• Active recovery of the finger flexors enhances intermittent handgrip performance in rock climbers

      Baláš, Jiří; Michailov, Michail; Giles, David; Kodejška, Jan; Panáčková, Michaela; Fryer, Simon; The University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2015)
      This study aimed to (1) evaluate the effect of hand shaking during recovery phases of intermittent testing on the time–force characteristics of performance and muscle oxygenation, and (2) assess inter-individual variability in the time to achieve the target force during intermittent testing in rock climbers. Twenty-two participants undertook three finger flexor endurance tests at 60% of their maximal voluntary contraction until failure. Performances of a sustained contraction and two intermittent contractions, each with different recovery strategies, were analysed by time–force parameters and near-infrared spectroscopy. Recovery with shaking of the forearm beside the body led to a significantly greater intermittent test time (↑ 22%, P < .05), force–time integral (↑ 28%, P < .05) and faster muscle re-oxygenation (↑ 32%, P < .05), when compared to the hand over hold condition. Further, the ratio of intermittent to continuous test time distinguished specific aerobic muscular adaptations among sport climbers (2.02), boulderers (1.74) and lower grade climbers (1.25). Lower grade climbers and boulderers produced shorter duration contractions due to the slower development of target force during the intermittent test, indicating worse kinaesthetic differentiation. Both the type of recovery and climbing discipline determined muscle re-oxygenation and intermittent performance in rock climbers.
    • Active recovery strategy and lactate clearance in elite swimmers.

      Faghy, Mark A; Lomax, Mitch; Brown, Peter I; Human Science Research Centre; University of Portsmouth; English Institute of Sport (Edizioni Minerva Medica, 2018-11-21)
      Swimming requires sustained high performance, with limited recovery between heats, recovery strategies are essential to performance but are often self-regulated and sub- optimal. Accordingly, we investigated a physiologically determined recovery protocol.
    • Affective priming of perceived environmental restorativeness

      Stevens, Paul; The Open University (2013)
      Research into the perceived restorativeness of a given environment has tended to focus on the principles of the Kaplans' Attention Restoration Theory at the expense of the affective considerations of Ulrich's psychoevolutionary model. To better understand the role of emotion, this experiment used contextual text-based primers to manipulate participants' affective state (positive or negative) prior to asking them to rate different environments using the Restorative Components Scale. Sixty-nine participants completed the web-based study, being pseudo-randomly allocated to either the positive- or negative-affect group and then rating three natural and three urban environments. Both groups rated natural environments as more restorative than urban ones, with negative-primed participants tending to give higher mean ratings for all environments. This effect was statistically significant for both the Being Away and Fascination components of perceived restorativeness for all environments, but only Fascination showed a significant interaction of the prior affective state with type of environment, a bigger effect being seen for the nature environments. Results are discussed in terms of current understanding of the interrelationship between attentional and affective processes
    • Alterations in autonomic cardiac modulation in response to normobaric hypoxia

      Giles, David; Kelly, John; Draper, Nick; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2016)
      Purpose: The present study aimed to determine if autonomic cardiac modulation was influenced by acute exposure to normobaric hypoxia. Method: Ten healthy male lowland dwellers completed five block-randomised single-blinded, crossed-over acute exposures to a normobaric hypoxic environment, each separated by 24 hours’ recovery (20.3%, 17.4%, 14.5%, 12.0% and 9.8% FIO2). Supine recordings were made of arterial oxygen saturation and electrocardiogram (ECG). RR intervals from the ECG trace were analysed for time (SDNN, lnRMSSD), frequency (lnVLF, lnLF, lnHF, lnTP, LFnu, and HFnu), and nonlinear (DFA-α1 and SampEn) heart rate variability components. Results: A significant reduction in arterial SaO2 occurred with reduced FIO2, along with a rise in heart rate (Cohen’s d = 1.16, 95% Confidence Interval [2.64–6.46]), significant at 9.8% FIO2. A decrease in autonomic cardiac modulation was also found as shown by a statistically significant (at 9.8% FIO2) decrease in lnTP (d = 1.84 [1.74–1.94]), and SampEn (d = 0.98 [0.83–1.12]) and an increase in DFA-α1 (d = 0.72 [0.60–0.84]) from normoxia at 9.8% FIO2. Conclusion: The decrease in variability indicated a reduction in autonomic cardiac modulation. There appears to be a threshold ∼9.8% FIO2 (∼6000 m equiv.), below which significant alterations in autonomic control occur.
    • Ambiguity, manageability and the orchestration of organisational change: a case study of an English Premier League Academy Manager

