, 25.0 ± 4.1 and 22.3 ± 3.6 (all mmHg, mean ± standard deviation). Made-to-measure compression garments can be made to elicit pressures within and below clinical standards, and to elicit equivalent pressures and gradients in different participants.
    • Mental Distress, Stigma and Help-Seeking in the Evangelical Christian Church: Study Protocol

      Lloyd, Christopher E. M.; Kotera, Yasuhiro; University of Derby (Concurrent Disorders Society, 2021-05-25)
      A large body of research supports the central importance of religious and spiritual belief systems for personal wellbeing. Many religious communities hold beliefs about the causes and suitable treatments for mental health conditions, which can influence how an individual experiences their mental health, as well as the likelihood of seeking professional or religious help for their psychological difficulties. Research suggests that this is especially the case for evangelical Christians, who are more likely to view mental illness as caused by demons, sin, diminished faith, or generational curses. Whilst recent qualitative evidence suggests that such beliefs can hold negative effects for evangelical Christians, there is little research exploring quantitative pathways. This study protocol paper presents a pilot study, which aims to explore how beliefs about the causes of mental illness, religious fundamentalism, help-seeking, stigma and mental health are related in evangelical Christian communities. Whilst there is some existing research exploring this area, most is drawn from a US context. The findings of the present study, therefore, will uniquely apply to a UK context. A quantitative design is proposed, which will involve statistical analyses such as correlation, regression, moderation and path analysis, to explore associations between these variables. Ethical considerations and dissemination plans are discussed, with awareness of characteristics of our target sample.
    • Psychoeducation Intervention Effectiveness to Improve Social Skills in Young People with ADHD: A Meta-Analysis.

      Powell, Lauren Amy; Parker, Jack; Weighall, Anna; Harpin, Valerie; University of Derby (Sage, 2021-03-05)
      Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can be associated with limited understanding of the condition and poor social skills. Some evidence favors a psychoeducational approach, but little is known about the effectiveness of psychoeducation. Systematic review and meta-analysis of studies assessing psychoeducational interventions that aim to improve social skills of young people with ADHD. Ten studies, including 943 participants, reported across 13 papers met the inclusion criteria. Although effect sizes were small, findings suggest the included interventions significantly improved social skills in young people with ADHD. Results show promise for psychoeducational behavioral interventions . However, the recommendations that can be developed from existing evidence are somewhat limited by the low quality of studies. Further rigorous trials are needed. In addition, future research should consider the long-term outcomes for these interventions, they should be iteratively co-designed and research should consider the context they intend to be delivered in.
    • Contending with Spiritual Reductionism: Demons, Shame, and Dividualising Experiences Among Evangelical Christians with Mental Distress

      Lloyd, Christopher E. M.; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-05-15)
      The belief that mental distress is caused by demons, sin, or generational curses is commonplace among many evangelical Christian communities. These beliefs may have positive or negative effects for individuals and groups. Phenomenological descriptions of these experiences and the subjective meanings associated with them, however, remain somewhat neglected in the literature. The current study employed semi-structured interviews with eight evangelical Christians in order to idiographically explore their experiences of mental distress in relation to their faith and wider communities. Through an interpretative phenomenological analysis, two superordinate themes were constructed: negative spiritualisation and negotiating the dialectic between faith and the lived experience of mental distress. Participants variously experienced a climate of negative spiritualisation, whereby their mental distress was demonised and dismissed, and they were further discouraged from seeking help in secular institutions and environments. Participants often considered such dismissals of their mental distress as unhelpful and stigmatising and experienced heightened feelings of shame and suffering as a result. Such discouragement also contributed to the process of othering and relational disconnection. Alongside a rejection of church teachings, which exclusively spiritualised psychological distress, participants negotiated a nuanced personal synthesis of faith, theology, and distress, which assumed a localised and idiographic significance. This synthesis included advocating for the uptake of aetiological accounts, which contextualised mental distress in terms of the whole person and resisted de-politicised, dichotomised, and individualistic narratives. Results are discussed in relation to a broad range of literature in the field, while further research suggestions are provided.
    • LGBQ adults’ experiences of a CBT wellbeing group for anxiety and depression in an Improving Access to Psychological Therapies Service: a qualitative service evaluation

      Lloyd, Christopher E. M.; Rimes, Katharine A.; Hambrook, David G.; University of Derby (Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2021-01-05)
      Sexual minorities, including those identifying as lesbian, gay, bisexual or queer (LGBQ) are at heightened risk of experiencing mental health problems. Nationally, treatment outcomes within England’s Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services are worse for sexual minority patients than for heterosexuals. An IAPT service in London developed a cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) group specifically for sexual minority patients to provide a safe, affirmative intervention to learn skills for overcoming depression, anxiety and stress. A qualitative online survey was emailed to all 59 service users who had completed the eight-session intervention, to explore their experiences inductively. Survey data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Themes were identified in participants’ responses in order to establish which aspects of the group intervention were deemed to be helpful and unhelpful, and to explore suggestions for group improvement. Eighteen people completed the survey (response rate 30.5%). Respondents reported that they found the CBT frame of the group useful, with the LGBQ focus experienced as particularly beneficial, often enhancing engagement with CBT concepts and tools. In addition to generic elements of group therapy that some found difficult, others reported that intragroup diversity, such as generational differences, could lead to a reduced sense of connection. Several suggestions for group improvement were made, including incorporating more diverse perspectives and examples in session content and focusing more on issues relating to intersectionality. These results provide preliminary evidence that a culturally adapted CBT group intervention developed specifically for sexual minorities is acceptable and perceived as offering something unique and helpful.
    • Educators Perspectives on the Value of Physical Education, Physical Activity and Fundamental Movement Skills for Early Years Foundation Stage Children in England.

      Dobell, Alexandra; Pringle, Andy; Faghy, Mark; Roscoe, Clare M P; University of Derby (MDPI, 2021-04-26)
      There is a lack of information available for physical education (PE) provision in the early years foundation stage (EYFS), prompting concern about what is currently delivered in schools and the values behind the approaches taken. Using semi-structured interviews, this study investigated educators’ perspectives on the value of PE and physical activity (PA) for EYFS children across England in relation to opportunities for, barriers to, and benefits of PA and PE. This study collected important stakeholder views and can help shape the impact and implementation of fundamental movement skills (FMS) and PA interventions at the EYFS.