• Contending with Spiritual Reductionism: Demons, Shame, and Dividualising Experiences Among Evangelical Christians with Mental Distress

      Lloyd, Christopher E. M.; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-05-15)
      The belief that mental distress is caused by demons, sin, or generational curses is commonplace among many evangelical Christian communities. These beliefs may have positive or negative effects for individuals and groups. Phenomenological descriptions of these experiences and the subjective meanings associated with them, however, remain somewhat neglected in the literature. The current study employed semi-structured interviews with eight evangelical Christians in order to idiographically explore their experiences of mental distress in relation to their faith and wider communities. Through an interpretative phenomenological analysis, two superordinate themes were constructed: negative spiritualisation and negotiating the dialectic between faith and the lived experience of mental distress. Participants variously experienced a climate of negative spiritualisation, whereby their mental distress was demonised and dismissed, and they were further discouraged from seeking help in secular institutions and environments. Participants often considered such dismissals of their mental distress as unhelpful and stigmatising and experienced heightened feelings of shame and suffering as a result. Such discouragement also contributed to the process of othering and relational disconnection. Alongside a rejection of church teachings, which exclusively spiritualised psychological distress, participants negotiated a nuanced personal synthesis of faith, theology, and distress, which assumed a localised and idiographic significance. This synthesis included advocating for the uptake of aetiological accounts, which contextualised mental distress in terms of the whole person and resisted de-politicised, dichotomised, and individualistic narratives. Results are discussed in relation to a broad range of literature in the field, while further research suggestions are provided.
    • Enhancing Primary School Children's Knowledge of Online Safety and Risks with the CATZ Cooperative Cross-Age Teaching Intervention: Results from a Pilot Study

      Boulton, Michael J.; Boulton, Louise; Camerone, Eleonora; Down, James; Hughes, Joanna; Kirkbride, Chloe; Kirkham, Rachel; Macaulay, Peter; Sanders, Jessica; University of Chester (Mary Ann Liebert Inc, 2016-10-01)
      Children are heavy users of the Internet and prior studies have shown that many of them lack a good understanding of the risks of doing so and how to avoid them. This study examined if the cross-age teaching zone (CATZ) intervention could help children acquire important knowledge of online risks and safety. It allowed older students to act as CATZ tutors to design and deliver a lesson to younger schoolmates (tutees), using content material about online risks and safety provided by adults. Students in Year 6 (mean age = 11.5 years) were randomly assigned to act as either CATZ tutors (n = 100) or age-matched controls (n = 46) and students in Year 4 (mean age = 9.5 years) acted as either CATZ tutees (n = 117) or age-matched controls (n = 28) (total N = 291). CATZ tutors, but not matched controls scored significantly higher on objective measures of knowledge of both online risks and safety, and CATZ tutees, but not matched controls did so for online safety. Effect sizes were moderate or large. CATZ was highly acceptable to participants. The results suggest that CATZ is a viable way to help school students learn about online dangers and how to avoid them.
    • Pre-competition body mass loss characteristics of Brazilian jiu-jitsu competitors in the United Kingdom

      White, Tyler; Kirk, Christopher; University of Derby (SAGE Publications, 2021-01-05)
      Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) is a grappling-based combat sport in which competitors engage in pre-competition acute ‘weight’ loss (AWL) and rapid ‘weight’ loss (RWL) to achieve the body mass (BM) required for their desired division. AWL/RWL practices of UK BJJ competitors have not previously been reported. Our aim in this study was to determine the prevalence, magnitude and stakeholder influences of AWL and RWL amongst BJJ participants in the United Kingdom (UK). A secondary aim was to explore whether there is any influence of time spent in the sport or competition frequency on AWL/RWL practices. In this study we used the rapid weight loss questionnaire (RWLQ) adapted for BJJ to determine the prevalence and magnitude of AWL/RWL in UK BJJ, the prevalence of methods used and the key stakeholder influences on these practices. As a secondary investigation we aimed to determine whether there was any effect of age starting BJJ on AWL/RWL. Of 115 completed responses, 59% stated they performed AWL/RWL before competition. Mean BM loss for this competition was 1.9 ± 3.8 kg (2.3 ± 4.6%), with 34% of participants starting BM loss 3–7 days prior and 16% starting 0–2 days prior. Methods used tend to be achieving calorie deficit via exercise and diet rather than hypohydration, with little advice from formally qualified personnel. Participants who perform AWL/RWL started training (BF10 = 199, d = .72) and competing (BF10 = 107, d = .68) in BJJ younger than those who do not perform AWL/RWL. AWL/RWL is prevalent in UK BJJ, but not at the magnitude of other combat sports or countries. Though negative effects of extreme hypohydration are unlikely, there may be a higher chance of eating disorders in BJJ, particularly due to the young age of AWL/RWL commencement.