      Gibson, Luke; Groom, Ryan; University of Derby; Manchester Metropolitan University (Taylor Francis, 2017-04-05)
      An academy is an organisational context operated by professional football clubs, governed by the rules of the English Football Association and the English Premier League. Academies provide coaching and education for youth football players aged from under 9 to under 21. The Academy Manager is responsible for the strategic leadership and operation of the club’s academy. This includes implementing the club’s philosophy, coaching and games programme, player education, and the management of academy staff. The purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of Simon [pseudonym], an English Premier League Academy Manager, when implementing organisational change within an academy. Data were collected from a work-based diary and four in-depth semi-structured interviews. The notion of orchestration is used as an analytical frame to make sense of Simon’s experiences through the change process and further our understanding of the social complexities of organisational change in elite sporting environments.
    • An analysis of the presentation of art in the British primary school curriculum and its implications for teaching

      Hallam, Jenny; Lee, Helen A. N.; Gupta, Mani Das; Staffordshire Unviersity (Wiley, 2007)
      This paper presents an analysis of the way art is conceptualised in the British Primary School curriculum and provides an historical framework that maps an evolution of ideas that have shaped the way art is presented in the modern day Primary curriculum. In order to achieve this a Foucauldian style genealogical analysis is utilised to trace the discourses (systems of meaning) surrounding the nature of children’s artistic development and how these discourses are used in the present day British Primary Curriculum to construe art in different ways. The analysis in this paper is threefold. It explores the presentation of art in the curriculum as (i) an expressive subject, (ii) a skills based subject, (iii) a subject which focuses on art history and art appreciation. Second the teaching positions associated with each approach are identified as follows (a) the facilitator, (b) the expert and (c) the philosopher; as well as the issues teachers face when adopting these positions. Third, attention is given to how these theoretical principles might be linked to practice. In so doing this paper contributes to the debate surrounding the value of art in the Primary curriculum and the way in which the curriculum serves to shape teaching practice.
    • Arbuscular mycorrhizal community structure on co-existing tropical legume trees in French Guiana

      Brearley, Francis Q.; Elliott, David R.; Iribar, Amaia; Sen, Robin; Environmental Sustainability Research Centre, College of Life and Natural SciencesUniversity of Derby (Springer, 2016-02-10)
      Aims We aimed to characterise the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community structure and potential edaphic determinants in the dominating, but poorly described, root-colonizing Paris-type AMF community on co-occurring Amazonian leguminous trees. Methods Three highly productive leguminous trees (Dicorynia guianensis, Eperua falcata and Tachigali melinonii were targeted) in species-rich forests on contrasting soil types at the Nouragues Research Station in central French Guiana. Abundant AMF SSU rRNA amplicons (NS31-AM1 & AML1-AML2 primers) from roots identified via trnL profiling were subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), clone library sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Results Classical approaches targeting abundant SSU amplicons highlighted a diverse root-colonizing symbiotic AMF community dominated by members of the Glomeraceae. DGGE profiling indicated that, of the edaphic factors investigated, soil nitrogen was most important in influencing the AMF community and this was more important than any host tree species effect. Conclusions Dominating Paris-type mycorrhizal leguminous trees in Amazonian soils host diverse and novel taxa within the Glomeraceae that appear under edaphic selection in the investigated tropical forests. Linking symbiotic diversity of identified AMF taxa to ecological processes is the next challenge ahead.
    • Becoming a performance analyst: autoethnographic reflections on agency, and facilitated transformational growth

