• Personality, internet addiction, and other technological addictions: A psychological examination of personality traits and technological addictions.

      Hussain, Zaheer; Pontes, Halley M.; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University; University of Derby, UK; Nottingham Trent University, UK (IGI Global, 2018)
      Research into technological addictions, such as Internet addiction, smartphone addiction and social networking addiction has greatly increased. It is important to understand how technological addictions may be related to different personality types and key individual differences associated to personality. This chapter provides empirical and conceptual insights into how technological addictions may be related to different personality types and key individual differences associated to personality. This chapter focuses on a number of technological addictions and illustrates how research and theory in this area has developed in relation to commonly researched personality traits (e.g., extraversion, introversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness, openness to experience, and narcissism) and key individual differences related to personality (e.g., personality disorders). The complex nature of personality and technological addictions is discussed together with areas for future research.
    • Predictors of problematic smartphone use: an examination of the integrative pathways model and the role of age, gender, impulsiveness, excessive reassurance seeking, extraversion, and depression.

      Mitchell, Lewis; Hussain, Zaheer; University of Derby (MDPI, 2018-08-14)
      Background: The progression of mobile phone technology has led to the development of multi-functional smartphones providing access to features such as social media, e-mail, and videos alongside the basic functions of a mobile phone. Increasing amounts of research has explored the potential addictive nature of smartphones to develop a theoretical framework that describes personality factors related to problematic use. The present study examined the Integrative Pathways Model and the effect of age, gender, impulsiveness, excessive reassurance seeking, extraversion, and depression on problematic smartphone use. Method: A total of 147 smartphone users (mean age = 30.96, SD = 12.97, 69.4% female) completed an online survey comprising of measures of problematic smartphone use, excessive reassurance seeking, extraversion, depression, and impulsiveness. Results: Age, impulsiveness, excessive reassurance seeking, and depression were all significantly related to problematic smartphone use, however extraversion was not significantly related. Furthermore, age and impulsiveness were significant independent predictors of problematic smartphone use. No gender differences were found. Conclusions: The findings presented several factors that predict problematic smartphone use, implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
    • Problematic smartphone use, nature connectedness, and anxiety.

      Richardson, Miles; Hussain, Zaheer; Griffiths, Mark D.; University of Derby; Department of Life Sciences, College of Life and Natural Sciences, University of Derby, Derby, UK; Department of Life Sciences, College of Life and Natural Sciences, University of Derby, Derby, UK; Psychology Division, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK (Akadémiai Kiadó, 2018-02-08)
      Background Smartphone use has increased greatly at a time when concerns about society’s disconnection from nature have also markedly increased. Recent research has also indicated that smartphone use can be problematic for a small minority of individuals. Methods In this study, associations between problematic smartphone use (PSU), nature connectedness, and anxiety were investigated using a cross-sectional design (n = 244). Results Associations between PSU and both nature connectedness and anxiety were confirmed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify threshold values on the Problematic Smartphone Use Scale (PSUS) at which strong associations with anxiety and nature connectedness occur. The area under the curve was calculated and positive likelihood ratios used as a diagnostic parameter to identify optimal cut-off for PSU. These provided good diagnostic ability for nature connectedness, but poor and non-significant results for anxiety. ROC analysis showed the optimal PSUS threshold for high nature connectedness to be 15.5 (sensitivity: 58.3%; specificity: 78.6%) in response to an LR+ of 2.88. Conclusions The results demonstrate the potential utility for the PSUS as a diagnostic tool, with a level of smartphone use that users may perceive as non-problematic being a significant cut-off in terms of achieving beneficial levels of nature connectedness. Implications of these findings are discussed.