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Chain-loaded variable resistance warm-up improves free-weight maximal back squat performance.The acute influence of chain-loaded variable resistance exercise on subsequent free-weight one-repetition maximum (1-RM) back squat performance was examined in 16 recreationally active men. The participants performed either a free-weight resistance (FWR) or chain-loaded resistance (CLR) back squat warm-up at 85% 1-RM on two separate occasions. After a 5-min rest, the participants attempted a free-weight 1-RM back squat; if successful, subsequent 5% load additions were made until participants failed to complete the lift. During the 1-RM trials, 3D knee joint kinematics and knee extensor and flexor electromyograms (EMG) were recorded simultaneously. Significantly greater 1-RM (6.2 ± 5.0%; p < .01) and mean eccentric knee extensor EMG (32.2 ± 6.7%; p < .01) were found after the CLR warm-up compared to the FWR condition. However, no difference (p > .05) was found in concentric EMG, eccentric or concentric knee angular velocity, or peak knee flexion angle. Performing a CLR warm-up enhanced subsequent free-weight 1-RM performance without changes in knee flexion angle or eccentric and concentric knee angular velocities; thus a real 1-RM increase was achieved as the mechanics of the lift were not altered. These results are indicative of a potentiating effect of CLR in a warm-up, which may benefit athletes in tasks where high-level strength is required.
Postactivation potentiation of horizontal jump performance across multiple sets of a contrast protocol.Postactivation potentiation of horizontal jump performance across multiple sets of a contrast protocol. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2733-2740, 2016-This study determined whether a postactivation potentiation (PAP) effect could be elicited across multiple sets of a contrast PAP protocol. Fourteen rugby league players performed a contrast PAP protocol comprising 4 sets of 2 paused box squats accommodated with bands alternated with 2 standing broad jumps. The rest period between the squats and the jumps and between the sets was 90 seconds. A control protocol with standing broad jumps only was performed on a separate session. A standing broad jump was performed ∼2 minutes before each protocol and served as a baseline measurement. Standing broad jump distance was significantly greater (4.0 ± 3.4% to 5.7 ± 4.7%) than baseline during the 4 sets of the contrast PAP protocol with the changes being medium in the first, second, and fourth sets (effect size [ES]: 0.58, 0.67, and 0.69, respectively) and large for the third set (ES: 0.81). Conversely, no PAP effect was observed in the control protocol. Additionally, the stronger players displayed a larger PAP effect during each of the 4 sets of the contrast PAP protocol (Cohen's d: 0.28-1.68) and a larger mean effect across these 4 sets (Cohen's d: 1.29). Horizontal jump performance is potentiated after only 90 seconds of rest after an accommodating exercise, and this PAP effect can be elicited across 4 sets. Additionally, the PAP response is largely mediated by the individual's strength level. These results are of great importance for coaches seeking to incorporate PAP complexes involving horizontal jumps in their training programs.