      Butterworth, Andrew D.; Turner, David J.; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2014-04-09)
      This paper features an autoethnographic approach in presenting and reflecting upon the story of one higher education student's rapid vocational and academic transformation. Initially an inconspicuous undergraduate student, Andrew experienced an accelerated development that catapulted him to working in elite sport performance analysis (PA) environments, within a year. PA is a sub-discipline of sports coaching that involves using the latest technological advances to influence sporting performance, through the objective analysis of performance data. This autoethnographic piece is partly Andrew’s personal reflection upon that journey towards his newfound profession, which initially grew out of his experience of a generic sports degree at a university. Through stepping out of his comfort zone, and analysing sports previously unknown to him, extraordinary progress was made, and various vocational and academic opportunities arose. The initial catalyst for this developmental journey was facilitated by coaching lecturer David, who reflects upon how Andrew’s story links to his own educational philosophies. Andrew and David explore what these stories might mean to them personally, including potential links to the metaphor of learning as becoming, and notions around the concepts of learner agency, and educational facilitation. The paper ends by exploring the theoretical frameworks that guided this paper’s structure and focus.
    • Book Review: Jonathan Skinner (ed.) Writing the dark side of travel

      Johnston, Tony; University of Derby (2013-05-08)
    • Calibration of GENEActiv accelerometer wrist cut-points for the assessment of physical activity intensity of preschool aged children

      Roscoe, Clare M. P.; James, Rob S.; Duncan, Michael J.; Coventry University; University of Derby (Springer, 2017-07-03)
      This study sought to validate cut-points for use of wrist worn GENEActiv accelerometer data, to analyse preschool children’s (4 to 5 year olds) physical activity (PA) levels via calibration with oxygen consumption values (VO2). This was a laboratory based calibration study. Twenty-one preschool children, aged 4.7 ± 0.5 years old, completed six activities (ranging from lying supine to running) whilst wearing the GENEActiv accelerometers at two locations (left and right wrist), these being the participants’ non-dominant and dominant wrist, and a Cortex face mask for gas analysis. VO2 data was used for the assessment of criterion validity. Location specific activity intensity cut points were established via Receiver Operator Characteristic curve (ROC) analysis. The GENEActiv accelerometers, irrespective of their location, accurately discriminated between all PA intensities (sedentary, light, and moderate and above), with the dominant wrist monitor providing a slightly more precise discrimination at light PA and the non-dominant at the sedentary behaviour and moderate and above intensity levels (Area Under the Curve (AUC) for non-dominant = 0.749-0.993, compared to AUC dominant = 0.760-0.988). Conclusion: This study establishes wrist-worn physical activity cut points for the GENEActiv accelerometer in pre-schoolers.
    • Catastrophes in sport: a test of the hysteresis hypothesis.

      Hardy, L.; Parfitt, C. Gaynor; Pates, John; University of Wales, Bangor (Taylor and Francis Ltd, 1994-04-20)
    • Categorization of occupation in documented skeletal collections: Its relevance for the interpretation of activity-related osseous changes.

      Perréard Lopreno, Geneviève; Alves Cardoso, Francisca; Assis, Sandra; Milella, Marco; Speith, Nivien; University of Geneva; Nova University; University of Coimbra; University of Zurich; Bournemouth University; Laboratory of prehistoric archaeology and anthropology, F.A. Forel Institut - Earth Sciences and Environment; University of Geneva; Geneva; Switzerland; CRIA - Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas; Universidade Nova de Lisboa; Lisbon; Portugal; CIAS - Research Centre for Anthropology and Health; University of Coimbra; Coimbra; Portugal; Anthropological Institute and Museum; University of Zurich; Zurich; Switzerland; Archaeological Sciences; University of Bradford; Bradford; England (Wiley, 2013-03)
      Studies on identified skeletal collections yield discordant results about the association between osseous changes and activity. These dissonances can be ascribed to several factors: the variability of the osseous changes selected for observation, the inconsistency of their interpretative criteria and the inhomogeneous classification of occupation, here used as synonym of profession, within each study. The need to standardize the concept of occupation in its biomechanical and socio-cultural expression is currently addressed by the authors, as members of a working group created after the workshop ‘Musculoskeletal Stress Markers (MSM): limitations and achievements in the reconstruction of past activity patterns’ (Coimbra University, 2009). Within this framework, the authors reviewed the literature dedicated to entheseal changes and functional adaptation of long bones, focusing their research on studies based on European identified skeletal collections and on the criteria used in each study to classify occupations. The aim of this research was to (i) assess agreements and disagreements between authors with regard to the criteria used to categorize occupation, and (ii) highlight the steps needed to build a classification system permitting future comparisons between collections of different chronological and geographical contexts. Data from the literature were exported to a table including the assessment criteria used to classify the occupation for each profession and the assignment of specific occupations to occupational categories. Overall, our results revealed two main issues: an ambiguous historical interpretation of occupation and a marked influence of the researcher's perspective on the criteria used to classify occupations. Therefore, although the table allows basic comparisons between collections, further research is needed in order to obtain shared classifications based on each profession's specifics.
    • Chain-loaded variable resistance warm-up improves free-weight maximal back squat performance.

      Mina, Minas A.; Blazevich, Anthony J.; Giakas, Giannis; Seitz, Laurent B.; Kay, Anthony D.; University of Derby; Edith Cowan University; University of Thessaly; French Rugby League Academy; University of Northampton (Taylor and Francis, 2016-07-18)
      The acute influence of chain-loaded variable resistance exercise on subsequent free-weight one-repetition maximum (1-RM) back squat performance was examined in 16 recreationally active men. The participants performed either a free-weight resistance (FWR) or chain-loaded resistance (CLR) back squat warm-up at 85% 1-RM on two separate occasions. After a 5-min rest, the participants attempted a free-weight 1-RM back squat; if successful, subsequent 5% load additions were made until participants failed to complete the lift. During the 1-RM trials, 3D knee joint kinematics and knee extensor and flexor electromyograms (EMG) were recorded simultaneously. Significantly greater 1-RM (6.2 ± 5.0%; p < .01) and mean eccentric knee extensor EMG (32.2 ± 6.7%; p < .01) were found after the CLR warm-up compared to the FWR condition. However, no difference (p > .05) was found in concentric EMG, eccentric or concentric knee angular velocity, or peak knee flexion angle. Performing a CLR warm-up enhanced subsequent free-weight 1-RM performance without changes in knee flexion angle or eccentric and concentric knee angular velocities; thus a real 1-RM increase was achieved as the mechanics of the lift were not altered. These results are indicative of a potentiating effect of CLR in a warm-up, which may benefit athletes in tasks where high-level strength is required.
    • Challenges for third sector organisations in cutback management: a sporting case study of the implications of publicness.

      Bostock, James; Breese, Richard; Crowther, Philip; Ridley-Duff, Rory; Univeristy of Derby; Sheffield Hallam University (Routledge, 2019-03-01)
      Cutback management is a key theme for public services in an era of austerity, but the responsibilities for implementing public funding cutbacks do not always fall upon managers employed in the public sector. This article focuses on the cutbacks at third sector organisations (TSOs) – three national governing bodies (NGBs) of sport – which were affected by UK Sport’s ‘No Compromise’ policy following the 2012 Olympics. The article introduces the public funding cutback decision hierarchy as a novel framework which is used alongside existing theory to assess the implications of the severity and immediacy of cutback.
    • Chemically Modified Bodies: The Use of Diverse Substances for Appearance Enhancement

      Hall, Matthew; Grogan, Sarah; Gough, Brandan; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan, 2016-08-28)
      This innovative edited collection brings together leading international academics to explore the use of various non-prescription and prescription substances for the purpose of perceived body image enhancement. While studies on drug misuse to date have examined drug use in the context of sporting performance, addiction, and body image for particular groups such as bodybuilders, there has been little research that explores the wider use (and misuse) of legal and illegal drugs for body image development and weight loss.  With medical sociology and social psychology at its core, this important volume shows the complex reasons behind the misuse of various medications, how these are connected to contemporary body image and appearance concerns, and why the known health risks and possibly harmful side effects do not act as deterrents.
    • Choosing not to reconstruct- post mastectomy: Exploring younger women’s experiences

      Holland, Fiona G.; University of Derby (Breast Cancer Care UK, 2016-03)
      A team of researchers visited Breast Cancer Care recently to share their findings from their study that explored the experiences of younger breast cancer patients who had chosen not to reconstruct post-mastectomy. Dr Fiona Holland from the University of Derby’s psychology department summarises the project and its implications for breast cancer nursing teams.
    • Commentary Regarding Wilson et al. (2018) 'Effectiveness of ‘Self-Compassion’ Related Therapies: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.” All Is Not as It Seems

      Kirby, J; Gilbert, Paul; Compassionate Mind Research Group, School of Psychology, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane 4072, Australia; The University of Derby, Derby, UK (Springer US, 2019-02-09)
      This commentary paper reviews the recently made claims by Wilson et al. (Mindfulness, 2018) from their meta-analysis of what they call self-compassion therapies. They argue that a range of different therapy modalities can be classified as self-compassion therapies, including compassion-focused therapy, dialectical behaviour therapy, acceptance and commitment therapy and mindfulness-based interventions. The results from their meta-analyses found that these self-compassion therapies were effective at increasing self-compassion and reducing depressive and anxiety symptoms. This meta-analysis also found that self-compassion-related therapies did not produce better outcomes than active control conditions. This indicates that such self-compassion therapies are unlikely to have any specific effect over and above the general benefits of any active treatment. We will indicate a number of reasons why this conclusion is not warranted. We first contextualise what is meant by compassion-focused therapies, and we then discuss four key concerns: (1) the heterogeneity and classification of the “self-compassion therapies”; (2) the measure used to assess self-compassion; (3) the comparison to the active control conditions; and (4) the inaccurate comments made about the Kirby et al. (Behavior Therapy, 2017b) meta-analysis. Although it is encouraging to see the increasing number of randomised controlled trials, and now meta-analyses of compassion-focused therapies, the conclusions made by Wilson et al. (Mindfulness, 2018) in their meta-analysis are misleading.
    • Comparative grading scales, statistical analyses, climber descriptors and ability grouping: International Rock Climbing Research Association position statement

      Draper, Nick; Giles, David; Schöffl, Volker; Konstantin Fuss, Franz; Watts, Phillip; Wolf, Peter; Baláš, Jiří; España-Romero, Vanesa; Blunt Gonzalez, Gina; Fryer, Simon; Fanchini, Maurizio; Vigouroux, Laurent; Seifert, Ludovic; Donath, Lars; Spoerri, Manuel; Bonetti, Kelios; Phillips, Kevin; Stöcker, Urs; Bourassa-Moreau, Felix; Garrido, Inmaculada; Drum, Scott; Beekmeyer, Stuart; Ziltener, Jean-Luc; Taylor, Nicola; Beeretz, Ina; Mally, Franziska; Mithat Amca, Arif; Linhart, Caroline; Abreu, Edgardo; The University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2016)
      The research base for rock climbing has expanded substantially in the past 3 decades as worldwide interest in the sport has grown. An important trigger for the increasing research attention has been the transition of the sport to a competitive as well as recreational activity and the potential inclusion of sport climbing in the Olympic schedule. The International Rock Climbing Research Association (IRCRA) was formed in 2011 to bring together climbers, coaches and researchers to share knowledge and promote collaboration. This position statement was developed during and after the 2nd IRCRA Congress which was held in Pontresina, in September 2014. The aim of the position statement is to bring greater uniformity to the descriptive and statistical methods used in reporting rock climbing research findings. To date there is a wide variation in the information provided by researchers regarding the climbers’ characteristics and also in the approaches employed to convert from climbing grading scales to a numeric scale suitable for statistical analysis. Our paper presents details of recommended standards of reporting that should be used for reporting climber characteristics and provides a universal scale for the conversion of climbing grades to a number system for statistical analysis.
    • Compassion Focused Approaches to Working With Distressing Voices

      Heriot-Maitland, Charles; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Longden, Eleanor; Gilbert, Paul; University of Glasgow; Kings College London; Trinity College Dublin; Greater Manchester Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust; University of Derby (Frontiers, 2019-02-01)
      This paper presents an outline of voice-hearing phenomenology in the context of evolutionary mechanisms for self- and social- monitoring. Special attention is given to evolved systems for monitoring dominant-subordinate social roles and relationships. These provide information relating to the interpersonal motivation of others, such as neutral, friendly or hostile, and thus the interpersonal threat, versus safe, social location. Individuals who perceive themselves as subordinate and dominants as hostile are highly vigilant to down-rank threat and use submissive displays and social spacing as basic defenses. We suggest these defense mechanisms are especially attuned in some individuals with voices, in which this fearful-subordinate – hostile-dominant relationship is played out. Given the evolved motivational system in which voice-hearers can be trapped, one therapeutic solution is to help them switch into different motivational systems, particularly those linked to social caring and support, rather than hostile competition. Compassion focused therapy (CFT) seeks to produce such motivational shifts. Compassion focused therapy aims to help voice-hearers, (i) notice their threat-based (dominant-subordinate) motivational systems when they arise, (ii) understand their function in the context of their lives, and (iii) shift into different motivational patterns that are orientated around safeness and compassion. Voice-hearers are supported to engage with biopsychosocial components of compassionate mind training, which are briefly summarized, and to cultivate an embodied sense of a compassionate self-identity. They are invited to consider, and practice, how they might wish to relate to themselves, their voices, and other people, from the position of their compassionate self. This paper proposes, in line with the broader science of compassion and CFT, that repeated practice of creating internal patterns of safeness and compassion can provide an optimum biopsychosocial environment for affect-regulation, emotional conflict-resolution, and therapeutic change. Examples of specific therapeutic techniques, such as chair-work and talking with voices, are described to illustrate how these might be incorporated in one-to-one sessions of CFT.
    • Compassionate faces: Evidence for distinctive facial expressions associated with specific prosocial motivations

      Falconer, Caroline, J.; Lobmaier, Janek, S.; Cristoforou, Marina; Kamboj, Sunjeev, K.; King, John, A.; Gilbert, Paul; Brewin, Chris, R.; Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, London, United Kingdom; Institute of Psychology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; University of Derby (PLoS ONE, 2018-01-23)
      Compassion is a complex cognitive, emotional and behavioural process that has important real-world consequences for the self and others. Considering this, it is important to understand how compassion is communicated. The current research investigated the expression and perception of compassion via the face. We generated exemplar images of two compassionate facial expressions induced from two mental imagery tasks with different compassionate motivations (Study 1). Our kind- and empathic compassion faces were perceived differently and the empathic-compassion expression was perceived as best depicting the general definition of compassion (Study 2). Our two composite faces differed in their perceived happiness, kindness, sadness, fear and concern, which speak to their underling motivation and emotional resonance. Finally, both faces were accurately discriminated when presented along a compassion continuum (Study 3). Our results demonstrate two perceptually and functionally distinct facial expressions of compassion, with potentially different consequences for the suffering of others.